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Army 92A MOS Automated Logistical Specialist Job Description, Duties and Responsibilities. Today, I want to essays by writers educate you about the Army 92A MOS, the Automated Logistical Specialist . Although I never served in this MOS myself as an enlisted Soldier, my first job as a new Platoon Leader was to run a Supply Support Activity (warehouse), which consisted of approximately 30 Soldiers with this MOS. I have a lot of respect for descriptive essay unit plan anyone serving in essays by writers this MOS. It might not be combat arms and it might not be as sexy as some other MOSs, but these Soldiers keep the Army supplied, so they can perform their mission. These folks are the “quiet giants” who work behind the scenes and seldom get the credit they deserve. To keep it simple, a 92A is someone who manages all aspects of supply to make projections plan include receiving, inventorying, storing, issuing, turning in, and ordering supplies.
They typically work in a big warehouse, but they can also serve at the unit level. The equivalent in essays the civilian world would be someone who works in a warehouse. Here are a few of the common duties and responsibilities of the 92A MOS: Maintain accountability and safeguards supplies Provide logistical accounting, material control and direct support to the Army warfighter Perform stock recording of all items used by literature study, the Army except ammunition, nuclear, medicine, and bulk petroleum Operate forklifts and heavy machinery Handles customer service issues Manage records relating to requisition, accounting, and distribution of items Utilize the Army’s Standard Army Retail Supply System (SARSS) Review and verify quantities received against bills of contracts, purchase requests and shipping documents Unload, unpack, count, segregate, palletize and store incoming supplies and equipment Put together bins, shelving and other storage equipment. What It Takes to Succeed in this MOS. Being organized is very helpful Having a strong back and being able to essays by writers lift heavy objects Having a strong attention to detail Strong work ethic and willingness to work in a team environment A passion for prospectus proposal numbers and bookkeeping. After graduating from Basic Training you will attend your Advanced Individual Training at essays by writers Fort Lee, Virginia.
The course is 9 weeks, 2 days long. During the course you will receive 17 hours of training on Basic Supply Principles, 108 hours on Plant Maintenance, 163.5 hours on material management and starbucks study warehouse operations, and 14 hours on subsistence training. Upon graduation, you will transition to essays by writers your new unit. To serve in prospectus proposal this MOS you do not need a security clearance. You must score a 90 on the CL portion of your ASVAB. The strength requirement is very heavy and you must maintain a physical profile of 222222 or better. You also need normal color vision. This is a great MOS for anyone looking to essays have a career in logistics after the Army. It will help train you on the different logistics functions so you could one day work in a warehouse (or run one). Starbucks Case Harvard Solution? In addition, there are plenty of essays by writers opportunities for career advancement in the enlisted ranks. In addition, there are opportunities to transition to Warrant Officer or commissioned officer, after you get some experience.
The bottom line is that the 92A MOS is starbucks study harvard solution a great MOS for the right person. If you like the essays by writers idea of working in a warehouse and descriptive essay plan handling logistics issues, this might just be the perfect match for essays you. I encourage you to talk to your local recruiter or someone currently serving in the MOS to learn more. What are your thoughts? If you’ve ever served as a 92A Automated Logistical Specialist before, I would love to hear from you. What did you like and isee test essay dislike about the MOS? What was your experience like? Just leave a comment below to share your thoughts. 8 thoughts on “Army 92A MOS Automated Logistical Specialist Job Description, Duties and Responsibilities” I scored an 87 on the CL section of the asvab. Would I need a definite score of 90 to get 92A?
My MOS is 92A. I go to basic training in by writers a week reading this gave me a heads up on isee test essay, what i#8217;m looking forward to thanks. Good luck in Basic and essays AIT. This is an MOS that will be very useful in civilian life also. Logistics jobs are everywhere. You can get a position with warehouses, shipping companies, trucking companies, and many more. I do give respect to the people who take on the 92a MOS. You are right Chuck, it is plan not sexy and there is essays not much recognition, but without these people the Army essentially goes nowhere. Thank you for describing the different MOS choices, as this could help people who are considering enlistment. Yes, 92A is very important, even if it isn#8217;t sexy.
Many people tend to look down on a supply job, but I can promise you it is huge. As a prior serviceman and since then working in the electrical field, being able to find the parts and supplies you need is crucial. Starbucks Case Study Harvard Solution? There is nothing worse than needing something to be able to move forward and essays by writers that something not being available. Solution? The individual that understands how important it is to essays be able to lay your hands on study, needed supplies quickly and get them to essays guys who need them is a definite asset. He or she is a quiet unsung hero that never gets credit that is well deserved. Without supply, the starbucks case solution Army won#8217;t function very long. By Writers? You know Scott, I never understood anyone looking down on another person because of the job they do. There is a reason that job is there, and someone needs to do it. If no one picked up trash, where would we all be? But people tend to look down upon study, the people that pickup trash.
That goes with many types of jobs. It amazes me how some jobs are disrespected by people until they need that person. Essays? Check out my Avon store today! Profits from your purchases help cover the cost of maintaining this website. Buy something special for yourself or for descriptive your loved ones. This website is not endorsed by essays by writers, any government agency. It is privately owned.
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Banking And Administrator Officer Resume Sample. This resume is for the post of Banking and Administrator Officer. Usually such kind of posts are available at by writers, the lower level companies or small firms. Financial Projections For A. Where the basic concern of the employer is to have a multi-talented person hired to perform different tasks under sufficient salary. A Banking Cum Administrator Officer is derived from such situations. He is obviously asked to essays perform the essential duties of isee test essay, a bank manager along with supervising and administrating the by writers, department. A resume sample of Banking Cum Administrator Officer is given below to help you create a convincing and impressive resume like a Safety Analyst Resume . Finally adding references of your previous job is definitely going to add to isee test essay the value of essays, your Banking And Administrator Officer Resume. Tips For Editing Banking And Administrator Officer Resume Sample: All you need is to Ctrl C (copy) the entire text of the resume sample and Ctrl V(paste) it on to your Word document. Having trouble with formatting the text when you Ctrl V (paste)?
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Applied For : Banking and Administrator Officer/Banking Professional. Banking Operation – Administration Professional Seeks placement. Dear Recruitment Manager, My experience encompasses great deal of banking operations, customer service, secretarial and Call Centre functions. This varied exposure provided me an ample opportunity to leverage my skills and utilize my full range of capabilities to by writers achieve career growth. In addition to, I can be relied upon to carry out organizational mandates and objectives; quickly incorporate and implement procedures with strong team playing attitude. I am proficient in assessing operational problems and further suggesting corrective actions. My resume is enclosed which depicts more of my qualifications and make financial for a, skills. I wanted to discuss briefly the qualifications which I can deliver to your organization. Appreciate if an interview can be arranged.
I can join new assignment immediately and available up on request. § Start discussion; sharing of ideas with team members; identifying possible solutions and enforcing the same towards achieving banks’ objectives. § Familiar with troubleshooting of issues through narrowing down into by writers pieces and enforcing action. § Prepare reports about accomplishments for the day and forward to descriptive management. § Encourage and develop customer eccentric work culture plus optimize internal-external customer satisfaction. Balance the essays by writers, resource and activities of the department and ensure a high level of internal and dissertation prospectus, external customer service is essays by writers maintained.
§ Provide accurate, efficient and committed office or executive PA support to the senior management. § Manage routine office functions, deal with clients and visitors and maintain corporate relations.§ Sort out all incoming / outgoing mails and prospectus proposal, correspondence on essays the base of urgency, priority, confidentiality or routing to literature study facilitate quick and efficient service to the concerned.§ Take care of the confidential files, matters and essays, documents for senior management. § Arrange appointments; make necessary arrangements for the meeting and isee test essay, ensure availability of appropriate personnel’s for the same as per scheduled time and place. § Collect, organize and summarize information requested by the Senior Managers. § Maintain proper records of incoming and outgoing correspondence; and file documents and letters in a systematic manner; and keep all assigned files up-to-date. § Coordinate with various departments for documentation procedure and essays by writers, control. § Perform data entry tasks and follow up on documentation matters with various departments. § Posted all personal and accounting details of the customers in the system.
§ Employed with Noor Islamic Bank as their Call Center Agent, responsible for isee test essay, answering phone calls and handling customer complaints using the bank system. § Monitored the mails received at essays by writers, the center and facilitated effective routing of the same. § Achieved high numbers of sales leads through Telesalesand incoming calls, performed above targets by Doing cross selling for new and existing customers. Having good knowledge in banking products. § Gained experience as the banks’ Sales Coordinator. Followed up the applications in the system with concerned depart. § ments and cross-checked them. Verified signatures and necessary documents.
§ Deputed at Dubai Etisalat Telecommunication Company dealing with multicultural customers. § Hands-on experience on medical insurance claims processing and documentation. § Prepared and ensured completeness of starbucks case study harvard, information at essays, the insurance forms or cards of the literature, patient. § Posted patients’ data into the system and maintained systematic filing of the same. § Performed all secretarial and reception activities. § Also carried out oral and essays by writers, written translation from Arabic to English and vice-versa. § Programming languages (C+, Pascal Visual Basic) Lab Technician Cum Admin Resume Sample. This resume is a sample for descriptive essay unit plan, the post of essays, a Lab Technician Cum Admin.
A Medical Lab Technician Cum Admin job requires prevailing knowledge, larger experience and higher technical skills. Isee Test Essay. (See also X-Ray Technician Resume Sample). In order to impress upon the employer that you are the right choice for the job you need a good resume that represents you. As the admin is responsible for managing all the work that is being carried on so before hiring a person the employer would want a detailed description of all the requisites. Be very particular and deliberate before building your resume. Below we have given a meticulous example of resume for the post of Administrator to rightfully attract the attention of the employer. Essays By Writers. Finally adding references and credits to the resume is harvard definitely going to by writers add to the credibility of prospectus, your resume. Lab Technician Cum Admin Resume Sample. Email ID: xxxxxx.
Mobil No: 000000. Career Objective: (Lab Technician Cum Admin) Obtain a position as an Administrative Assistant, Office Supporting Staff Medical and Health, Sales and Purchase or any new challenges in which my organizational abilities can be fully utilized any department. Work in a place where there is a need for a variety of essays by writers, office management skills including computer knowledge, organizational abilities. My Resume indicates (10) Years experience in different sectors. I have worked in five years as a Medical Lab technician in India and then I worked in three (3) years Administrative Assistant cum General Clerk, in Singapore (Marine Sector) and then now presently working in a Sales and Office Executive in Stationery and Furniture sectors. I can work any new challenging job, and at the same time I am looking for how to business, my career growth. I am flexible to work any place and anywhere. Essays. I f I work any company I can use my full energy, and ideas for developing the unit, company.
EDUCATION QUALIFICATIONS: (Lab Technician Cum Admin) 1) Bachelor of Science (Microbiology) from Andhra University (1999-2002) with 67.27% 2) ) Intermediate (Bi.P.c) S.V.S.S Govt. Jr. college ( 1997-1999) with 69.8% 3) S.S.C from Z.P.H.School Manchili ( 1997) with 51% WORK EXPERIENCE IN MEDICAL SECTOR (INDIA) I have worked in Medical lab Technician at Sree Satya Hospital Tanuku from (May 2002 –July 2007) My Job Responsibilities are testing in blood, urine sputum, and stools samples to identify the results. And also basic first aid techniques.
WORK EXPERIENCE IN OFFICE SECTOR (SINGAPORE) I have worked in by writers, Singapore as an Administrative Assistant cum General Clerk, and Pipeline Checker Jurong Ship Yard ,Keong Eng. Works from (Aug 2007 – Feb 2010). My main duties are, Making salary sheets (Microsoft Exel) Upload time sheets in descriptive essay, Shipyard Data base Making new and renewal visas Explain Safety rules in our company workers Business development Planning General Clerical duties Shipyard Pipeline Checking. WORK EXPERIENCE IN DUBAI OFFICE SECTOR. Now I am working in essays by writers, Book Shop and Furniture warehouse as a Sales and Office Executive cum Cashier. My job Responsibilities in Book shop. Making Bar Codes Basic Accounts Email , Printing , Lamination, Copying , Fax and Scanning Spiral Binding Making Quotations Making Invoices Cashier work Petty cash Follow up Payments Sales and purchasing of isee test essay, stationary items General Administration and Clerical Duties. My job Responsibilities in Furniture Shop.
Making Quotations Basic Accounts Packing the furniture Assist the labors for loading and un loading of the materials. PASSPRT NO : 0000000000. PASSPORT EXPIRY : 0000000000. ISSUE OF PASSPORT : MARITAL STATUS : MALE, MARRIED. LANGUAGES : TELUGU, ENGLISH. Driving License : I have a driving license in Dubai Light Vehicle Automatic Gear. License No. : 00000000. Place of Issue : Dubai.
This resume is a sample for the post of essays, Auditor-cum-Administrator. This is a double-task job where you are required double skills and knowledge. Mostly these types of on the great summary, jobs are offered by mediocre level companies that has fewer numbers of employees. Such employers would prefer to hire one person with multiple talent. Essays By Writers. So, for this kind of opportunity you should build your resume keeping in mind manifesting all your multiple skills and experiences. A Auditor-cum-Administrator resume sample is given below which will be helpful for you to create an impressive and prospectus proposal, convincing resume. Start resume with your introduction shortly followed by an explanation of essays by writers, what types of duties you have been preforming throughout and what kind of experiences you are looking forward to perform. Highlighting your abilities and to-the-point expertise in literature, resume is essays by writers bound to attract the employer and giving you a chance of interview. Residence Location: Dubai UAE. Applied For: Auditor Cum Admin/Audit Officer/Assistant Admin Manager/Admin Clerk.
To flourish in an organization that rewards dedication and dissertation proposal, hard work, to stay in touch with latest developments in by writers, the professional arenas of Accounts, business and finance. Diligent,reliable,dynamic,and result-focused accounts and finance professional holds and pursuing internationally esteemed professional qualification ACCA (UK) (Qualified) and study, having 6 years experience of essays by writers, vast and diversified experience in the areas of: – Financial Accounting and Reporting. -Internal and External Audit. -Fixed Asset Management. -Real Accounts Management. -Software Implementation.(Peachtree, Quick book and Tally etc.) ABC Industries (Private) Limited.
Worked as “Auditor Cum Admin” 4 years (YYYY-YYYY) Following were my major duties during my tenure as accounts manager. Prepare financial statements according to IFRS and IASs. Forecast cash flow preparation Managing accounts receivables and payables and their reconciliations. Maintain payroll for management staff and make financial for a business, daily wages workers. Preparing final accounts monthly. Prepare bank reconciliation statements for the end of the month.
Managing all local and international customers. Handling of petty cash and daily expenses. Essays. Preparation and making all kind of vouchers. Preparation of on the summary, all type of invoices Preparing and issuing cheques. Maintaining fixed assets. Kamran Co. Chartered Accountants. I worked as Auditor carrying out the duties as below:
Check the transactions that made with the professional skepticism Prepare reports without any biasness. By Writers. Assist in financial audit of the company in accordance with IFRS and IASs Review Internal Control Procedure of isee test essay, various companies and provided recommendations for improvements. Examine balance sheets, profit and by writers, loss accounts in detail. Identifying the problems and projections business, risks for assessing the reporting systems of the company. Checking for all JVs attachments for essays by writers, posting. Review Reconciliations for Banks prepared by companies. Association of Chartered Certified Accountant UK (June 2013) Advance Corporate Reporting.(P2) Advance Financial Management.(P4) Advance Audit and Assurance.(P7) B.COM Bachelor of proposal, Commerce (2010) Punjab University Lahore Pakistan. D.COM (IT) Diploma in Commerce (2008) Technical Board Lahore Pakistan. METRICULLATION (2006) Gujranwala Education Board Pakistan.
Excellent command on Microsoft Office specially Ms.Word ,Excel Preparation and finalization of accounts using Accounting Software’s: Peach tree, Tally and Quick Books . Highlights of Professional Skills and Accomplishments. Competent to work in a multicultural organization under stress. Excellent know-how of by writers, IFRS framework. Ethics, values and judgment. Awareness of non-financial risk. Professional skepticism. Strong team work, collaboration and analytical skills. Good IT commands especially Microsoft excel, Tally ERP 9 and study, internet communications. Creative, hardworking and quick learner Expertise in Accounts Financial management.
Certificate of achievement awarded by ACCA on essays getting 98/100 marks from F3 Financial Accounting. Certification of FATIMA FOUNDATION member for blood donation. Certificate of access program awarded by skans school of accountancy. Further reference will be furnished on demand. Admin #038; Transport Manager Resume Sample. This resume is a sample for the post of Admin and Transport Manager. It is a highly responsible and for a, tough job. A good Transport Manager has to handle, manage and essays, deal with all the circumstances single handily. The employer would prefer an employee with good resources and customer relationship.
Now an Admin and Transport Manager Resume is most important element for a good job win. ( See also Aviation Resume Sample, Automobile Engineer Resume Sample ). It must be build in a manner that it should impress upon the employer your suitability for the job. Below is given an example of such a Admin Transport Manager Resume . Please add verified references/credits/awards from your previous experiences to isee test essay add to the value of your resume. The Admin And Transport Manager Resume Sample created in essays, MS Word is given below. Admin Transport Manager Resume Sample. To build up my career with the help of my basic skills of technical, analytic, logical and communication strength while enabling the organization to achieve targets and descriptive unit, growth. Over ten years of experience in the field of Administration and Marketing out of essays, which 5 years in School Administration, Man Management, Procurement and Facility Management, Transport, Customer Care in isee test essay, Dubai Worked in diverse environments ranging from corporate house in India to by writers large education groups in descriptive unit, Dubai.
Well versed in various Administration activities such as office administration, facilities management , security , transport logistics document management, event management, diary management, travel arrangements, meeting and conferences etc. Talents to successful manage, lead develop multi cultural teams. Good at negotiation communication and Customer care Computer knowledge – MS office, Excel, Power point, internet outlook. Strong problem solving skills. Excellent written and oral communication abilities. MBA in Finance from National Institute of Management, India. B.Com from Mysore University, India. Working as Administrative Transport Manager . To meet day to day administrative needs, coordinate with different divisional heads to understand their requirements and ensure smooth functioning. Customer Care: Meeting parents on day to day issues and by writers, coordinating with different subject leaders for their academic issues and find solutions. Take care of the front office requirements for meet and greet visitors/parents and supervise the work of front office staff.
Purchasing: Procurement responsibilities include, budgeting, sourcing the isee test essay, vendors, shortlisting, negotiating (bringing value for money) finalizing, issuing purchase requisition etc. Prepare budget for yearly purchase of Capital items and give justification for the purchase and get the essays by writers, budget approved. Facility Management: Ensure health, safety and literature, hygiene requirements are fully met as per Dubai Municipality, Civil Defense and Dubai Health Authority; Standards, negotiate and finalize annual MEP maintenance contracts, contracts for Fire systems, general cleaning, pest control, water tank cleaning, swimming pool maintenance, office automation equipment’s, canteen operations , facilitate requirements for day to day operations, develop strategy and methods for by writers, conservation of energy, ensure timely service of dissertation proposal, equipment’s to avoid breakdown etc. Facilitate inspection of Dubai Municipality, Dubai Health Authority Civil Defense Supervision of PRO’s work: Check and by writers, authorize advance payment for isee test essay, Visa and Labor permits for new staff and renewal of essays by writers, old staff. Ensure timely preparation of Man power requisition and visa requisition for on the great, new staff.
Ensure the staff details such as Visa number, visa expiry date, passport number, passport expiry dates, labor card number and labor card expiry date are correctly entered in the visa program. Ensure that the cancellations are done on time for leaving staff. Supervision of Security support staff functions: Assign day to day work to security guards and other support staff and essays, their monitoring. Maintaining their files, leave records, attendance etc. Asset Management: Maintain proper record of capital items purchased, inventory record, ensure placement of right items at right place and for right use, make sure items are not misused or damaged due to mishandling/wrong handling, and ensure timely service/maintenance of equipment’s for optimum usage. Recruitment of Support Staff and Admin Staff: Prepare and release advertisements in the news paper, screening applications, short listing, conducting interviews, discussing packages, finalizing appointments, issuing contract and prospectus proposal, assigning duties.
Transportation: Keeping proper record of essays by writers, vehicle movements, ensure timely service and repairs of vehicles to study avoid break downs, keep record of by writers, fuel consumption, deployment of right vehicle for proposal, right job, conduct training classes for drivers and conductors to ensure safety of students in the bus. Event Management: Facilitate and by writers, provide required materials and equipment and how to projections business plan, finalize, venue for smooth conduct of all events, arrange refreshments, ensure proper protocol is followed etc. Business Development: Worked towards the increasing the admission rate of the school by different ways of marketing, brand building, exploring new methodologies of teaching and learning etc. Worked as Transport Manager Procurement Officer . Preparing the projection for the bus routes /recruitment of drivers and nannies depending on the admissions. Being the first point of contact for all drivers. Keeping proper record of vehicle movements. Essays By Writers. ensure timely service and isee test essay, repairs of vehicles to essays by writers avoid break downs, Keep record of fuel consumption. Deployment of right vehicle for right job. Conduct training classes for drivers and conductors to ensure safety of students in the bus. Monitor and report driver issues such as accidents, safety concerns, or licensing issues.
Plan for adequate number of drivers routes for Extra trips duties for school activities and also provide for emergency requirements of all the staff with special hours. Ensure that all the school transport activities are in conformance with the requirement of RTA and Dubai Police. Attend to the grievances of Parents. Streamlining and guiding about fuel consumption and cost effectiveness. Periodically study the how to projections for a business plan, need of new routes and deploying the buses. Preparing the feasibility report for requirement of purchase of essays by writers, new buses and replacement of old buses. Arranging for the provision maintenance of official cars with or without driver. In charge of the day to day operations of the transport department. Efficiently managing a team of drivers and vehicles. Appraising staff performance and also taking disciplinary measures when required. Date of Birth : 000000.
Marital Status : Married. Driving license : UAE Driving License. Passport No : 0000. Visa status : Employment visa. Languages : English, Hindi . Accounts Management Administrator Resume Sample. This resume sample is for starbucks, the post of an Accounts Management Administrator.
An Accounts Management Administrator job requires prevailing knowledge, larger experience and higher technical skills. Essays. In order to proposal impress upon the employer that you are the right choice for the job you need a good resume that represents you. As the admin is responsible for managing all the work that is being carried on so before hiring a person the employer would want a detailed description of all the requisites. Be very particular and deliberate before building your resume. Below we have given a meticulous example of resume for essays by writers, the post of Accounts Management Administrator to rightfully attract the attention of the employer.
Finally adding references and credits to the resume is definitely going to add to the credibility of your Accounts Management Administrator resume. Worked as Associate processor in KPMG (India) From Jan 2011 to July 2014. Dissertation. Worked as Administrator Service Society from July 2013 to Aug 2014.
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The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Design Pattern for PHP. Amended 1st September 2017. As of 10th April 2006 the software discussed in this article can be downloaded from www.radicore.org. I am no stranger to software development having been a software engineer for over 25 years. I have developed in a variety of 2nd, 3rd and essays by writers 4th generation languages on a mixture of mainframes, mini- and micro-computers (which are now called Personal Computers). I have worked with flat files, indexed files, hierarchical databases, network databases and relational databases. The user interfaces have included punched card, paper tape, teletype, block mode, CHUI, GUI and web. I have written code which has been procedural, model-driven, event-driven, component-based and object oriented.
I have built software using the 1-tier, 2-tier and the 3-Tier architecture. I have created development infrastructures in study, 3 different languages. My latest achievement is to create an essays by writers environment for building web applications using PHP that encompasses a mixture of 3-Tier architecture, OOP, and where all HTML output is generated using XML and isee test essay XSL transformations. This is documented in A Development Infrastructure for PHP. Before teaching myself PHP the only occasion where I came in contact with the concept of the model-view-controller design pattern was when I joined a team that was replacing a legacy system with a more up-to-date version that had web capabilities. I was recruited because of my experience with the language being used, but I quickly realised that their design was too clumsy and the time taken to develop individual components was far to long (would you believe two man-weeks for a SEARCH screen and a LIST screen?). They kept arguing that there was nothing wrong with their design as it obeyed all the rules (or should I say 'their interpretation of the rules'). I was not the only one who thought their implementation was grossly inefficient - the client did not like their projected timescales and costs so he cancelled the whole project. How's that for essays a vote of confidence for study harvard their design! When I started to build web applications using PHP I wanted to adapt some of the designs which I had used in the past. Having successfully implemented the 3-Tier architecture in my previous language I wanted to attempt the same thing using PHP.
My development infrastructure ended up with the following sets of components: Presentation layer - a set of component scripts, screen structure scripts, and a series of reusable XSL stylesheets and controller scripts. Business layer - this contains a separate class for each business entity. As each business entity also has a database table, and as the essays by writers, code to communicate with a database table is how to make financial projections plan, virtually the essays by writers, same regardless of the business entity, I put all the sharable code into literature study, an abstract class and defined each business entity as a subclass. This enables me to share all the standard properties and methods of the essays by writers, superclass through inheritance.
This I have documented in Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 2). Data Access layer - a single component which contains all the isee test essay, DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements for essays by writers a particular RDBMS engine. If I wish to switch from one RDBMS to another all I have to do is replace this single component. Although I have never been trained in OO techniques I read up on the theory and used the prospectus proposal, OO capabilities of PHP 4 to produce a simple class hierarchy that had as much reusable code as possible in essays, an abstract superclass and where each business entity was catered for with a concrete subclass. I published an article Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and unit plan (Part 2) which described what I had done, and I was immediately attacked by by writers, self-styled OO purists who described my approach as totally wrong and unacceptable to REAL object-oriented programmers. I put the question to the PHP newsgroup and asked the opinion of the greater PHP community.
This generated a huge response that seemed to be split between the descriptive essay, it is essays, bad and it is good camps, so I summarised all the criticisms, and my responses to those criticisms, in a follow-up article entitled What is/is not considered to be good OO programming. I have absolutely no doubt that there will be some self-styled MVC purists out there in Internet land who will heavily criticise the contents of how to make financial business plan this document, but let me give you my response in advance: I have read the principles of by writers MVC and built software which follows those principles, just as I read the principles of case OOP and built software which followed those principles. The fact that my implementation is different from your implementation is totally irrelevant - it works therefore it cannot be wrong. Essays By Writers. I have seen implementations of essays summary several design patterns which were technical disasters, and I have seen other implementations (mostly my own) of the same design patterns which were technical successes. Following a set of principles will not guarantee success, it is how you implement those principles that separates the men from the essays by writers, boys.
The principles of the dissertation proposal, various design patterns are high-level ideas which are language-independent, therefore they need to be translated into by writers, workable code for each individual language. This is where I have succeeded and others have failed. I have spent the last 25+ years designing and writing code which works, and I don't waste my time with ideas that don't work. Other people seem to think that following a set of rules with blind obedience is the starbucks, prime consideration and essays by writers have no idea about writing usable or even efficient code. When someone dares to criticise their work they chant it cannot be wrong because it follows all the rules. The difference between successful and unsuccessful software is not in the underlying rules or principles, it is how those rules or principles are implemented that counts. Where implementation 'A' makes it is easier and quicker to prospectus proposal develop components than implementation 'B', it does not mean that 'A' is right and 'B' is by writers, wrong, it just means that 'A' is isee test essay, better than 'B'. Where an implementation works it cannot be wrong - it can only be wrong when it does not work. The Principles of the MVC Design Pattern. After researching various articles on the internet I came up with the essays, following descriptions of the essays on the great depression, principles of the Model-View-Controller design pattern: The MVC paradigm is a way of breaking an application, or even just a piece of an application's interface, into three parts: the essays, model, the view, and prospectus proposal the controller.
MVC was originally developed to map the traditional input, processing, output roles into the GUI realm: Input -- Processing -- Output. Controller -- Model -- View. A model is an object representing data or even activity, e.g. a database table or even some plant-floor production-machine process. The model manages the behavior and data of the application domain, responds to requests for information about its state and responds to instructions to change state. The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to and updates of this data.
Often the model serves as a software approximation to a real-world process, so simple real-world modeling techniques apply when defining the model. The model is the piece that represents the state and low-level behavior of the component. It manages the state and conducts all transformations on that state. The model has no specific knowledge of either its controllers or its views. The view is the piece that manages the visual display of the state represented by the model. A model can have more than one view. Note that the model may not necessarily have a persistent data store (database), but if it does it may access it through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). A view is some form of visualisation of the state of the model. By Writers. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to literature the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. Instead of a bitmapped display the by writers, view may generate HTML, PDF, CSV or XML output.
The view renders the contents of dissertation prospectus proposal a model. It accesses enterprise data through the model and specifies how that data should be presented. The view is responsible for mapping graphics onto a device. A view typically has a one to by writers one correspondence with a display surface and knows how to render to it. A view attaches to a model and renders its contents to the display surface. A controller offers facilities to change the state of the essay, model.
The controller interprets the essays, mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to isee test essay change as appropriate. A controller is the by writers, means by which the user interacts with the dissertation prospectus, application. A controller accepts input from the user and instructs the model and view to essays perform actions based on that input. In effect, the controller is responsible for isee test essay mapping end-user action to application response. The controller translates interactions with the view into actions to be performed by the model. Essays By Writers. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in isee test essay, a Web application they appear as HTTP GET and POST requests. The actions performed by the model include activating business processes or changing the state of the model.
Based on the user interactions and by writers the outcome of the starbucks case harvard solution, model actions, the controller responds by selecting an appropriate view. The controller is the piece that manages user interaction with the model. It provides the mechanism by which changes are made to the state of the model. In the essays by writers, Java language the MVC Design Pattern is described as having the how to make financial business, following components: An application model with its data representation and business logic. Views that provide data presentation and user input. A controller to dispatch requests and control flow. The purpose of the MVC pattern is to separate the essays by writers, model from the view so that changes to the view can be implemented, or even additional views created, without having to refactor the model. The model, view and controller are intimately related and in essays depression summary, constant contact, therefore they must reference each other.
The picture below illustrates the basic Model-View-Controller relationship: Figure 1 - The basic MVC relationship. Even though the above diagram is incredibly simple, there are some people who try to read more into it than is really there, and they attempt to enforce their interpretations as rules which define what is proper MVC. To put it as simply as possible the by writers, MVC pattern requires the following: It must have a minimum of descriptive unit plan three components, each of which performs the responsibilities of either the Model, the View or the essays, Controller, as identified above. Literature Study. You may include as many additional components as you like, such as a Data Access Object (DAO) to communicate with a relational database. There is a flow of data between each of those components so that each may carry out its designated responsibilities on that data. What is not specified in MVC is how the mechanics of that flow are to be implemented.
The data may be pushed by the Model into the View, it may be pulled by the View from the Model, or pulled into an intermediary (such as the Controller or an essays Observer) before it is essay unit, pushed into the View. It does not matter how the data flows, just that it does flow. The actual mechanics are an implementation detail and can therefore be left to by writers the implementor. The MVC pattern does not identify from where each of these components is instantiated and called. Dissertation Proposal. Is there a mystical 4th component which oversees the 3 others, or can one of them oversee and direct the other two? As this is not directly specified in essays, MVC the actual mechanics can be treated as a separate implementation detail. Note the make financial, following: HTML or PDF output can only essays be generated and output in case study, one place - the by writers, View. Data validation and business rules can only be applied in one place - the Model. SQL statements can only be generated and executed in one place - either within the descriptive unit, Model (not good) or via a separate Data Access Object (DAO) which is my preferred method.
There are some people who criticise my interpretation of the rules of MVC as it is different from theirs, and therefore wrong (such as how data moves from the Model to the View), but who is to say that their interpretation is the only one that should be allowed to exist? In my opinion a design pattern merely identifies what needs to be done without dictating how it should be done. Provided that the what is not violated any implementation should be a valid implementation. I do not develop software which directly manipulates real-world objects, such as process control, robotics, avionics, or missile guidance systems, which means that a lot of the essays by writers, properties and methods which apply to real-world objects are completely irrelevant. I develop enterprise applications such as Sales Order Processing, Inventory, Invoicing and Shipments which deal with such entities as Products, Customers and Orders, so I am only manipulating the information about those entities and not the actual entities themselves. This information is held in a database in the form of tables, columns and relationships. Starbucks Study. Regardless of what properties or attributes a real-world object may have, in a database application it is only necessary to store those pieces of information that are actually required by that application. A product in the real world may have many properties, but the application may only need to record its Id, Description and Price. By Writers. A person in the real world may have such methods as sit, stand, walk and run, but these operations would never be needed in an enterprise application. Regardless of the operations that can be performed on a real-world object, with a database table the only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and Delete (CRUD). Following the process called data normalisation the information for case solution an entity may need to be split across several tables, each with its own columns and relationships, and in these circumstances I would create a separate Model class for each table instead of having a single class for essays by writers a collection of tables.
As an application is divided into a number of user transactions or use cases, it would be wise to have a separate controller for each use case instead of a single universal controller which can deal with all possible use cases. How To Business Plan. Some people advocate the creation of a separate controller for each use case, such as in GRASP - The Controller which states the following: A use case controller should be used to deal with all system events of a use case, and may be used for more than one use case (for instance, for use cases Create User and Delete User, one can have a single UserController, instead of two separate use case controllers). I do not have a separate Controller, or a group of controllers, for each business entity. Each user transaction (use case) does something with a database table, so I have placed the something into a resuable controller script, then use a component script to identify which table (model) should be the subject of that action. Because each business entity is essays, a database table, and each database table has exactly the same operations, I have designed my controllers around the operations that can be performed on dissertation prospectus an unspecified database table where the name of that table is not known until run time. So instead of such controllers as Create User and Delete User , Create Product and Delete Product , Create Order and Delete Order I simply have Create Table and Delete Table . These controllers can be used with any table in by writers, any database, and because they have been reduced to this level of simplification they can be supplied as standard framework components and do not need to be created or modified by any developer. There is a separate controller for each of my Transaction Patterns. In my implementation, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, the whole application is broken down into a series of top-level components which are sometimes referred to as tasks, actions, functions, operations or transactions (that's user transactions, not database transactions), each of which is may be related to a Use Case. Starbucks Case. Each transaction component references a single controller, one or more models, and essays by writers usually a view.
Some components do not have a view as they are called from other components in order to perform a service, and once this service has been completed they return control to the calling component. Each component is self-executing in that it deals with both the HTTP GET and dissertation prospectus POST requests. Figure 2 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (1) The Model is implemented as a series of business entity classes each of which contains all the properties and methods required by a single business entity. It is actually a subclass to an abstract superclass which contains properties and methods which are common to all database tables. The model is responsible for all data validation, business rules and task-specific behaviour, while the actual generation of DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements is performed in essays by writers, a separate DML class. The DML class or Data Access Object (DAO) is the only object in the entire framework which is allowed to communicate with the database, and essays it can only be called by a model component.
This isolates the model from the underlying database and allows the application to be switched from one RDBMS to essays by writers another simply by switching to another DML class. Dissertation. Only the essays by writers, DML class deals with database resources - all communication with the entity subclass is by standard database-agnostic arrays. The View is implemented as a series of literature screen structure scripts which are combined with the output from each database table class to essays produce an plan XML document. This file will also include the data for by writers the menu bar, navigation bar, action bar, pagination and scrolling areas. The completed XML document is then transformed into HTML output by using one of the generic XSL stylesheets. For each database table there is typically a list view (containing multiple occurrences with data arranged horizontally) and a detail view (containing a single occurrence with data arranged vertically). If output in an alternative format is essay unit plan, required, such as PDF instead of HTML, there are separate transaction patterns which use a different view object to by writers create PDF output in either LIST view or DETAIL view, each with its own report structure file. There is also another view object to create CSV output. Note that my implementation of MVC differs from the solution, Java implementation in the following ways: Controllers do not select which View to essays use. Each of my page controllers is tied to a single view as described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications.
There is, in essays on the summary, effect, a separate Transaction Pattern for essays each type of use case. The Model does not send updates to the View . Literature. When the Model has finished the actions requested by the Controller , the Controller will instantiate its one and only View , inject the Model(s) into essays, the View, and isee test essay the View will then extract all data from the Model(s) and render it in the desired format. There are separate Views for HTML, CSV and by writers PDF output. All HTML output is on the great, generated from a collection of reusable XSL stylesheets. The View does not send user gestures to the Controller . Communication is always one way from the Controller to the View , never from the View to the Controller . With web applications there are only two possible actions - GET and essays POST - and these are received by the Controller which then calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) followed by essay unit, a single call to essays by writers the View . Also note that, unlike the Java implementation, I do not use any of the following design patterns - Filter, Helper, Composite, Front Controller, Value Object, Facade or Delegate. I do, however, use a Data Access Object (DAO), but only because it is component in study, the 3-Tier Architecture. Figure 3 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (2) Note that all the items in the above diagram are clickable links. As I said in essays, the introduction, my implementation of MVC is combined with the 3-Tier Architecture which has separate layers for Presentation logic, Business logic and how to financial plan Data Access logic. How the two can interact is shown in Figure 3a: Figure 3a - The MVC and 3-Tier architectures combined.
This implementation has very high Levels of Reusability due to the number of components which are either pre-written and come supplied with the framework, or are generated by the framework. This component is essays, comprised of the following: A separate and unique Component script for each user transaction. Each of these is generated from the Data Dictionary. Starbucks Study Harvard. A sharable Controller script which is supplied in the framework in the catalog of Transaction Patterns. The Model is never supposed to handle the output of essays its data to any particular device or medium. Make. Instead it is supposed to essays transfer its data to descriptive unit plan another object which deals with that device or medium. In this implementation I have separate objects to create output in essays, either HTML, PDF or CSV format. The HTML component operates as follows: It is summary, given a Screen Structure file which is generated from the Data Dictionary initially, but which may be modified as required. This identifies which XSL stylesheet to use, and which data columns need to be displayed where.
After the Model(s) have finished executing they are injected into the View which will extract all the essays by writers, data and copy it to an XML document. Information from the descriptive plan, screen structure file is also copied into the XML document so that the XSL stylesheet will know which data elements to put where. The View will then copy in essays, data supplied by the framework, such as menu buttons, screen title, navigation buttons, action buttons, pagination and how to make financial business scrolling details, and any messages. The View will then perform an XSL Transformation using the nominated XSL stylesheet and the newly constructed XML document to essays by writers produce an HTML document. On The Great Summary. The HTML output is then sent back to by writers the requesting client device. The PDF component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. Literature Study. The Controller instantiates the PDF object and injects into by writers, it the MOdel and the name of the report structure file. The PDF object instructs the Model to prospectus proposal fetch a record which it will format into essays, a page for how to make projections for a plan the DETAIL view or a line in the LIST view. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data.
The CSV component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. Essays By Writers. The Controller instantiates the CSV object injects the Model into it. The CSV object instructs the Model to fetch the first record so that it can construct a line of column labels. The CSV object will then write the current record's data to the output, then read the next record. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. Note that some components may not have a view at all as they perform a service without producing any visible output. This component is on the depression, comprised of the following: A separate Business Entity class for each table within the application database. Each of these is generated by exporting the table's details from the Data Dictionary to produce a class file and a structure file. The structure file provides information which is used by my standard validation object to validate user input.
This file can be regenerated whenever the table's structure changes. Each of these concrete table classes inherits its standard methods and by writers properties from a single Abstract Table class which is supplied as part of the framework. This ensures that all the common code is defined in one place but can be shared by many objects. Each table class contains its own specific business rules and data validation rules, but all communication with the physical database is routed through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). There is a separate DML class for each DBMS engine which is supplied as part of the framework. This arrangement makes it possible to switch from one DBMS to literature study another without having to make any changes to any table class. Currently supported DBMS engines are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and essays SQL Server.
My implementation also has the following characteristics: Each of the on the great summary, components can be classified as one of the following: Some of these components are built into the framework while others you have to generate yourself: The framework components are pre-written and come supplied with the framework or are invoked automatically. The application components are generated by the framework using information obtained from your application database. The Data Dictionary is used to by writers generate the business entity classes as well as the prospectus, component scripts, screen structure files and report structure files. Components are either application-agnostic or framework-agnostic:
The framework components are application-agnostic as they have no knowledge of the internals of any application component. A framework component may send data to or receive data from an essays by writers application component, but that data has no meaning to the framework. The application components are framework-agnostic as they have no knowledge of where the data comes from that they receive, or what happens to the data that they send out. All communication between the isee test essay, various components is as follows: Each Controller and essays by writers View communicates with the Model using methods which are defined within the abstract class. Each Model communicates with the DAO using methods which are defined within the dissertation prospectus, abstract class. All default behaviour is provided by the framework components, so when a developer wishes to alter the default behaviour the only code that he/she has to write goes into one of the pre-prepared methods in by writers, a Model class.
This also means that, as the author of the framework, I can alter or enhance the default behaviour of any component within the application simply by changing a framework component. Case Study. In other frameworks where the supplied components are more primitive and require much more developer effort such widespread enhancements are simply not possible. Every application component (user transaction) will have one of essays these scripts. This will be identified in dissertation prospectus, the URL so it can be activated without the essays, need to pass through a Front Controller. It is a very small script which does nothing but identify which model (business entity), view (screen structure file) and controller to use, as shown in the following example: Where the controller requires access to isee test essay more than one business entity, such as in a parent-child or one-to-many relationship in a LIST2 pattern, or a parent-child-grandchild relationship in a LIST3 pattern, then names such as $parent_id , $child_id , $outer_id or $inner_id are used. The same screen structure file can used by components which access the same business entity but in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the XSL stylesheet is provided with a $mode parameter which enables it to determine whether fields should be read-only or amendable. Note that no component script is allowed to access more than one view. While most will produce HTML output using the specifications in a screen structure file there are some which produce PDF output using a report structure file. Some components may have no view at all - they are called upon to take some particular action after which they return control to the calling component which refreshes its own view accordingly.
Each of these is generated from a component in essays, the Data Dictionary. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. There is a separate pre-built controller script included in the framework for each of the proposal, patterns identified in essays, Transaction Patterns for on the depression Web Applications. By simply changing the essays, name of the controller script the whole character of the descriptive essay, component will change. These component controllers may also be known as transaction controllers or page controllers. The following is an example of controller std.update1.inc : The controller does not know the names of the business entities with which it is dealing - these are passed down as variables from the essays, component script. It will append the standard '.class.inc' to each table name to identify the class file, then instantiate a separate object for each table. Study Harvard. Note that I did say entities in the plural and not entity in the singular.
There is no rule (at least none which I recognise) which says that a controller can only communicate with a single model, which is why I have transaction patterns which sometimes use two or even three models at a time. Just because some example implementations show a single model does not mean that all implementations must also be restricted to a single model. The method names that the controller uses to essays communicate with each table object are the generic names which are defined within the make projections, abstract table class. This means that any controller can be used with any concrete table class. The controller does not know the names of any fields with which it is dealing - what comes out essays by writers, of the business entity is a simple associative array of 'name=value' pairs which is passed untouched to the View object which will transfer the entire array to an XML document so that it can be transformed into HTML. In any INPUT or UPDATE components the entire contents of the POST array is passed to the business entity as-is instead of one field at a time. Again this means that no field names have to be hard-coded into essays depression summary, any controller script, thus increasing their re-usability.
My framework currently has 40+ pre-built controller scripts which are part of my library of Transaction Patterns. The same pattern can be used with virtually any business object in the application, thus making them loosely coupled and essays highly reusable. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This encapsulates the properties and methods which can be used by any database table in the application. When a concrete table class is created it makes use of these sharable properties and methods by the mechanism known as inheritance. The generic methods which are used by the Controller script when it calls a Business entity object are all defined with this abstract class, and as they are all then available to every concrete table class this enables the concept known as polymorphism. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is responsible for starbucks case solution all communication the database by constructing queries using the standard SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) using instructions passed down from the calling Business Entity class.
There is a separate DML class for essays each different DBMS engine, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server, which means that the entire application can be switched from one DBMS to another simply by changing a single entry in the configuration file. This means that it is also possible to develop an application using one DBMS engine but deploy it to use another. Note that this class does not have any inbuilt knowledge of any database or database table, so a single class can be used to literature access any table in by writers, any database. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each business entity is implemented as a separate class so that it can encapsulate all the properties and methods of that entity in a single object. As each of descriptive unit plan these business entities also exists as a database table a great deal of common code can be shared by inheriting from the abstract table class. In its initial form a concrete table class requires very little information to differentiate it from another database table - just the database name, the table name, and the table structure. Rather than having to create each class file manually, as of June 2005 these can be generated for you as described in A Data Dictionary for PHP Applications. Essays By Writers. This provides the isee test essay, following facilities: IMPORT - Populate the dictionary database using details extracted from the physical database schema.
EDIT - Modify the details for use by the application. EXPORT - Make the details available to essays by writers the application in the form of disk files which can be referenced by means of the include() function. Two files will be created for each database table: tablename.class.inc - this is the harvard solution, initial class file for essays by writers the database table. It will only be created if it does not already exist, so any customisations which have been added since the initial creation of the file will not be lost. tablename.dict.inc - this contains the column details, key details and relationship details. Descriptive Essay. This will be overwritten during the export process, so no customisations are allowed. All customisation should be performed in the dictionary and then exported to this file. Essays By Writers. Alternatively it is possible to make temporary customisations at runtime by essays summary, placing code in the _cm_changeConfig method of the essays by writers, relevant table subclass. The variables in the class constructor do not contain application data (that which passes through the object between the user and the database) but instead contain information about the study, application data. Collectively they are sometimes referred to as meta-data , or data-about-data . This meta-data contains declarative rules rather than imperative rules as they are defined here but executed somewhere else. When the time comes (i.e. when the user presses a SUBMIT button on an HTML form) the user data passes from the Controller into the Model where it is passed to a validation object along with the essays by writers, meta-data, and it is the responsibility of the validation object to ensure that the user data conforms to those rules. The validation object returns an prospectus proposal $errors array which will contain zero or more error messages.
If there are any error messages then the operation is essays by writers, aborted. The structure file is a simple PHP script which identifies the isee test essay, XSL stylesheet which is to be used and the application data which is to be displayed by that stylesheet. It does this by constructing a multi-dimensional array in the $structure variable. The following formats are available: Each structure file has the following components: The following keywords for column attributes are supported in the list/horizontal view: Note that the essays, 'align', 'valign' and 'class' attributes when added to a COL element in the HTML output are poorly supported in most browsers, so will be dealt with as follows:
The 'align' and 'valign' attributes will be converted to 'class' when written to essays great depression summary the XML output. The 'class' attribute will no longer be added to the COL element, but instead will be added to essays by writers the TD element for every cell within the relevant column. NOTE: if your screen structure file contains two or more of the 'align|valign|class' attributes for the same field then they will be combined automatically into a single 'class' value, so code such as: will be treated as if it were: The following keywords for additional field attributes are supported in the detail/vertical view:
This behaviour can be overridden by adding 'display-empty' = 'y' to summary the item in the ['zone']['fields'] array in the screen structure file. This will cause every cell in that row to be output, even if it is empty. When this information is written out to essays by writers the XML document it will look something like the literature study, following: Screen Structure file for a more complex multi-column DETAIL view (vertical) Here is an example of a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in by writers, Figure 5: Notice the following differences between this and the standard 2-column view: Each row is numbered explicitly so that multiple entries can be specified for rows 2 and 13. Rows which contain a single label and field (rows 1, 4 and 11 in this example) can be expressed as 'field' = 'label' A row can contain nothing but a label to act as a heading or sub-heading.
Rows which require more than one field require a separate entry for each label and each field. Please note the following: If a field has a label then the starbucks harvard, label entry must be defined before the field entry. Essays. It is starbucks harvard, possible to have a field without a label . It is not possible to by writers have a label without a field unless you specify the label-only option. Each entry may include any of the following options: colspan - will allow that field to make financial projections for a span more than one column in the HTML table. Without it the remaining columns in that row would be blank. rowspan - similar to by writers colspan , but allows the field to extend vertically for more than 1 row. cols - will override the value for depression summary multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. rows - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in essays, the $fieldspec array. align - specify horizontal alignment within this cell. See the HTML specification for details. How To Make Financial Projections Plan. valign - specify vertical alignment within this cell.
Options which are added to the ['zone']['fields'] array will appear in the td element of the by writers, HTML document. When this information is case study, written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Although the contents of the screen structure file is fixed it is possible to make temporary amendments before it is used to build the HTML output. Essays. Please refer to the following: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. After the business entity has finished its processing the controller will instruct the view component to produce the HTML output. It does this by depression, putting all the relevant data into an XML document. Essays By Writers. This data comes from the following sources: The screen structure file in order to identify what application data goes where on the screen. This will appear in the structure element of the XML document. Prospectus. Application data from each of the business objects (there may be more than one!) which were specified in the component script.
This data will appear in the data area of the HTML output. This area is broken down into one or more zones (e.g. By Writers. 'main', or 'outer' and 'inner', or 'outer', 'middle' and isee test essay 'inner'), and essays each object's data is isee test essay, allocated to one of those zones. Framework data from by writers either the database or session data, such as: The menu buttons. The navigation buttons. The title bar. The column headings for how to for a plan LIST screens. The action buttons. The message area for errors and by writers warnings. The pagination and literature scrolling areas.
This document will then be transformed into by writers, HTML. There are more details available in essays on the depression summary, the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is a standard process by which an XML document is transformed into HTML output using instructions contained within an XSL Stylesheet. Essays. This process is performed at the web server end by default, but it is also possible for it to be performed within the client browser, thus reducing the load on the server. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is the document which is sent back to the client's browser is isee test essay, response to the request. Its content should conform to the (X)HTML specification which is supervised by the World Wide Web Consortium.
There are more details available in essays by writers, the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. The framework contains a series of reusable XSL stylesheets each of which will present the data in one of the structures described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. These stylesheets are reusable because of one simple fact - none of financial for a business plan them contain any hard-coded table or field names. Precise details of which elements from the XML file are to be displayed where are provided within the XML file itself from data obtained from by writers a screen structure script which is placed into the structure element. This is a great improvement over my original software which required a separate version of a stylesheet for each component. There are two basic structures for displaying data, and while some stylesheets use one or the other there are some which contain the literature, same basic elements in by writers, different variations and combinations. DETAIL view, single row displayed vertically LIST view, multiple rows displays horizontally. XSL Stylesheet for a DETAIL view (vertical) This is a DETAIL view which displays the contents of a single database row in columns going vertically down the page with labels on the left and data on financial projections for a business the right, as shown in Figure 4.
In most cases the standard 2-column view will be sufficient, but there may be cases when it is desired to essays by writers have more than one piece of essays on the depression summary data on the same horizontal line, as shown in Figure 5. It is important to note that it is not a simple case of adding in extra columns to a row. Essays. An HTML table expects each row to have the essays, same number of columns, so it is necessary to make adjustments on all other rows otherwise they will contain empty columns. Essays. Notice the following points about Figure 5: 'data1' has been told to span 3 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'data2a'. Line 2 contains two labels and two fields. This dictates that each row must therefore contain 4 columns. Study Solution. 'data4b' does not have a label.
This is allowed, but it is not possible to have a label without data. 'data4b' has been told to span 2 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'label2b'. In an essays HTML table it is unit plan, possible to have a single piece of essays data which spans more than one column, as shown in essays on the, Figure 5. It is by writers, also possible to essay unit have a single piece of data which spans more than one row, as shown in by writers, Figure 6. Notice here that the effect of spanning multiple rows requires data in the other columns in each of the dissertation prospectus, rows that are being spanned. Details on essays how to achieve these effects are given in essay, Structure file for essays a DETAIL view. The same DETAIL view can be used by different components which access the same business entity in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the essays great depression summary, controller script will pass its particular mode to essays by writers the XSL stylesheet during the transformation process. The XSL stylesheet will use the mode value to alter the starbucks case harvard, way that it deals with individual fields by making them read-only or amendable as appropriate. Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a DETAIL view: Full a full breakdown of the different parts within the XSL stylesheet please refer to essays Reusable XSL Stylesheets and Templates.
XSL Stylesheet for a LIST view (horizontal) This is unit plan, a LIST view which displays the essays, contents of great summary several database rows in horizontal rows going across the page. The top row contains column headings (labels) while the subsequent rows contain data, each row from a different database occurrence. Here is a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a LIST view: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide.
Each application component (transaction) within the system will have its own unique component script. Although this is not sharable, it is a very small script which does nothing but identify which Model, View and Controller to use, most of essays which are sharable. This arrangement allows me to achieve the following levels of reusability: There is a separate Model class for starbucks study each business entity (database table) within the application which encapsulates all the properties and methods necessary for that entity. Essays By Writers. This class can be shared by any number of components. Every Model class starts off by being very small as the isee test essay, majority of the required code is inherited from an abstract table class. Code to physically access a particular RDBMS is routed through a single DML class. This does not contain any hard-coded table or column names, therefore can be shared by essays by writers, all of the literature study, Model classes.
Every transaction which produces HTML output uses the same HTML View component. This uses a screen structure file which is tied to a particular database table but which may be shared by more than one transaction. Each transaction follows a particular pattern which uses one of the pre-defined XSL stylesheets which is supplied within the framework. There are a dozen or so of these XSL stylesheets which can be used by essays by writers, any number of different transactions, and as they do not contain any hard-coded table or column names they can be used with any number of Model classes. Every transaction which produces PDF output uses the same PDF View component. This uses a report structure file which is unique for each report. Every transaction which produces CSV output uses the same CSV View component. This does not have any type of dissertation prospectus structure file as it will simply write to essays by writers the output file every record that it is given.
Every transaction requires a Controller which handles the communication with the Model and the View. Essays On The Depression Summary. None of my controller scripts contains any hard-code table names or column names, so they can be used with any Model. Each Controller script will be tied to a particular type of View - HTML, PDF, CSV or no view at all in those cases where no visible output is essays, required - and is catalogued in essay, my library of Transaction Patterns. Using this design I have built framework which contains the following: Each transaction accesses one of the pre-defined Controller scripts, one for by writers each of the 43 Transaction Patterns.
Each table (Model) class is essays summary, generated from my Data Dictionary and inherits a large volume of code from essays by writers a single abstract table class. Literature. All SQL queries are constructed and executed through a single Data Access Object. Essays By Writers. All HTML output is generated by descriptive essay, a single HTML object which uses one of the 12 XSL stylesheets. All PDF output is by writers, generated by a single PDF object. Unit. All CSV output is generated by essays by writers, a single CSV object. Using this framework I have built an application which contains over 2,000 user transactions, 250+ database tables and 450+ relationships. Make Projections For A Business. Each database table (Model) class was generated from my Data Dictionary and essays automatically shared code from my abstract table class and Data Access Object.
Each user transaction was generated from literature one of my Transaction Patterns and essays by writers automatically shared one of my Controller scripts and one of my View objects. In my implementation I can add a new table to my database, import the details into my Data Dictionary, create the essays on the depression summary, class file for essays the Model then create the initial transactions for the LIST1, SEARCH1, ADD1, ENQUIRE1, UPDATE1 and dissertation DELETE1 patterns, and be able to run them from my menu system, in under 5 minutes without having to write a single line of code . How much code would you have to write to achieve that in your implementation? In your implementation how much code do you have to write for by writers each Model in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as the model classes are generated from my Data Dictionary and descriptive essay inherit a large amount of essays code from my abstract table class. In your implementation how much code do you have to write to validate user input?
In mine it is none as all user input is automatically validated using my standard validation object which compares each field's value with the field's specifications provided by the table structure file. In your implementation how much code do you have to financial projections for a business plan write for essays each View in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each HTML page is created from dissertation prospectus a pre-built View object which uses one of my pre-defined XSL stylesheets. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for essays each Controller in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is isee test essay, none as each transaction uses one of my pre-defined controller scripts. In your implementation how many Controllers are tied to essays a particular Model and are therefore not sharable?. In mine I have 43 controllers which can operate on study harvard any Model, so they are infinitely sharable. If your implementation cannot achieve the same levels of reusability/sharability as mine then please do not try to essays by writers tell me that my implementation is inferior.
More information regarding the levels of reusability which I have achieved can be found in the following: In this forum post someone asked advice on how the MVC pattern should be implemented, so I decided to prospectus proposal offer some based on my experience of having successfully implemented the MVC pattern in a large web application. It seems that quite a few people took exception to essays by writers my approach as it violated their personal interpretations of the rules of MVC. In this post I stated the following: Should the Model transmit its changes directly into the View, should the for a plan, View extract the changes directly from the Model, or should the Controller extract from the Model and inject into the View? Actually, there is no hard and fast rule here, so any of by writers these options would be perfectly valid. Well in MVC the literature, view gets its own data from the model. Controller extracting from the model and passing to the view is wrong. MVC states that views access the model directly (ie not using the controller as a mediator) and that models should not know of controllers and views.
He has reinforced this statement in an article entitled Model-View-Confusion part 1: The View gets its own data from the Model. What he fails to realise is that different examples of MVC implementations show different ways in which the model obtains its data, so he cites the ones that follow his personal opinion as being right and dismisses all the by writers, others as being wrong. I feel that his interpretation of the statement models should not know of controllers and views goes too far. Literature Study. A model may have any of its methods called by essays by writers, another object, or may call a method on an object of unknown origin which has been injected into it, but it should not have any hard-coded dependencies on study specific view objects or any methods which are tied to by writers specific objects as this would introduce tight coupling between those objects. By using generic methods which can be used by multiple objects you are introducing loose coupling which makes the code more maintainable and less prone to error. The model will be called from isee test essay a controller, but it should not need to know which controller so that it may change its response in some way. The model may push its data into a view object which was instantiated and injected into it by the controller, or it could have its data pulled out by a view object. Essays By Writers. In either case it should not need to know which view or controller requested that data, it should simply return the isee test essay, data and let the calling object do what it wants with it, which may be to render that data it whatever form is essays, appropriate, which could be HTML, PDF, CSV or whatever.
My point of view is reinforced by How to use Model-View-Controller (MVC) which lists the following in the Basic Concepts section: In the isee test essay, MVC paradigm the user input, the modeling of the external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by three types of object, each specialized for its task. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to by writers the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. the model manages the behavior and proposal data of the application domain, responds to essays by writers requests for information about its state (usually from the view), and responds to instructions to change state (usually from the controller) The formal separation of these three tasks is an study solution important notion that is particularly suited to Smalltalk-80 where the basic behavior can be embodied in essays by writers, abstract objects: View, Controller, Model and Object. The MVC behavior is essay unit plan, then inherited, added to, and modified as necessary to provide a flexible and powerful system. Although this document was written with Smalltalk-80 in mind, these basic concepts can be implemented in any language which has the appropriate capabilities. Notice that it concentrates on the responsibilities of the three components, and does nothing but suggest how the data may flow between them. Note the use of the term usually in essays, the above list, and the phrase commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. Later in the same document you may find references to particular implementations, but as far as I am concerned these are suggested implementations by virtue of the fact that the words used are can , could and may . These are not imperatives such as must , should or will , and as such should not be regarded as required in any implementations.
This Wikipedia article contains the essay, following: In addition to dividing the application into three kinds of components, the MVC design defines the interactions between them. A controller can send commands to its associated view to change the view's presentation of the model (e.g., by scrolling through a document). It can also send commands to the model to update the essays by writers, model's state (e.g., editing a document). A model notifies its associated views and controllers when there has been a change in its state.
This notification allows the views to produce updated output, and the controllers to prospectus proposal change the available set of commands. A passive implementation of essays by writers MVC omits these notifications, because the application does not require them or the software platform does not support them. A view requests from the model the information that it needs to generate an dissertation output representation. So even in this definition there are several possibilities: The controller can send commands to both the model and the view . The model can send commands to both the by writers, view and the controller . The view can receive commands from both the dissertation, model and the controller . Note that the word used is can and not should or must . Which variation of these options you choose to implement is therefore down to your personal preferences or what options are available in your design. So even though the MVC pattern does not (or should not, IMHO) dictate how the flow of data should be implemented, whether it should be pulled or pushed, or who should do the pulling or the pushing, TomB seems to essays think that the study, only implementations which are allowed are those which have received his personal seal of essays approval. Isn't this a little arrogant on his part? By state I meant does the model contain a 'current record set'. Selecting which records to show is solution, clearly display logic (along with ordering and limiting). I replied in this post with the following:
I disagree (again). The Model contains whatever records it has been told to contain, either by issuing an sql SELECT statement, or by by writers, having data injected into it from the essay unit plan, Controller. The View does not *request* any particular records from the Model, it deals with *all* records that are currently contained in the Model. Essays. Ordering and limiting are data variables which are passed from the Controller, through the Model and to the DAO so that they can be built into the sql SELECT statement. The View does *not* decide how to limit or sort the data - the data which it is given has already been sorted and make financial for a business plan limited. TomB argued in this post with the following: Ordering, limiting and generally deciding which records to show is 100% display logic. By moving this to the model you've reduced reusability of the essays, view. I don't know about you, but if there are 1,000s of records to display, but the user wants to see them in pages of 10, it is much more efficient, both in how to financial projections business plan, time and memory, for the Model/DAO to use limit and offset values so that only the relevant records are actually read from the database. All of these records are then passed to the View, and the View displays every record which it has been given.
It just does not sound practical to pass 1,000s of records to the View, then get the View to decide which 10 to by writers display. Similarly it is far easier to sort the records by adding order by to the SQL query than it is to essay unit plan have code to sort them in the View. This is no way reduces the reusability of the view as all HTML output is produced from by writers a single pre-written View object which uses one of my pre-written XSL stylesheets. This single object can be used to case study solution create the by writers, HTML output for any transaction and any Model. What could be more reusable than that? There also seems to be some dispute over what the term display logic actually means. Dissertation Prospectus Proposal. A software application can be broken down into the following types of logic:
Display logic - code which generates the HTML output that is by writers, sent to the user. Essays Great Summary. This exists in, and by writers only in, the View. Business logic - code which implements the descriptive, business rules. By Writers. This exists in, and only in, the Model, which has a separate class for each entity within the dissertation prospectus, application domain. Essays By Writers. Data Access logic - code which constructs and executes SQL queries to read or update data in isee test essay, a database.
This exists in, and only in, the essays by writers, Data Access Object (DAO) which is case harvard, accessed from the Model. Control logic - code which translates user input into operations on the Model and the View. This exists in, and by writers only in, the Controller. It is clear to me that display logic is descriptive plan, that code which directly generates the essays by writers, HTML output. The data which is transformed into HTML may come from any source, but the code which obtains or generates that data is not part of the display logic. Study. The Model does not generate any HTML, therefore it does not contain any display logic. Similarly the Model does not generate and by writers execute any SQL queries, therefore it does not contain any data access logic. This can be summed up as follows:
Code which transforms data into HTML is display logic. Starbucks Harvard Solution. Code which creates or obtains the data which is essays, subsequently transformed into literature study, HTML is not display logic. I'm sorry if my interpretation of these minor details is essays, different to yours, but just because my interpretation is different does not mean that it is make projections for a plan, wrong. I still have components which carry out the essays by writers, responsibilities of on the great Model, View and Controller, so as far as I am concerned my version of MVC is perfectly valid. My implementation may be different from yours, but it is allowed to be different. According to some people there is supposed to be a rule which says that a Controller can only essays ever communicate with a single Model, but as I have never heard of this rule and literature study have never been given any justification for its existence I see no reason to be bound by it. In my implementation each HTML page is broken down into a series of zones or areas, and each zone is populated using the contents of a different object as follows: The menu bar is populated from the MNU_MENU table in essays, the MENU database.
The title bar is populated from the starbucks harvard, MNU_TASK table in by writers, the MENU database. The navigation bar is populated from the MNU_NAV_BUTTON table in the MENU database. The message area is populated with any messages, plus any field errors which cannot be associated with any field on isee test essay the screen. The data area will display data from essays one or more application objects. How this data is displayed depends on how many occurrences (rows) can be shown at any one time: For single rows there will be the following: Application data will be displayed vertically with labels on the left and field contents on the right. A scrolling area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the starbucks harvard, available rows in essays, the current selection. Essay Plan. For multiple rows there will be the following: A row of column headings which are shown as hyperlinks which allow the current sort sequence to be changed. Application data will be displayed horizontally with each field below its corresponding label. Essays. A pagination area which will allow the proposal, user to move backwards or forwards through the available pages in the current selection. The navigation bar will contain hyperlinks to allow the number of essays rows per on the depression summary page to be altered.
The action bar is essays, populated from a variable which is defined in the controller script. In all my previous programming languages I was able to populate different areas on the screen from different tables in the database, so I saw no reason why I should not do exactly the literature study, same with PHP. Each of my page controllers will deal with each of by writers those applications objects independently and separately, regardless of the number, and not through any single composite object. For example, take three database tables which are related as shown in Figure 9: A typical screen will list multiple rows from the ORDER table in a single zone using the LIST1 pattern as shown in Figure 10. Data from the literature study, CUSTOMER table will not need a separate zone as it can be obtained from a JOIN within the ORDER object. Note that each row of ORDER data may show details for a different CUSTOMER. A variation of this may show only those ORDERs for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 11. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from and in essays, addition to the ORDER zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ORDERS which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown.
Another screen may only isee test essay show those ITEMs for a single ORDER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 12. Here the ORDER table has its own zone which displays one row at by writers, a time. This is separate from and in addition to the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to study the current ORDER will be shown. Any CUSTOMER data is obtained using a JOIN within the ORDER object. Another screen may only essays show those ITEMs for a single ORDER for a single CUSTOMER using the literature study, LIST3 pattern, as shown in Figure 13. Essays. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is prospectus, separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can also only display one row at a time, and the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to essays the current ORDER which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown. The idea of dissertation forcing the page controller to go through a single composite object in order to essays by writers deal with the separate database objects never occurred to literature me. Doing so would require extra effort which would achieve absolutely nothing (except to conform to a rule which I did not know existed) so as a follower of the KISS principle it is my choice, if not my duty, to avoid unnecessary complexity and essays stick with the simplest thing that could possibly work.
While not a direct criticism of my approach, a blog written by Fabien Potencier (who created the Symfony framework), contains the following statement: I don't like MVC because that's not how the web works. Symfony2 is an HTTP framework ; it is a Request/Response framework . In my opinion anyone who says that the descriptive essay plan, MVC design pattern is not suitable for the web has a blinkered mind which is being constrained by the circumstances in which that pattern was created and the way it was first implemented. It was originally designed for and implemented in a language which ran in a stateful environment on the desktop using a bitmapped display, and essays by writers where it was possible for every keystroke to be detected by the program and to have an immediate effect on the output. Twenty plus years later the internet arrived with a totally different stateless protocol with its HTTP Request/Response cycle in which individual keystrokes are not detected - the essays great depression summary, client sends a request to the server, the sever processes that request and responds with a complete HTML document which causes the by writers, whole display to be rebuilt. If you bother to look at the description of MVC its says nothing about being tied to proposal software which runs in a stateful environment using a bitmapped display where every keystroke can be detected and processed.
MVC is essays, nothing more than a design which identifies three components which each have their own distinct and separate responsibilities. How those responsibilities are carried out is not specified, the design simply identifies what should be done and not how it should be done. MVC is how to financial for a business, not tied to a particular language, or a particular protocol, nor is it limited to a particular implementation . That blog also contains the following statement: . because the MVC word is by writers, so overloaded and because nobody implements exactly the same MVC pattern anyway. The phrase same MVC pattern is totally meaningless as there is only one MVC pattern, but there may be different implementations of that pattern using either different languages or different programming styles. There may be different variations with different names, such as Model-View-Presenter or Model-View-Adapter, but there is only one MVC. Provided that your software has three components which fulfil the responsibilities of the financial projections for a business plan, Model, View and Controller then you definitely have an implementation of MVC, and by writers anyone who says otherwise is mistaken. I quite deliberately said an implementation of MVC as there is plan, no such thing as the implementation. For example, with PHP applications the View component may use a templating system such as Smarty or one of the many other templating engines. Personally I prefer to use XSL. Some people put data validation in essays by writers, the Controller, but I prefer to keep it in the Model with the essays great summary, other business logic.
This means that all knowledge of any application is essays by writers, confined to the Model/Business layer while both the Presentation and Data Access layers are application-agnostic by virtue of the fact they do not contain any knowledge of any application. Controllers, Views and DAOs are supplied with the framework while individual Model classes are generated by study, the framework using table structures obtained from the application database which is essays, designed and built by the developer. The idea that MVC is essay unit plan, not suitable for the HTTP Request/Response cycle is also nonsense. Take a look at Figure 14: Figure 14 - Request/Response cycle with MVC. In my framework this is implemented in the following steps: The Controller receives the HTTP request from the client. Essays. The Controller calls the appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) and waits for it/them to finish. Note that the results contain only isee test essay data, no HTML. If the Model wishes to touch the essays by writers, database it does so by communicating with the DAO.
The Controller calls the View with the result(s) from the Model(s) in great, order to transform the raw data into HTML. The Controller sends the HTML response back to the client. My implementation contains three components which carry out the responsibilities of the three components which are described in MVC, so anyone who says it is essays by writers, not MVC is mistaken. It also runs on the web, so anyone who says that MVC is not suitable for descriptive essay plan the web is mistaken.
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Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an descriptive unit applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by essays by writers [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to isee test essay, simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of by writers, those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. Isee Test Essay? If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into by writers your explanation of case harvard, job duties and how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is essays by writers greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for prospectus an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table.
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Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and essays, is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in dissertation prospectus proposal Brazilian jiu jitsu, and essays by writers, loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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Logan International Airport Essay Sample. This report provides an analysis and evaluation of the current and prospective delay problems of Logan International Airport at Boston, Massachusetts. Method of analysis includes waiting line simulation and historical data tracking as well as response from both local community and Massport. Results of the data show that the major causes to delay are broken down in the following: 1. Increasing demand for annual operations. 2. Adverse weather conditions, especially the northwest wind which Logan airport is not designed to accommodate at normal capacity. 3. Continuous heavy air traffic at near capacity and potential over-scheduling during peak hours. Essays By Writers? The report finds the prospects of Logan International Airport in its current position are neither responsive to starbucks case solution the delay problem nor well prepared for the predicted increase in passengers and operations in the upcoming years. Recommendations discussed in the report to combat the delay issue include: 1. Diversion: Where smaller planes would be diverted to nearby airports during peak hours to reduce the overall delay time of conventional jets 2. Runway: increase the overall capacity of the airport to mitigate delay problems 3. Essays? Demand-management methods: such as peak-period pricing, incentives to divert aircraft to non-peak hours, and isee test essay tradable permits of 15-minute peak-period slots. We expect peak period pricing to be the most effective means of reducing delay time because smaller aircrafts are less able to absorb the peak period landing fee and will most likely opt to by writers land during non-peak hours. Logan airport is an airport that suffers from many delay issues due to the fact that it operates at capacity or over capacity during peak hours.
The main cause of the delays is prospectus proposal due to by writers moderate or adverse weather conditions which renders either 1 or 2 of its runways unusable. Isee Test Essay? During good weather conditions and peak timing of essays, 17h, there is starbucks study harvard solution a 12.5-minute expected system wait time. However at 18h, the arrival rate exceeds the capacity rate (utilization rate is greater than 1) and the line goes to essays infinity according to on the depression the waiting line system. This is essays by writers also the case in moderate and adverse weather conditions. (Figure 1) However in reality, because the arrival rate differs per hour, the excess arrivals in the peak periods are left waiting (circulating in the air) until arrival rates drop in non-peak period (hour 19). The problem with the case solution, status quo is that it is very costly because delay times are very high. For example, during peak hours in moderate or adverse weather conditions, planes are delayed an average of 1.5 hours and incurs a cost up to $167,079 (Figure 12). In addition when planes are delayed for landing they are forced to circulate in the airspace which is potentially dangerous when the airspace becomes crowded and essays by writers it would result in an increased fuel cost.
Even under good weather conditions where the utilization is unit less than 1 and we can calculate a delay time, the cost associated with that delay can become very expensive (up to$ 53,015 for conventional jets). (Figure 4) As Logan airport faces capacity issues on a daily basis during peak hours, it is important that a solution is implemented as quickly as possible to essays by writers start reducing the high delay costs. Divert traffic to another airport. An alternative that was considered was diverting the Turboprops and regional airplanes to descriptive unit another airport. Worchester airport is 53 miles from Logan airport which is approximately 10 minutes by flight. By Writers? Only the smaller regional and turboprops can be diverted because large planes are likely to overfly the literature, distance from Logan to Worchester. Worchester Regional Airport is ideal because it has the capacity to take on additional flights since its passenger growth has declined by by writers, 16% according to exhibit 5 of the plan, case.
Furthermore its runways are positioned such that when the wind is blowing North-West (adverse weather conditions for Logan), Worchester has 2 runways in operation, whereas Logan only has 1 runway (Figure 7). Essays By Writers? If Turboprops and regional airplanes were to be diverted then their delay time would only be 10 minutes in adverse weather conditions. As the delay time would be significantly reduced for regional and turboprops in this scenario, we. believe that the small planes would be willing to make the switch. This would also free up capacity by how to financial for a plan, 56% at essays Logan airport so that the conventional planes would also have a decreased delay time of 22 minutes as compared to an infinite wait time (Figure 2). How To Financial For A Business? However, while this alternative might be favorable in the short term, it is rather unfeasible over essays by writers, the long term as there would be a significant passenger cost in terms of loss of goodwill. We assume that the loss of case harvard solution, goodwill would be similar to the passenger cost of $30.9/passenger/hour and we include a car rental cost of by writers, $9/passenger/hour for a total passenger switching cost of dissertation proposal, $40/passenger/hour.
Passengers would likely be upset at arriving at a different location resulting in many inconveniences and essays additional costs incurred. If this happens on a regular basis, Logan airport’s reputation will be hurt and this may adversely affect its revenue as well. Isee Test Essay? Building a new runway. Building a new runway 14/32 (one end at 320 degrees facing the by writers, NW and the other at 140 degree facing the SE) which will situate at the southwestern edge of the airport is a favorable solution toward the increasing arrivals and departures at Logan Airport and to combat the low runway configuration during adverse weather conditions, particularly the NW wind. The current layout of Logan Airport consists of 4 major runways which allow for a 3-runway configuration under SW winds, 3-runway configuration under NE wind, 2-runway configuration under the descriptive unit, SE wind, and 2-runway configuration under NW wind. However when the NW wind is severe, only by writers, runway 15R/33L (1-runway configuration) is safe to essay use, and this leads to a significant downgrade on the capacity (to 40-60 operations per hour from essays normal capacity of 118-126 operations). Isee Test Essay? According to the Massport’s data, a typical year consists of the following percentages of the time that wind from essays different directions occurs: 37% NW, 18% NE, 17% SE, and 28% SW (Figure 9).
The 2013 weather data provided by National Weather Service Forecast Office at Boston (http://www.erh.noaa.gov/box/) also says that around 35% (Figure 8) of the time, the wind direction present at Logan Airport is great summary from the NW. Assuming a typical year, these two sources lead us to conclude that the airport is usually not operating at normal capacity due to frequent NW wind, which confirms the NW wind as one of the primary causes of delay. By Writers? Runway 14/32 is an obvious and effective solution to delay problems as the runway is designed to allow aircrafts to take off and literature land during severe NW wind and thus enhance runway configuration to 3 runways (R 14/32, 15R/33L, 9/27) under moderate NW wind and 2 runways under severe NW wind. Also since a runway goes both ways, Runway 14/32 can also be used when there is by writers a SE wind. Therefore, this new runway will be useful 54% of the essay unit, time. Ultimately, with Runway 14/32 built in, Logan Airport will, for most of the essays by writers, time, have a 3-runway configuration regardless of the wind direction.
Hence, the airport can guarantee a stable 118-126 operation per hour all year long. This guarantee is extremely important to Logan Airport as it is the origin and destination of many flights. The new Runway 14/32 costs about $100 million to build, but it helps Logan Airport to mitigate delay problems, by reducing costs in how to make projections plan, terms of essays, operation expenses and starbucks study ground crew time. We assume airplanes arrive at by writers a constant rate throughout the year with no severe wind, permitting a 3-runway configuration. If the arrival rate is 15/hr, Logan Airport can save around $3 million a year; if the literature study, arrival rate is 35/hr, Logan saves 26 million a year; and if the arrival rate is 55/hr, Logan saves $360 million a year (Figure 5 6). In addition, we can amortize the runway cost of $100 million over a useful life of 40 years according to the U.S. Governmental Accounting Standard Board, coming up to an annual cost of $2.5 million. Despite all the benefits of building a runway, the major obstacle to this alternative is that more than $20 billion of essays, public money has been committed to a residential development project around the potential stretch of plan, land for the runway. In addition, we see this option as a long-term solution that would require some time before we can see the by writers, results of it.
Therefore, implementing this alternative right now would not be wise as we would be committing $100 million as sunk cost now without alleviating the current delay issues. Demand-Management: Peak-period pricing (PPP) One of the main objectives is to isee test essay divert Turboprops to essays non-peak periods since they are a key contributor to delay times at Logan airport. As such, we have decided that PPP is the way forward in our aim to reduce the study, number of Turboprops during peak periods. By comparing 3 possible PPP options ($150, $200, $250), we found that PPP can perform its demand management role effectively in reducing demand and thus reducing delay times. As calculated, PPP has a much greater impact on the revenue of Turboprops (up to 11.15%) as compared to regional jets (up to 5%) and conventional jets (up to 0.64%), which shows that Turboprops will be most affected by implementation of PPP. Our analysis included taking different assumptions and holding different variables constant. Holding everything else constant, Turboprops prefer PPP of $200 whereas regional and conventional jets prefer PPP of $250, as we calculated that these aforementioned PPP give the respective airplanes the by writers, lowest total delay cost. (Figure 3) The mix of airplane types at Logan airport also contributes to great summary the effect on essays, delay, as a higher percentage of Turboprops (40%) will have a greater effect on literature, delay times.
The sensitivity of essays by writers, Turboprops to isee test essay PPP leads us to assume that 70% of Turboprops will be diverted to non-peak periods as compared to 15% of regional and conventional jets. Holding everything else constant and comparing the delay costs of the different airplanes with and without a $250 PPP, we can see that Turboprops’ savings are $4913.12, regional jets’ savings are $886.41, and conventional jets’ savings are $46,825.16. We also showed that having a smaller percentage of Turboprops (10%) further increase the savings on Turboprops to $6218.31-$326.30 = $5,892.01. (Figure 4) Because we are unable to implement 2 different PPP, we believe that it is in the best interest of Logan airport to implement a $250 landing fee as this achieves the twin goal of essays by writers, reducing congestion and lowering delay costs. This way, Logan airport can divert the air traffic from peak to non-peak periods at minimal cost with a large number of the turboprops being diverted. Despite having this $250 landing fee not give us the lowest delay cost for Turboprops, we consider the isee test essay, difference of $131.23 to be rather negligible. By Writers? We recommend PPP pricing with a $250 landing fee as it is the solution that can be implemented the quickest with the isee test essay, least amount of implementation cost. There is no capital investment needed; it is simply a matter of marketing this new structure to the airlines. Some implementation costs could potentially be the loss of Turboprop customers from the new PPP program, however this will likely be minimal as Logan is an important destination and essays by writers origination airport. As turboprops typically have the prospectus proposal, longest landing time, this solution will be most effective in alleviating Logan’s delays during peak hours. Other demand-management methods. There can also be other incentives to reduce peak-period demand such as incentivizing airlines to by writers schedule their flights to non-peak hours.
Besides monetary incentives, a more attractive method could be non-monetary, such as granting those airlines priority in baggage systems, better-located offices and check-in counters, or even giving these airlines a certain number of free passes to airport lounges. This is a transfer mechanism that can increase pareto efficiency by how to make projections for a business, making all parties better, as delaying 300 people for 3 minutes costs a lot more than delaying 9 people for essays by writers a longer time. How To Make Financial Projections Plan? Logan airport can also auction off 15-min slots during peak periods to airlines as a tradable permit, thereby allowing airlines to trade these permits among themselves while restricting the total demand. One assumption that our waiting line models cannot handle is an by writers arrival rate that is greater than the service rate. However, in real life, the utilization rate often exceeds 1, as shown in exhibit 8 of the case, even under good weather conditions during hour 18. Isee Test Essay? The waiting line does not go to infinity because the line just gets pushed to the next hour, or planes get diverted to another airport. The assumption of essays by writers, 65% load factor will not remain constant in real life as the load factor would likely differ during peak and non-peak periods. Also, our diversion factor assumption of 70% for Turboprops and 15% for isee test essay regional and conventional jets may not be constant over time. Moreover we operated under the assumption that the essays, weightings of how to projections for a business, 40% Turbo, 16% Regional and 44% Conventional will be constant throughout, however we know that moving into essays by writers 2015, the mix of airplanes will change with regional planes projected at 41% of the on the depression summary, mix. Finally our models do not take seasonality into account, and assume that all planes arrive uniformly throughout the year.
However airports will generally see more passenger bookings and flights during holidays or throughout the summer months. Essays By Writers? While we do not believe any of these assumptions will alter our recommendation in essays great, a significant way, it is important to realize that our results are not a precise reflection of reality. “Airport Quotas and Peak Hour Pricing: Theory and Practice.” U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration, May 1976. By Writers? Web. 25 March. 2014. Study Solution? “Chapter 5: Other Approaches to Reducing Delay.” Airport System Development. Essays? n.d. Make? Web.
25 March 2014. Conard, Linda. Virtual Skies: Airport Design. National Aeronautics and essays by writers Space Administration, April 2010. Web. 25 March 2014. Federal Aviation Administration. Literature Study? U.S.
Department of Transportation. 21 Feb. 2014. Web. 25 March 2014. “How Logan Airport Operates.” Massport and the Environment. Massport. Web. 25 March 2014. “Observed Weather Reports.” National Weather Service Forecast Office, n.d. Web.
25 March 2014 Willey, Mark. “Runway Demand Management Scheme: Brisbane Airport.” Brisbane Airport, n.d. Web. 25 March 2014. “Worcester Regional Airport.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclypedia. Web. Essays By Writers? 25 March 2014. Is this the isee test essay, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Logan International Airport. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
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