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antacid homework Doc Brown's KS3 Chemistry. KS3 SCIENCE-Chemistry QCA Unit 7E Acids and alkalis. QCA 7E Acids and alkalis Multiple Choice Questions for Science revision on essays overcome common acids/alkalis - pH scale, indicators, neutralisation reaction, uses etc. * KS3 Science multiple Choice Quizzes for essay chemistry, worksheets and practice chemistry questions for pupils revising Key Stage 3 science tests revision help for secondary students * In the unit you should learn how to . On Obstacles Overcome! classify acids and alkalis as chemicals with distinct properties and uses. use indicators to classify solutions as acidic, alkaline or neutral. use the comparing contrasting essays, pH scale to compare the acidity and alkalinity of different solutions. begin to explore neutralisation i.e. the essays, reaction between an acid and an alkali. interpret observations, making comparisons and seeing simple patterns. Quoting Letters In An Essay! investigate fairly the effectiveness of different antacids i.e. On Obstacles! compare their ability to neutralise acids recognise and deal with risks and hazards relating to acids and alkalis. name some common acids and alkalis. classify solutions as acidic, alkaline or neutral, using indicators and pH values. describe what happens to the pH of a solution when it is neutralised describe some everyday uses of acids, alkalis and neutralisation. know that soluble solids dissolve and form solutions, substances that don't dissolve are insoluble have had experience of of words abstract, mixing materials and essays seeing that new materials are formed as a result of a reaction between them understand the difference between a reversible and irreversible change (physical or chemical) Some important words for literature essay you to essays overcome, understand, use and spell correctly. Quoting Letters Essay! names of essays on obstacles, laboratory acids and alkalis, eg hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide names of contrasting essays, classes of chemical, eg acid, alkali, salts words with different meanings in scientific and everyday contexts, eg indicator, solution, neutral, react, equation, weakly, strongly words with similar but distinct meanings, eg harmful, corrosive, caustic, sour, irritant words and phrases relating to scientific enquiry, eg hazard, risk, pH range, evaluate, strength of evidence, alkaline, acidic, neutral, indicator, universal indicator, colour change, dilute, ? What are acids and alkalis like and essays where do we use them? many household materials are acids and are not hazardous eg lemon juice or vinegar identify some everyday uses of lessons 2014, acids, eg fruit juices or vinegar in on obstacles foods, medicines like aspirin, using acids to clean materials like metal plates, oven cleaners can be strongly alkaline recognise and contrasting interpret common hazard signs for harmful, irritant and corrosive substances how to essays on obstacles, deal with acids or alkalis if they are spilt/splashed on write the skin eg dilute/wash with lots of water adding water to an acid or alkali solution dilutes it and makes it less hazardous describe how to work safely with acids and alkalis and what to do if a spill occurs, e.g. wear safety goggles, dilute split acids/alkalis acids are distinguished from alkalis using indicators such as litmus or universal indicator (both turn red in acid (pH 3) or blue in alkali (pH 9), but universal has lots of colours to get a more accurate estimate of the pH including green for neutral pH7 and how strongly acid from pH 6 to 1 and essays overcome how strongly alkaline from 8 to 1 etc.4) common names, eg caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), bicarbonate of soda (sodium hydrogencarbonate), may be used where appropriate. Adding water to concentrated sulphuric acid is hazardous because the reaction is highly exothermic, so concentrated sulphuric acid should be diluted by adding a small amount of the essay, concentrated acid to a lot of essays on obstacles, water. know that sulfur is the internationally accepted spelling and sulphuric acid can be called sulfuric acid.

How can acids and alkalis be identified and distinguished from comparing, each other? how to essays overcome, extract the dyes from simple lessons contest 2014, plant materials and that acids and alkalis can change the colours of some of essays on obstacles, these natural dyes and that this can be used to photo, classify them eg from red cabbage, raw beetroot, blackcurrant, litmus, to test and classify solutions as acidic, neutral or alkaline, using indicators compare the results with different dyes and establish that there are two classes of solution and that the dyes can indicate which is which recognise that solutions of dyes which show one 'indicator' colour in acids and another in alkalis are called indicators recall the names of some common laboratory acids eg hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, sodium hydroxide, and alkalis e.g. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide. Is there a range of acidity and alkalinity? universal indicator gives a range of colours in overcome acidic and world literature limit alkaline solutions (typically from pH 0-14) that pH numbers indicate how acidic or alkaline a solution is essays overcome, that neutral solutions are pH 7, acidic solutions are below pH 7 and alkaline solutions are above pH 7 the write essays, pH of a solution can be got from an appropriate colour chart eg when using universal indicator classify the solution as strongly/weakly, acidic/alkaline, or neutral relate their classification to the use of the essays overcome, acid or alkali and associated hazards At this stage, pH can be used to describe strongly or weakly acidic or alkaline solutions. predict the effect on pH of making an acid more dilute or more concentrated and how this would affect its corrosiveness. When diluted, acids still give a pH 7, but when diluted the pH will rise since the solution would be less strongly acidic. What happens when an acid is added to an alkali? the uses of acids and alkalis in a range of ny times essay, everyday situations, eg hair and skin care, treatment of stings and bites, treatment of indigestion, food preservation, treatment of essays on obstacles overcome, soil. how living things use acids, eg ants, nettles, humans in digestion. identify and note key points about the range of pH used and potential harmful effects, that a neutral solution can be obtained by adding an acid to an alkali in simple life lessons essay the right proportions the on obstacles overcome, changes in essay pH when a solution of an acid is added drop by drop to a solution of an alkali describe that when an acid is added to an alkali, the pH of the mixture falls as it become neutralised describe that when an alkali is overcome, added to an acid, the pH of the mixture increases as it become neutralised explain how to obtain a neutral solution of about pH7 by comparing contrasting mixing an acid and an alkali describe with a graph the way pH changes as more alkali is added investigate changes in temperature during neutralisation and be introduced to the idea that a chemical reaction is on obstacles, taking place neutralisation is exothermic, which means heat is given out, so the temperature rises. Where is neutralisation important? the alkali lime is used to treat soil that is too acid for healthy plant growth acid bee stings can be treated with a weak alkali like bicarbonate of soda or calomine (zinc oxide paste) and alkaline wasp stings can be treated with a weak acid like vinegar too much stomach acid! - common antacid indigestion remedies - how are the remedies are intended to work? what sort of solution would work and be safe to take? antacids are mild alkalis including bicarbonate of soda (alka-selza) and magnesium hydroxide ('milk of magnesia') suggest ways in which one remedy might be more effective than others investigating the simple life essay, effectiveness of antacids: does one tablet of each antacid neutralise the same amount of acid? do the antacids neutralise acid equally quickly? how can you follow the neutralisation? e.g. by adding universal indicator and following the colour change how can you measure how much acid is neutralised by a particular mass of 'antacid' powder? is the reaction is essays on obstacles, fast or slow to the neutralisation point? Doc Brown's Chemistry Revision KS3 Science CHEMISTRY Unit 7E Acids and contest 2014 alkalis. What the Quiz is based on - original work schemes - programmes of study.

All of KS3 Science is now under review. and the quizzes will be adapted to suit the NEW National Curriculum for KS3 Science. In this unit pupils: • learn about essays on obstacles acids and alkalis as classes of chemicals with distinct properties and uses. • use indicators to classify solutions as acidic, alkaline or neutral. • use the pH scale to compare the acidity and alkalinity of different solutions. • begin to explore neutralisation. Essay! In scientific enquiry pupils: • recognise hazards and use information sources to assess risks associated with acids and alkalis. • make and on obstacles overcome present qualitative observations. • interpret qualitative observations, making comparisons and identifying simple patterns. • investigate the effectiveness of different antacids, controlling appropriate variables. This unit is expected to take approximately 7 hours.

Where the unit fits in. This unit uses ideas developed in the key stage 2 programme of study. Of Words! It builds on unit 6C ‘More about dissolving’ and unit 6D ‘Reversible and irreversible changes’ in the key stage 2 scheme of work. This unit introduces pupils to essays, chemicals, reactions and write comparing contrasting practical techniques which are likely to be new to them, through using a range of acids and alkalis encountered in familiar and laboratory contexts. It lays the foundation for work on reactions of acids in on obstacles overcome unit 9E ‘Reactions of metals and metal compounds’ and work on carbonate rocks in real unit 8G ‘Rocks and weathering’ and essays unit 8H ‘The rock cycle’. At the end of this unit. in photo terms of scientific enquiry.

most pupils will: obtain and present qualitative results in a way which helps to on obstacles overcome, show patterns; describe how to deal with hazards relating to acids and alkalis; suggest how to investigate a question about antacids, planning and making a fair comparison. some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: obtain and present qualitative results; describe some hazards of essay contest 2014, acids and alkalis; explain how they made a fair comparison in essays overcome their investigation into antacids. some pupils will have progressed further and will: explain how their conclusions match the evidence obtained and world ib word suggest ways in essays which the data collected could be improved. in terms of materials and their properties. most pupils will: name some common acids and alkalis and classify solutions as acidic, alkaline or neutral, using indicators and letters pH values; describe what happens to the pH of a solution when it is neutralised; describe some everyday uses of acids, alkalis and neutralisation. some pupils will not have made so much progress and will: name some common acids and on obstacles overcome alkalis; state some everyday uses of acids and write contrasting alkalis and classify solutions using indicators. some pupils will have progressed further and essays will: explain how a neutral solution can be obtained and number relate the on obstacles overcome, pH value of an acid or alkali to its hazards and corrosiveness. It is helpful if pupils: • know that solids can dissolve and form solutions. Quoting Letters In An! • have experience of mixing materials and seeing that new materials are formed as a result of a reaction. Health and safety. Risk assessments are required for any hazardous activity. In this unit pupils: • work with acids and alkalis. • plan their own investigations into antacids. Model risk assessments used by most employers for overcome normal science activities can be found in the publications listed in the Teacher’s guide . Teachers need to follow these as indicated in the guidance notes for the activities, and consider what modifications are needed for individual classroom situations. Language for learning. Through the quoting in an essay, activities in overcome this unit pupils will be able to understand, use and spell correctly: • names of laboratory acids and alkalis, eg hydrochloric acid , sodium hydroxide. • names of classes of world literature ib word limit, chemical, eg acid, alkali. • words with different meanings in scientific and on obstacles everyday contexts, eg indicator, solution, neutral, react, equation. • words with similar but distinct meanings, eg harmful, corrosive, caustic. Real Simple Life Lessons Essay! • words and phrases relating to scientific enquiry, e g hazard, risk, pH range, evaluate, strength of essays on obstacles overcome, evidence. Through the of words in thesis, activities pupils could: • ask questions to gain clarification and further information, eg why, how, what then. • find information, eg using contents, index, glossary, key words, hotlinks. • household acids and essays overcome alkalis (not bleaches), together with containers. Quoting Letters In An Essay! • Hazcards and transport hazard warnings identifying hazards associated with acids and alkalis.

• range of plant material from which indicator dyes can be extracted, eg red cabbage, blackcurrants. • pH sensor linked to essays on obstacles overcome, a computer. Photo Essay! • advertisements for products, eg for skin and hair care, which refer to essays, pH. • reference sources, including ICT sources, providing information about domestic and everyday uses/problems relating to acids and alkalis. • use the internet to contrasting essays, search for information, using key words about uses and hazards of acids and alkalis. • observe hazard signs on transport vehicles and in public places. What are acids and alkalis like and where do we use them? • that many household materials are acids and are not hazardous. • Elicit pupils’ ideas about acids by asking them to work in pairs or small groups to suggest words they would use to describe an acid and examples of where acids are used. • Show pupils a range of household acids that can be safely handled, eg vinegar, fruit juices, and ask them to explore and describe the appearance and smell of essays on obstacles overcome, these. If appropriate, pupils could be asked to taste drops of the solutions that are food products. Provide packaging or labels from number, additional household materials (that do not have hazard warnings) and ask pupils to find the names of acids contained in them. On Obstacles! • Ask pupils to compare what they found with the ideas they had about number of words in thesis abstract acids, and to essays overcome, highlight differences. • identify some acids, eg vinegar, lemon juice. • identify some everyday uses of acids, eg in foods, medicines, cleaning materials. • This activity could be used to reinforce the idea that not all colourless liquids are water. Pupils are likely to have worked with liquids other than water at key stage 2. – eye protection should be used when working with acids and alkalis. Teachers should follow school procedures for dealing with spills and splashes. – scrupulous hygiene must be observed in all tasting activities. • to recognise and interpret common hazard signs. • to select key ideas from written material. • how to deal with acids or alkalis if they are spilt or splashed on the skin. • that adding water to contrasting essays, an acid or alkali solution dilutes it and makes it less hazardous. • Provide pupils with containers for household and laboratory acids and alkalis with hazard warning labels, student safety sheets, Hazcards and information about hazard symbols and ask them to describe the distinctions between them and why the materials they used in the previous activity did not have hazard labels. Ask pupils to suggest how the acids and alkalis could be made less hazardous. • Consider hazard warning signs used when acids and alkalis are transported by essays road.

• Ask pupils to suggest why different acids and essay alkalis are labelled differently and to suggest safety procedures for essays overcome working with acids and alkalis. Agree a common set of procedures, which should include use of eye protection. • identify hazard symbols for harmful, irritant and corrosive substances. • describe how to work safely with acids and alkalis and what to do if a spill occurs. • explain that if water is added to an acid or alkali it dilutes it and the solution becomes less hazardous. • In the next activity, acids are distinguished from alkalis using indicators. • CLEAPSS produces Hazcards and student safety sheets. • At this stage common names, eg caustic soda, bicarbonate of soda, can be used where appropriate. • Adding water to concentrated sulphuric acid is hazardous because the reaction is highly exothermic. Concentrated sulphuric acid should be diluted by adding the esl australian essay, acid to water. • It may be helpful to point out that sulfur is the essays, internationally accepted spelling. – containers should be sealed or empty. How can acids and alkalis be identified and distinguished from each other? • to real simple life contest 2014, devise a table to essays, show results effectively and to essays, identify patterns in these. • that acids and alkalis can change the colours of some dyes and that this can be used to classify them. • the names of some common laboratory acids and alkalis. • to classify solutions as acidic or alkaline, using indicators. • Establish, by on obstacles quick questioning, that pupils recall key ideas about safety. • Provide pupils with solutions of dyes extracted from plant material, eg red cabbage, raw beetroot, blackcurrant, litmus, and ask them to explore and record the ny times photo essay, effect of essays on obstacles overcome, adding household and laboratory acids and alkalis to the dyes. • Compare the results with different dyes and establish, by comparing results from the class, that there are two classes of solution and that the dyes can indicate which is real life contest, which. Introduce the terms ‘indicator’ and ‘alkali’. • Provide pupils with a range of acidic and alkaline solutions and indicators and ask them to use the indicators to identify and record whether the solutions are acidic or alkaline. • present their results in a way which helps them identify patterns. • recognise that solutions of dyes which show one colour in acids and essays another in alkalis are called indicators. • recall the names of some common laboratory acids and alkalis. • use their record of results to identify which solutions are acidic and which are alkaline. • Pupils could extract the dyes from plant materials themselves if they are familiar with the techniques required. – avoid the use of bleach, drain cleaner or descaler. Essay! 0.4 mol dm -3 laboratory acids and alkalis can be used for this activity. None are hazard­ous although some are irritants, and eye protection is essays on obstacles overcome, needed.

In general, alkalis are more hazardous to skin and eyes than acids of a similar concentration. Is there a range of acidity and alkalinity? • that universal indicator gives a range of life lessons 2014, colours in acidic and alkaline solutions. • that pH numbers indicate how acidic or alkaline a solution is. • that neutral solutions are pH7, acidic solutions below 7 and alkaline solutions above 7. Overcome! • Demonstrate the use of universal indicator paper or solution to quoting in an essay, obtain a pH number for a few solutions previously tested. On Obstacles! Ask pupils to number in thesis, explore the range of pH of solutions previously tested (including some neutral solutions) and to on obstacles, see if they can relate them to earlier work on hazard labels. • identify the pH of a given solution from an appropriate colour chart. • classify the solution as strongly or weakly acidic or alkaline, or neutral. • relate their classification to the use of the acid or alkali and associated hazards. • Full-range universal indicator pH0–14 should be used for this activity. • At this stage, pH can be used to describe strongly or weakly acidic or alkaline solutions. It is not necessary to discuss the difference between weak and strong, and dilute and concentrated, although the appropriate terms should be used. • Extension: pupils could be asked to predict the essay, effect on pH of making an acid more dilute or more concentrated and how this would affect its corrosiveness. – 0.4 mol dm -3 solutions can be used for this activity. None are hazardous, although some are irritant and eye protection is needed. What happens when an acid is added to an alkali? • that acids and essays alkalis are used in a range of everyday situations. • how to find information, eg using contents, index, glossary, key words, hotlinks. • to select and note appropriate information about uses and effects of acids and alkali. • Ask pupils to use a range of reference sources including advertisements to find information about the use of letters in an essay, acids and alkalis in a range of everyday situations, eg hair and skin care, treatment of essays on obstacles, stings and bites, treatment of indigestion, food preservation, treatment of soil. Ask them to find out how living things use acids, eg ants, nettles, humans in digestion. Agree with pupils key words they need to use and remind them how to use an real life essay 2014, index, glossary or search facility. Ask them to overcome, identify and note key points about the range of pH used and potential harmful effects, and to explain these to other pupils either orally or by contributing to quoting letters, an information folder. Overcome! • identify uses of acids and alkalis and the benefits and potential hazards of these. • communicate clearly key points about a particular use of acids or alkalis. • Advertisements for photo skin-care and hair-care products could be used to introduce this activity. • Most pupils will need to be guided towards suitable sources of essays, information, eg websites such as. www.miamisci.org . A class information folder could be built up and discussed and additional applications added as pupils work through the unit. • that when an acid is real lessons essay contest 2014, added to an alkali, it lowers the pH. • that a neutral solution can be obtained by adding an acid to an alkali. On Obstacles Overcome! • Ask pupils to explore what happens to the pH when a solution of an acid is added drop by drop to a solution of an alkali.

Challenge pupils to predict what will happen if more acid is added, or if alkali is added to esl australian voices essay, an acid, and test their predictions using a pH monitor and datalogger. • describe that when an acid is added to an alkali, the pH of the mixture falls and vice versa. • explain how to essays on obstacles, obtain a neutral solution. • find information in reference books, on CD-ROMs, or from of words, databases. • ICT: pH logging using ICT could be used to record changes and generate a graph. • Teachers may wish to emphasise that acidity and alkalinity are measured on a continuous scale. • Extension: pupils could be asked to describe what computer-generated graphs show about the overcome, way pH changes as more alkali is added. • Extension: pupils could be asked to investigate changes in temperature during neutralisation and be introduced to the idea that a chemical reaction is taking place. – 0.4 mol dm -3 solutions of acid and alkali can be used. These may be irritant, so eye protection is needed. • to summarise key ideas about acids, alkalis and neutralisation. • Help pupils to work in groups to produce questions about acids, alkalis and neutralisation, which will help clarify their thoughts. Essay! Pupils ask others to answer or find the answers to their questions. Use all the questions and answers and, together with the pupils, agree a summary of essays, key ideas. • identify key questions about of words in thesis acids and alkalis. • use correct scientific terminology in answering questions. • Later activities in this unit offer the opportunity for consolidation of key ideas for pupils who need this. • Extension: pupils could also be asked to explore whether mass is conserved as neutralisation takes place. On Obstacles! This idea is covered more fully in unit 9H ‘Using chemistry’.

Where is neutralisation important? • how to frame a question that can be investigated. • how to use preliminary work to help decide what to measure or to quoting in an, observe. • to choose appropriate techniques and equipment. • to compare their investigative method and evidence collected with those of others. • to work with others in summarising information and evaluating a product. • Remind pupils of earlier work about acid in the stomach. Show pupils a range of packages and leaflets for on obstacles overcome some common antacid indigestion remedies and quoting letters in an essay ask them to identify how the remedies are intended to work and to essays on obstacles, suggest what sort of solution would work and be safe to take. Voices! • Ask them to suggest ways in which one remedy might be more effective than others and how they might investigate their suggestions. • Encourage a range of different investigations, eg Does one tablet of each antacid neutralise the same amount of acid? Do the antacids neutralise acid equally quickly? Ask pupils to write a brief account of their suggestions, results and overcome what they found out, to share with other groups in the class. Encourage pupils to question each other about what they did and what they found out. • Compile a summary of the outcomes of all investigations as an evaluation of indigestion remedies. • decide on a suitable question to investigate and suitable techniques for doing so. • summarise what they have found out.

• demonstrate understanding of the esl australian voices essay, strength of evidence through the questions they ask. • use the evidence collected to evaluate an indigestion remedy. • This activity offers pupils the opportunity to see how work carried out by different groups can be evaluated and synthesised. • It is possible to simulate different antacids by mixing bicarbonate of soda and salt in varying proportions. • It may be helpful to essays overcome, review words used on commercial products, eg antacid , and compare them with scientific terms, eg alkali, as pupils may be confused by the change in real simple essay contest 2014 terminology. • As an alternative, pupils could be asked to investigate differences in the acid content of a range of essays, soft drinks. Quoting Letters In An! – teachers should check pupils’ plans for health and safety before practical work begins. • to relate ideas about acids and alkalis to on obstacles overcome, each other. • Help pupils to bring together their knowledge about acids and ny times alkalis by asking them to produce a concept map using terms encountered, eg acid, alkali, strongly acidic, weakly acidic, weakly alkaline, strongly alkaline, neutral, indicator, universal indicator, colour change, corrosive, sour. Ask pupils to essays on obstacles overcome, comment on others’ maps and additional connections, explaining those shown. • identify relationships between key ideas. • explain why connections were made. • A concept map shows connections between different ideas in a particular topic and is a useful source of information about pupils’ understanding. Many pupils will be familiar with making concept maps from their work in essays primary science. Some pupils will require help, eg a range of terms could be written on on obstacles a large sheet of paper and pupils asked to draw lines between those they think are linked, and to write a phrase or sentence on esl australian essay the lines explaining why they have linked those terms.

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Introduction Windows Communication Foundation. Au court de cet article je vais vous prsenter Windows Communication Foundation, ou WCF, qui est une des grandes nouveauts du Framework.Net 3.0. On Obstacles Overcome. WCF fournit un modle de programmation unifie pour construire des applications distribues, WCF va permettre de faire communiquer des composants applicatifs se trouvant sur une mme machine, mais le plus souvent sur diffrentes machines relies en rseau. N'hsitez pas commenter cet article ! Commentez. Article lu fois. Publié le 14 aot 2007. WCF, ou Windows Communication Foundation, est une des nouveauts majeures de la version 3.0 du Framework .Net. Voices. WCF fournit un modle de programmation unifie pour construire des applications distribues, WCF va nous permettre de faire communiquer des composants applicatifs se trouvant sur une mme machine, mais le plus souvent sur diffrentes machines relies en rseau.

Vous devez penser que cela n'a rien de rvolutionnaire et que cela existe depuis trs longtemps dj, et vous avez raison (Remoting, Web Services, COM+, MSMQ et d'autres encore), ce qui change ici, c'est qu'avec WCF nous pouvons faire communiquer les applications que nous crons avec toutes ces technologies, sans pour autant devoir adapter nos dveloppements de manire spcifique avec chacune. Essays On Obstacles Overcome. WCF va savoir interagir avec diffrentes technologies, et dtail trs important mes yeux, le code n'aura pas tre adapt et modifi en fonction du moyen de communication que vous choisirez. Un exemple simple pour mieux comprendre, vous crez une application qui communique par HTTP et SOAP, et que pour une raison ou une autre vous souhaitez communiquer en TCP et binaire, avec WCF vous ne changerez pas la moindre ligne de code de votre application. Essay. C'est une grande force de WCF, le code de votre application, son fonctionnement, sont dcoupls du moyen de communication utilis. On Obstacles. Pour ceux qui ont dj fait du Remoting par exemple, vous devez apprcier cette caractristique. Bien qu'issu de la plateforme .Net et donc de l'environnement Windows, WCF a une vision plus large, et grce l'implmentation de nombreux standards cette technologie peut tre utilise pour communiquer avec des plateformes autres que Windows. Maintenant que vous voyez dans les trs grandes lignes ce qu'est WCF, entrons un peu plus dans le dtail.

L'lment central dans WCF est le service, voyons ce qui ce cache derrire ce terme qui est utilis dans de nombreux contextes diffrents en informatique. In Thesis Abstract. Pour vous donner une ide simple de ce qu'est un service WCF je vous propose d'imaginer un composant logiciel autonome, qui est capable d'effectuer des oprations et des communications au travers d'un rseau. Un service WCF est une entit logicielle implmentant un contrat, qui est une interface au sens objet du terme. Essays On Obstacles. Cette interface reprend la liste des oprations que va exposer un service. Quoting Letters Essay. En fait plus prcisment, on overcome dfinit un contrat par trois lettres, A, B et C. Essay. A pour adresse, B pour Binding et C pour contrat. Commenons par prsenter l'adresse. Essays On Obstacles. Il s'agit simplement d'une URI qui dfinit o est joignable le service, cela peut tre par exemple une URL http comme l'adresse d'une file d'attente MSMQ… La nature de l'adresse dpend du protocole choisit et de l'infrastructure rseau. Le Binding est en fait la mthode, le protocole, utilis pour communiquer avec le service WCF. Literature Ib Word. Le Framework .Net 3.0 nous fournit la base 9 bindings que l'on peut utiliser directement. Essays. Comme nous le verrons plus tard, ces bindings prsentent des caractristiques diffrentes, offrent de nombreuses fonctionnalits avances et couvrent ainsi de nombreux scnarios d'utilisation. Esl Australian Voices. Cependant, dans l'optique de gnricit et d'ouverture de WCF il est tout fait possible si ncessaire d'utiliser ses propres bindings personnaliss avec vos protocoles maison.

Voici la liste des bindings inclus dans WCF : BasicHttpBinding WSHttpBinding WSDualHttpBinding WSFederationHttpBinding NetTcpBinding NetNamedPipeBinding NetMsmqBinding NetPeerTcpBinding MsmqIntegrationBinding. Et enfin, le contrat. On Obstacles. Comme nous l'avons vu prcdemment c'est un lment majeur du service WCF, c'est lui qui dfinit les oprations exposes par le service. Of Words Abstract. Ce contrat indique quels sont les types et les paramtres employs par le service. On Obstacles. Un contrat est en fait une Interface, au sens objet du terme, dcore de quelques attributs spcifiant qu'il s'agit d'un contrat WCF.

Si vous avez compris l'ABC de WCF vous pouvez alors crer votre premier service sans difficult. Essays. C'est d'ailleurs ce que nous allons faire dans cet article, mais avant, nous allons examiner ce dont nous avons besoin pour crer des services WCF. Le Framework .Net en version 3.0 minimum Visual Studio 2005 ou version ultrieure (rien ne vous empche d'utiliser Notepad pour coder, mais restons raisonnables un instant s'il vous plait…) Les extensions WCF pour Visual Studio 2005 si vous l'utilisez videmment. Apres avoir install ces trois lments, vous tes prt crer votre premier service WCF. Essays On Obstacles. Les liens pour tlcharger ces diffrents composants sont disponibles a la fin de cet article dans la section Ressources. Crons sans plus tarder notre premier service WCF. Pour cela il suffit de prparer un minimum Visual Studio et suivre l'ABC. Quoting Letters In An. Nous allons utiliser le namespace System.ServiceModel pour crer nos services WCF, il faut donc commencer par ajouter une rfrence vers l'assembly System.ServiceModel.dll. Essays. Ensuite, dans chaque fichier de code vous devez ajouter un Imports System.ServiceModel ou un using System.ServiceModel ; si vous utilisez VB.Net ou C#. Remarque : je pense que ce n'est pas forcement ncessaire de le prciser, mais dans le doute, comme tous les lments de la technologie .Net, WCF est utilisable avec n'importe quel langage compatible .Net, il en existe plus d'une trentaine. Life Lessons Essay 2014. Je me borne fournir mon code dans les deux principaux langages, mais si vous faites du Delphi .Net, du J#, du Cobol .Net ou je ne sais quel langage, Windows Communication Foundation est disponible.

C'est une des grandes forces de la technologie .Net. Visual Studio est dsormais prt. Essays On Obstacles Overcome. Je ne l'ai pas prcis, mais votre service WCF peut tre cr dans n'importe quel type d'application (Console, WinForms, Web…). Essay. En disant cela je ne suis pas totalement prcis, car en fait, lorsque nous crons un service WCF nous le faisons dans une DLL, c'est par la suite que l'on choisira de l'intgrer dans un type d'application donn. On Obstacles. Il sera hberg (on dit host) par une autre application. Photo Essay. En effet, un service WCF en tant que tel (une DLL) n'est pas autonome et ncessite un hte pour s'excuter.

Pour permettre un dcoupage et une maintenance facile de notre service nous allons stocker notre interface dans une DLL, il faut donc pour cela crer un projet de type Bibliothque de classes. Comme vu prcdemment, l'lment central d'un service est son contrat. Essays Overcome. Conceptuellement parlant, il est trs important de commencer par dfinir ce contrat, pralablement tout autre lment. Ny Times Essay. Une fois le contrat tablit nous pouvons alors dfinir le reste. Info : au cours de cet article, nous allons crer un service qui sera capable d'effectuer des conversions montaires avec l'Euro et le Dollars. Essays On Obstacles Overcome. Par exemple en donnant un montant en Euros, le service nous renverra le montant quivalent en Dollars US, et inversement. Photo. Je vous l'accorde ce service ne rvolutionnera pas le monde du logiciel, mais ce n'est pas l'objet de cet article. Notre service exposera donc deux mthodes principales qui sont EurosToUsDollars() et UsDollarsToEuros(), ces deux fonctions renverrons le montant stock dans une variable de type Decimal. Essays. Voici sans plus tarder a quoi va ressembler notre contrat : Vous voyez qu'en plus du code normal que l'on retrouve dans une interface .Net, il y a quelques attributs propres WCF que je vais vous prsenter. ServiceContract : cet attribut comme son nom l'indique, permet de dfinir cette interface en tant que contrat de service WCF, c'est--dire qu'un service WCF pourra exposer les oprations dfinies dans l'interface, condition que ces mthodes arborent l'attribut suivant.

OperationContract : cet attribut que l'on positionne au dessus de la signature de la mthode spcifie que la mthode concerne sera expose par le service. Number Abstract. Une mthode peut trs bien ne pas avoir cet attribut positionn, mais dans ce cas elle ne sera pas expose par le service. Notre contrat, l'interface, est maintenant dfinit. Overcome. Il faut l'implmenter, pour cela nous allons ajouter un nouveau projet de type Bibliothque de classes notre solution Visual Studio. Contrasting. Ce projet doit comporter une rfrence vers le projet contenant l'interface, il faut donc l'ajouter. Essays Overcome. Il faut aussi ajouter dans le code un Imports ou using vers le namespace contenant l'interface. Photo Essay. C'est ici que nous allons rellement coder notre service.

Puisque cette classe implmente le contrat du service, l'interface, celle-ci doit en reprendre tous les membres. Essays On Obstacles Overcome. Voici ce que pourrait tre le code de notre service de conversion montaire : Remarque : cette application n'tant la que pour illustrer la technologie il n'est pas idal, en effet, les taux de conversion sont en dur dans le code, ce qui vous le savez n'est absolument pas raliste puisque ces taux sont variables et changent en permanence… Ce qui serait par exemple possible de faire, c'est de relier notre service WCF un Web Service boursier qui nous permette de rcuprer intervalle rgulier le taux de conversion actualis. Number Of Words In Thesis. WCF sait parfaitement faire cela, et se connecter un Web Service est trs simple. A ce stade, notre service est termin, enfin presque, en effet celui-ci n'est pas autonome, il a besoin pour cela d'un hte sur lequel il pourra tre excut. Overcome. Cet hte peut tre n'importe quel type d'application .Net, un service Windows ou mme IIS 7.0 et le nouveau Windows Activation Service (WAS) ce qui permet de bnficier de la robustesse, de la tolrance aux pannes et des capacits de monte en charge du serveur d'applications (en effet, cela fait bien longtemps que IIS n'est plus un simple serveur Web) de Microsoft. Remarque : IIS 5.1 et 6.0 (c'est--dire respectivement IIS de Windows XP et 2003) peuvent hberger des services WCF mais avec une restriction; en effet ils devront utiliser HTTP pour les bindings, seul IIS 7.0 sait hberger des services WCF autres que HTTP (TCP, MSQM…). Pour ma dmonstration je vais employer une application Windows Forms, car c'est la mthode la plus approprie a mon avis pour ce genre de dmonstration. Essays. Voyons maintenant comment crer notre hte de service WCF.

Ce projet Windows Forms doit possder une rfrence vers System.ServiceModel et vers le projet contenant le service lui mme. Ce code introduit un nouvel objet, il s'agit du ServiceHost, qui comme sont nom l'indique est un hte de service. Overcome. Mais attention force d'employer le mot service toutes les sauces l'on s'y perd un peu. Number Of Words In Thesis Abstract. Il ne s'agit pas d'un Web Service, ni d'un service Windows mais bel et bien d'un hte de service WCF. Essays Overcome. Nous voyons que cet objet ServiceHost est gnrique, on life lessons spcifie son type lors de son instanciation. Essays Overcome. ServiceHost est du type de notre service que nous avons cod l'tape prcdente.

On voit ici une autre utilisation des Generics, qui est un lment indispensable dans l'architecture WCF. Maintenant que notre hte est instanci, il ne reste plus qu' le laisser communiquer, pour cela il suffit d'appeler la mthode Open(), la mthode Close() quand elle vous l'aurez compris, sert fermer les communications de notre service dans son hte. A cet instant le code de notre service est termin, vous pouvez fermer le dbogueur il ne sera plus utile:-)). Photo Essay. Mais il nous reste cependant une dernire tape raliser avant la mise en route de notre service WCF, il faut dfinir le A et le B, soit l'adresse et le binding. On Obstacles Overcome. Pour cela il y a deux manires de procder, depuis le code de l'hte ou depuis un fichier de configuration, c'est cette dernire solution que nous allons voir en dtail. Essay. L'une des forces de WCF c'est de sparer, de dcoupler, l'implmentation du service des protocoles et moyens de communications employs, donc dfinir le A et le B dans le code serait d'une certaine manire, aller contre la philosophie de WCF, mais sachez quand mme que c'est tout fait ralisable. Pour ajouter un fichier de configuration app.config il suffit d'ajouter un nouvel lment votre projet hte de service, Visual Studio possde un Template de tel fichier, mais vous pouvez trs bien l'diter vous-mme, il ne s'agit en effet ni plus ni moins que d'un simple fichier XML. Essays. Voici quoi ressemble un fichier de configuration pour un service WCF utilisant HTTP/SOAP sur le port 8018. Vous voyez apparaitre une nouvelle balise, inconnue jusqu'ici, ce qui est normale puisqu'elle est spcifique a WCF, il s'agit de la balise system.serviceModel, qui contient une balise services qui elle-mme contient une balise service, c'est ce niveau que nous allons dfinir le binding et l'adresse de notre service WCF.

Le nom du service est le nom complet (namespace + classe) de notre service, et le nom de l'endpoint est le nom complet du contrat de notre service, c'est--dire l'interface. Endpoint, vous avez dis Endpoint ? Voila encore un nouveau terme, un endpoint est tout simplement un point de terminaison de notre service, c'est--dire une voie par laquelle il peut communiquer, un endpoint est en fait dfinit par une adresse, ventuellement un port et un protocole. Of Words Abstract. Pour un mme service il est possible d'en dfinir plusieurs, ce qui implique que par exemple, un service WCF pourra communiquer en mme temps grce HTTP/SOAP, MSMQ et par TCP. Essays. Le endpoint est l'lment stratgique du service WCF, c'est lui qui dfinit par quel biais va interagir notre service avec le monde extrieur, on voices essay voit d'ailleurs qu'il centralise par le biais d'un simple fichier de configuration son propre ABC. A ce stade, nous avons ralis un service WCF, nous l'avons hberg et rendu oprationnel. Essays. Voici le code complet du service WCF pour vous montrer quel point le code d'un service WCF est simple et court.

Je vous rappelle que pour les besoins de la dmonstration j'ai utilis une application Windows Forms pour hoster le service, mais cela pourrait tre n'importe quel type d'application Windows ou encore IIS 7.0 et le WAS. Nous avons dcoup notre service WCF en trois projets diffrents, l'interface, le service et son hte. Real Life Lessons Essay 2014. Cela pourrait tre regroup dans un seul et mme projet, mais pour des raisons de clart, de scurit, de facilit et de maintenance je vous recommande de dcouper un service WCF en au moins trois projets (cela peut tre plus si vous utilisez d'autres objets mtiers), de plus, vous verrez bientt que cela prend tout son sens vis--vis du client de votre service, en terme de scurit et confidentialit de l'implmentation relle du service. 3. Overcome. Crons un client pour notre service WCF^ Il est certes intressant d'avoir un service WCF, mais faut il encore que celui-ci soit utilis. Of Words. Pour cela nous allons crer un client en .Net, mais souvenez vous qu'il pourrait trs bien tre en Java, en C++ ou Python. Overcome. Un des intrts des services WCF est qu'ils supportent de nombreux protocoles standards et ouverts et peuvent tre interoprables et donc fonctionner avec des clients ou d'autres services sur des plateformes diffrentes. Real Simple Lessons. Attention cependant, parmi les neufs bindings de bases inclus dans le Framework .Net 3.0, quatre (BasicHttpBinding, WSHttpBinding, WSDualHttpBinding, WSFederationHttpBinding) sont interoprables, les autres sont bass sur des technologies .Net et/ou Microsoft. Une fois de plus le client peut tre une application .Net de n'importe quel type, mon choix va se porter sur une application Windows Forms. Essays. Ajoutons donc un nouveau projet de ce type a notre solution. Essay. Ce projet doit avoir une rfrence vers l'interface, le contrat de notre service WCF, et une rfrence vers System.ServiceModel.

Remarque : vous comprenez ici l'intrt de dcouper notre service en plusieurs projets ; en effet, le client devra avoir connaissance de l'interface, donc si celle ci se trouve dans la mme DLL que le service lui-mme cela pose de srieux problmes de scurit, l'implmentation mme du service n'tant alors plus secrte, puisque distribue avec chaque client. Essays Overcome. De plus, sachez que potentiellement il est possible de ne pas fournir l'interface (le contrat) au client, celui-ci pourra gnrer le code ncessaire en rcuprant des mtadonnes relatives au service auprs de ce dernier. Pensez jouter les Imports et using ncessaires dans vos fichiers de code. Photo. L'objet central de notre client va tre le ChannelFactory, qui va permettre de crer un canal de communication pour communiquer avec le service. On Obstacles. ChannelFactory est une fabrique de classe, c'est--dire un gnrateur de classe, une classe qui autorisera un client envoyer et/ou recevoir vers et depuis un service. Write Comparing Essays. Voici le code qui nous permettra de crer ce canal de communication entre le client et le serveur, notez que cet objet est du type de notre interface, le contrat de notre service. Comme pour un service WCF, un client WCF utilise un fichier de configuration (qui comme pour le service peut tre remplac par un codage en dur dans l'application) qui va contenir l'ABC du service WCF, plus un nom que l'on donnera cette connexion.

Voici a quoi va ressembler le fichier de configuration de notre client. Comme nous l'avons vu un petit peu plus haut dans le code de cration du canal de communication, le nom de la connexion est employ en dur dans le code, ce nom peut tre utilis pour diffrencier les connexions du client, cela veut dire que par exemple chaque client pourra possder plusieurs connexions et utilisera l'une ou l'autre en fonction du contexte (connexion au rseau local, Internet…). Voyons maintenant comment utiliser les mthodes exposes par le service. Overcome. Grce la fabrique de classes que nous avons instancie, nous allons gnrer un proxy fortement typ, qui nous permettra d'accder aux mthodes exposes par le service. Letters In An Essay. Regardons un exemple nous montrant comment accder aux deux mthodes de notre service de conversion montaire. Voila, vous pouvez consommer votre service WCF depuis votre client. On Obstacles. Tout ceci est relativement simple, et sachez que la technologie WCF est trs ouverte et hautement personnalisable. Quoting Letters In An Essay. Les possibilits sont extrmement nombreuses. Essays On Obstacles Overcome. Pour finir, voici le code complet du client, vous voyez a quel point WCF nous mche le travail, accder un service au travers d'un rseau, ne prend que quelques lignes et cela quelque soit le protocole utilis…

J'espre qu'au travers de cet article, je vous aurai montr ce qu'est WCF, du moins dans les grandes lignes. In An. Personnellement, j'aime beaucoup cette technologie, elle est, et de loin, ma nouveaut prfre du Framework .Net 3.0. On Obstacles Overcome. WCF vient point nomm, au moment ou les technologies d'applications distribues taient trop nombreuses et varies, et aussi au moment o les besoins en interoprabilits sont croissants. Number Of Words In Thesis Abstract. Cet article constitue une introduction WCF, et il faut le prendre en tant que tel. Essays On Obstacles. WCF est une technologie trs large et qui peut tre complexe, c'est pour cette raison que cet article n'est que le premier d'une srie.

Je vous invite donc consulter le site frquemment, d'autres articles sur WCF suivront dans les semaines venir. Un grand merci AGM26 pour la relecture de cet article, ainsi qu' l'quipe Dotnet pour son aide. Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Ronald Vasseur. Lessons Contest 2014. Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. Overcome. sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur. Quoting In An. Sinon vous encourez selon la loi jusqu'à trois ans de prison et jusqu'à 300 000 € de dommages et intérêts.

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Obstacles overcome essays

Essay Contest: Giving is overcome, Receiving — Tiger Peng. Tiger Peng (7th grade) 10 December 2015. Many would look at the charitable acts that occur right around the holiday season as being to the detriment of the giver. In fact, the opposite is true. Of course, speaking from comparing, a position of on obstacles such privilege, sitting in a comfortable chair typing on quite a decent computer, it is easy to look at such an write comparing contrasting act as insignificant. But to those who are willing and able to be charitable, you could argue that the giver is receiving just as much as the receiver. People are kind because it makes them feel good about themselves, giving will make someone#8217;s life a little bit better, which will make you feel good about yourself. It will often make you glow a little bit brighter, stand a little bit straighter, and smile a little bit wider, even though you received no physical benefit. Essay Contest: “Yes, I can help.” — Adora Shou. Adora Shou (8th grade) 9 December, 2015. In today’s society, our technology is highly advanced.

At a few clicks of the mouse or a couple of depressions of on obstacles overcome some buttons, we can order merchandise, find out a wealth of information on a subject or get a robot to do the housework. However, there is something that we are starting to forget how to do, something that should come naturally but doesn’t anymore, something that is basic and human: helping others. Yes, we can do so many things with the aid of lessons contest technology, so why can’t we readily help others as well? This phenomenon may be because there are other people present to essays on obstacles, help. An infamous example of this took place in March, 1964, at Kew Gardens, Queens, New York, when a young woman, Kitty Genovese, returns to her apartment building and was stabbed to death by an armed man. According to newspaper reports at that time, at real simple lessons essay, least a dozen neighbors heard her cries of help, but no one came to her aid until it was too late. This case has prompted research into essays on obstacles overcome what has become The Bystander Effect. The theory suggests that when surrounded by other people, an individual is less likely to intervene.

The individual may feel that he cannot offer adequate help and that there ought to be someone in a better position to offer aid. In thinking so, he would rather not take part. However, we shouldn’t just accept the in an essay results of such research, but we should try and prove this theory wrong. If everyone ignores a person in need, wouldn’t our society be a cold, cruel and callous one? All it takes is one person who has the courage to on obstacles, step forward to lend a helping hand and he may make a huge difference.

Perhaps he will make someone’s day, bring comfort to someone who’s hurt or even save a life. There are many ways we can help in number of words in thesis abstract our daily lives. Essays. The help offered does not have to be large-scale or significant to make a difference; we just need to take the initiative to lessons essay, do it. Essays Overcome. The smallest acts such as giving up our seats to that wizened elderly on the bus or helping a friend to study for a test can be appreciated greatly by the receiver of the acts. Write Comparing Contrasting. The next time you see someone who needs your help, be proud to say, “Yes, I can help.” Because you can. Essay Contest: “Yes, I can help.” — Derek Li.

Derek Li (8th grade) 6 December, 2015. Our society is filled with despair and essays overcome, imperfections. Centuries have passed since we have evolved from number in thesis abstract, living in caves, and essays, started to enhance our technology. Why is our society in this contaminated state even with all this technology? Countless tragedies occur throughout our lives. World Literature Ib Word. Murders occur almost daily. Diseases evolve rapidly to match our drugs. Essays On Obstacles. Technology, people, social interactions, religious beliefs all have had a role in corroding this world. When all of ny times photo this is happening, what should I do to help? I know that there are things that we in our lifetimes can never change.

I am just a simple thirteen year old living his life in this plagued society. What can I do to make a difference? Is there something that I can do to reduce the essays pain and suffering during this era? I have come to realize that even if the differences I make are evanescent, helping is something beneficial no matter the essay magnitude. On Obstacles Overcome. My belief is that in order to help the world, you have to start by helping those around you first. Everything starts small, whether it is business, ideas, governments, or even a society. In An Essay. All of overcome our governments today did not just appear out of nowhere. Number. They all started with a couple simple ideas which grew larger and more influential. I want to start by helping and making a difference in the environment around me. Even by on obstacles helping a friend studying for a test or attending to someone who is hurt can foster the spirit of esl australian voices helping. I may not have the essays capabilities to voices essay, change the world, but that does not stop me from trying to make a difference.

I want to help because I believe that my actions will avail in essays overcome creating better lives for in an essay people around the world. This society will change and on obstacles, develop and there is nothing we can do about it, but it is our obligation as people to point the direction this world is headed. Quoting Letters. It is inevitable that one day we will be forgotten, so for the time being help while you can because the efforts you make will most definitely be remembered. If my actions of helping can make even a slight difference in improving this society, then I will be satisfied. Yes, I want to make this world a better place. Yes, I can help. Essay Contest: “Yes, I can help.” — Bradley Yu. Bradley Yu (8th grade) 8 December, 2015.

In this society today, there are many problems such as violence or poverty. In order to make the world a better place, I try to help as much as I can. Essays On Obstacles. I cannot make world changes, I am not Ghandi, or Martin Luther King Jr., or Nelson Mandela nor can I donate as much money to esl australian voices essay, a cause such as Bill Gates or Mark Zuckerburg, but I can help out with those people around me. Volunteering is a way to help others. Recently I participated in on obstacles overcome the Feed My Starving Children program and my friends and I packed food to give to quoting in an, starving children all over the world. On Obstacles. That day, we packed enough meals to number of words in thesis abstract, feed 56 children for an entire year.

Even though we weren’t donating millions of dollars to poor countries, we did what we were able to do to the fullest extent of our ability. Being a math tutor is another way to help others. In school, I help others with their math homework. I also create Mathcount video tutorials in on obstacles order to photo, help people solve tricky problems. With the essays on obstacles help of modern day technology and the internet, I can even help people from the number in thesis comfort of my home. Recognizing people is also another way to help others. I write for our local magazine, highlighting local student’s accomplishments. I have received feedback saying that the students feel appreciated with the recognition they receive. In order to help others, you don’t even need to pack food for essays overcome starving children or write articles for real simple lessons essay people to be published in magazines. Being kind to all those around you will help them. “Helping a person will not necessarily change the world but it will change the world for that person.” Anonymous.

Helping all those around you, whether it#8217;s helping an elderly person cross the street or helping a friend study for a test, can change the world for you as well as the essays overcome people you help. Essay Contest: Giving is Receiving — David Lin. Number Of Words In Thesis. David Lin (7th grade) 6 December, 2015. As wise words goes: What lies behind you. On Obstacles. And what lies before you. World Literature. Are tiny matters compared.

To what lies within you. When Mark Zuckerberg gave out. His treasure throughout, Billion dollars seemed so tiny. In front of the pleasure. Brought by a baby scout. Greediness confines a person’s heart. In a closed world of material.

What he loses is the vast of world of. Happiness with zeal being his appearance, And freedom his trail. A hamburger pacifies a hungry stomach; A smile sets a grumpy face even. Essays. When one’s ability for letters good deeds is unbound, His potential rules out the need for essays overcome a lucky seven, For giving is receiving, Because there is an quoting letters in an award in heaven. “Zeal is the volcano. The peak of which.

The grass of indecisiveness. Giving is the moon, The serenity of on obstacles which. The cloud of bitterness. You shall be blessed. Indeed when your gourmet party. Is ruined by a hungry kid in rags.

But rather to face challenges of giving up hiding in clouds.

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College Essays Overcoming Obstacles in Life

Manuel Varela: Who Was Antoine Lavoisier? An Interview with Manuel Varela: Who Was Antoine Lavoisier? Michael F. Shaughnessy – 1) The name Antoine Lavoisier is linked with a great many ideas, theories and important aspects as we shall see. What do we know about his childhood? The investigator Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier, is overcome known amongst the present chemists as the principle founder of the modern field of ny times, science called chemistry. Lavoisier was born on the 26 th of August in the year 1743 in Paris, France, to essays on obstacles, parents Jean Antoine (his father) and Jeanne Emilie Punctis Lavoisier (his mother). Antoine’s father was a prominent attorney, and his mother was herself the sole daughter of a wealthy attorney. The immediate Lavoisier family was known to esl australian voices, be wealthy and bourgeois members of France’s powerful nobility and aristocracy. His mother Emilie died when Antoine was only 5 years of age, leaving a rather sizeable sum of money as an inheritance. He was then sent to live with his doting aunt, Marie Marguerite Constance Punctis (Aunt Constance), and overcome, his grandmother Punctis from his mother’s side of the family, during this time onward.

Some sources say that his widower father and kids lived together in literature essay limit, the same household as his aunt and grandmother. Young Antoine had a younger sister, Marie Marguerite Emilie, who was born during the year 1745 and later died at the age of 15 years, bringing the close-knit family even closer together. Antoine’s devoted Aunt Constance, who never married, passed away later in 1781. She left the grand bulk of her own rather enormous wealth to Antoine, whom she had essentially raised ever since his mother had died. Additionally, his grandmother Punctis died in 1768 and left Lavoisier another hefty sum for essays on obstacles overcome, his inheritance. 2) Apparently, when he went to College Mazarin, the procedure in letters in an essay, terms of education then was some Professor came in on obstacles, and lectured- and then some grad or doctoral student would conduct some experiment proving what the grand old Professor said- but what happened with Lavoisier? In 1754, when the child Lavoisier was approximately 11 years old, his father had enrolled him (Antoine) in the prestigious College de Quatre Nations, founded by photo essay, Cardinal Mazarin, also referred to as the Mazarin College, where he was provided an education in the liberal arts and sciences, focusing primarily on the languages because, at the time, the young Lavoisier had initially wanted to become a writer. A short while later, when Lavoisier had changed his primary interests to those of the overcome, sciences, he nonetheless went into the study of law, receiving his undergraduate degree and law license in 1764, at real simple life essay contest, the age of 21 years. While it has been alleged that Lavoisier was greatly influenced by several of essays on obstacles overcome, his professors while in college, such as by Prof. Number Of Words In Thesis. Abbe la Caille (astronomy math), who had discovered the arc of the meridian around the Cape of Good Hope, by Prof.

Guillaume-Francois Rouelle (chemistry), by Prof. Bernard de Jussieu (botany), and especially by Prof. Etienne Condillac (chemistry), he (Lavoisier) was, at the same time, not easily persuaded by the professors’ proclamations during their lectures. During this period at Mazarin, the professors’ lectures were often accompanied by an actual experimental demonstration of the proclaimed concepts, often conducted by a graduate student or a doctoral candidate, also known as a ‘demonstrator’ of the lectured concepts. Occasionally, a demonstrator’s public ‘demonstration’ was in stark contradiction to the stated ‘facts’ put forth by essays, the great Professor, and Lavoisier was known to have wisely and acutely been aware of the inconsistent nature of these lectured concepts versus the laboratory demonstrations. Apparently, many of his fellow students merely took their notes obediently, seemingly unaware of these disparities. Lavoisier saw the need for careful experimental analysis and constant reevaluation of the comparing essays, commonly accepted notions held by his generation, especially when dealing with the concepts of alchemy.

Lavoisier often had hope for successive generations in on obstacles, the acceptance the new ideas emerging from his own work. 3) Apparently, he was first involved in ib word, literature, then agriculture- what were his contributions to that field? Lavoisier was made aware of a serious agricultural problem occurring in France and elsewhere in Europe and the New World pertaining to a disease known as the ergot poisoning, or ergotism. Although unknown to Lavoisier and his contemporaries at the time, certain grain crops, especially rye, may be contaminated with a fungus, now known by its scientific name Claviceps purpurea , producing a rye blight. The fungus produces a toxin, a derivative of ergoline-based molecules, that conveys upon their unsuspecting victims rather startling symptoms, like extreme pain in the extremities—patients reported that their hands and feet felt like they were on fire—plus, hallucinations and essays on obstacles overcome, physical uncontrollable convulsions, among other non-specific signs and symptoms. The ergot poisoning was known historically in the Middle Ages as the so-called “Holy Fire” and later as the “St.

Anthony’s Fire” because, as it has been recorded, if the patients made a pilgrimage to the church of St. Anthony’s, they would find relief that was considered nothing short of miraculous. Historians and scientists have speculated that the monks at St. Photo Essay. Anthony’s fed their pilgrims rye bread that was not contaminated with the essays on obstacles overcome, fungus. It’s been further postulated that the ergot poisoning also played in abstract, role in essays on obstacles, conferring behavior reminiscent of having been bewitched in those individuals who had been accused of of words in thesis abstract, practicing witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, during the 1660s. Lavoisier became a member and secretary of a Royal Commission dealing largely with agricultural issues in France. Lavoisier was known to have spent a great deal of his time (about 10 years) and money to study and on obstacles overcome, develop new farming practices devoted to not only improving crop yield but also to ny times, minimizing crop losses due to the ergot fungus and the rye blight. Lavoisier noted an association between unusually wet and rainy seasons with the on obstacles overcome, onset of the rye blight and photo, the ergotism. Lavoisier was involved in the filing of essays overcome, a report addressing the rye blight issue. In the Royal Commission’s report, Lavoisier provided an overview of certain farming practices that might possibly be implemented in order to solve the essay ib word, rye blight problem. Lavoisier suggested that other crops be farmed, such as those less susceptible to essays, the ergot.

He noted, however, that because the farmers were terribly poverty-stricken as a result of heavy taxing and unusually high rent rates, the potentially useful farming practices would necessarily be unrealistic. Real Simple Life Contest 2014. Thus, reform was essentially impossible. 4) Okay–key word—phlogiston — why is this important and why linked to Lavoisier? During Lavoisier’s time, it was widely believed that fire released a substance called phlogiston, contained within combustible materials. Lavoisier conducted experiments aimed at essays on obstacles overcome, measuring the substances released during combustion. Quoting Letters Essay. First, Lavoisier set the essays, metal tin on fire and measured the write comparing contrasting essays, weight of the resulting ash produced; he noticed the tin ash weighed more than the unburned tin! This was an unexpected result because it meant that during the fire the tin was picking up something, rather than losing something, like the putative phlogiston, perhaps.

Next, Lavoisier repeated his combustion experiments but with the on obstacles, element phosphorous and found essentially the same sort of results, namely, that the burned phosphorus was heavier than it had been prior to the setting of it on fire. Then, Lavoisier tried his combustion experiments with mercury. Esl Australian. Again, Lavoisier found that the burned substances were heavier after being burned than they had been prior to essays on obstacles overcome, being set on number of words, fire, suggesting that the combusted mercury material was actually picking up substances, rather than releasing them, like the so-called phlogiston theory had so eloquently predicted. Lavoisier’s work went totally against the widely held phlogiston concept—in a word, he became an ardent ‘antiphlogist.’ 5) Air consists, (and correct me if I am wrong) of oxygen and on obstacles, nitrogen. Why is of words in thesis abstract this important in the big scheme of things- and how does it relate to Lavoisier? You are certainly correct about the on obstacles, essentially non-polluted elemental composition of the Earth’s atmospheric nature. The elements oxygen and voices essay, nitrogen played a large part in essays on obstacles overcome, the studies of real simple contest, Lavoisier. Following up on his phlogiston experiments, Lavoisier found that combusted materials that he had set on fire were picking up oxygen and very likely nitrogen after the essays on obstacles, burning processes.

He measured the esl australian, volume of the so-called ‘dephlogisticated’ air around the combusted materials using a large bell-shaped jar. Essays Overcome. The air volume had been reduced during the combustion process, suggesting that something from the air was being picked up by the burned materials. Ny Times Photo Essay. At first, Lavoisier called one of the new substances ‘azote’ which we now know to on obstacles overcome, be the element nitrogen. At first, critics of Lavoisier’s antiphlogiston work maintained, albeit incorrectly, that the reduced air volume was indicative of and quoting letters in an essay, represented by the phlogiston. Favorable to Lavoisier’s antiphlogiston work was the then recent discovery and purification of the element called oxygen by Joseph Priestley and Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774.

Using tin and mercury for his experiments, Lavoisier burned these metals as before, except that he then used a tightly sealed glass container while permitting the burned elements to essays overcome, become oxidized. Upon measuring the weight of the essay ib word, sealed vessel, he found no difference in amounts before and overcome, after their burning. However, when Lavoisier opened the sealed container, he made the astute observation of air rushing into the newly opened combustion vessels. Lavoisier reasoned that a vacuum had been generated in write, the sealed vessel, probably as a result of the burned material picking up a substance from the on obstacles overcome, air, leaving behind the vacuum. Lavoisier deduced that, instead of phlogiston becoming liberated by combustion, a substance was taken up. This substance he later found to be present in acids. Real Life Contest 2014. Therefore, in 1778, Lavoisier called this absorbed substance oxygene , meaning “generator of an essays, acid,” or what we now know to be the esl australian essay, element oxygen. This discovery was to have a profound effect on the history and the progress within the field of chemistry.

His work meant that during combustion, oxygen was taken up into the equations involving the essays overcome, chemistry of fire. The work essentially changed the entire direction of the investigations pertaining to the chemistry discipline. 6) Heat, and combustion—why are these two words key to Lavoisier’s thinking about chemistry? In Lavoisier’s experiments, he had carefully controlled the amount of heat needed to initiate the combustion process during the burning of his experimental materials. For example, in his mercury experiments, Lavoisier heated mercury contained within a large bell-shaped jar apparatus, turning the mercury into a reddish colored ash heap. The reddish ash heap weighed more than it had before while the air had less volume. He had found that the leftover air was nitrogen. Next, he repeated his mercury-heating experiment, except that this time he used the red ash heap as a starting material and raised the write, amount of heat to essays, even higher levels than he had previously. This time, however, he had regenerated the mercury and at the similar weight that it had been before, demonstrating the voices essay, reversibility of the process.

This reversibility should have been impossible, at least according to on obstacles, the phlogiston theory, which had quite clearly stated that the chemical reactions cannot be reversed. These experiments conducted by Lavoisier essentially had the effect of forever discrediting the of words, phlogiston hypothesis, thus paving the way for essays, progress to occur in the burgeoning field of chemistry. This work was incredibly important when, for instance, Pasteur later proclaimed that living beings could also conduct chemistry during the respiration process. During the process of wine fermentation, Lavoisier found that sugar was converted to bicarbonate gas and to world literature ib word, ethanol, a chemical compound he called the ‘spirit of wine.’ Lavoisier hypothesized that fermentation and the process of putrefaction occurred by similar modes. He showed the involvement of carbon dioxide in essays on obstacles, the course of respiration. He also clearly delineated the nature of the so-called ‘fixed air,’ which had been studied by in an, Joseph Black, as carbon dioxide. These studies were to be critical to essays on obstacles, the development of both organic chemistry and later of biochemistry. 7) Now, I have to tell you- for years of my life in school- I stared at that Periodic Table of the Elements in various classes. Was Lavoisier somewhat initially involved in that big Table? As you no doubt know, and were quite likely taught as you stared at photo, The Table, the periodic table of the elements was meant to include only those substances which cannot themselves be broken down any further.

Although, in modern times, we now know that these elements representing the atoms can indeed be further broken down into sub-atomic particles, like quarks and muons, etc. Lavoisier had several important contributions regarding the formulation of essays on obstacles overcome, periodic table of the elements. First, in studying water in 1783, Lavoisier found that it was not elemental in his strictest sense of the word, as he found that water consisted of oxygen, plus some other substance, which he had named as hydrogen. Write Contrasting Essays. Prior to essays, this discovery, Henry Cavendish had called this hydrogen gas an ‘inflammable air.’ Lavoisier had burned Cavendish’s inflammable air in the presence of oxygen and found water consisted of hydrogen and literature, oxygen. Regarding other elements, Lavoisier has been credited with astutely predicting, in 1878, the essays on obstacles, presence of silicon as an element. Additionally, he is credited with having discovered the element sulfur. He was known to esl australian voices, have burned sulfur and to essays, have combined it with oxygen. Further, it has been reported that he coined the ny times photo, name carbon to this important element. Interestingly, the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are all present in carbohydrates. He was reported to have written the very first list of the on obstacles overcome, elements.

In 1789, after his death, his grand book was published, due largely through the efforts of his widow, Marie-Anne Lavoisier. The book was titled ‘ Elementary Treatise of Chemistry ’ in which Lavoisier simply began making a listing of the letters in an, various pure substances, the elements. Within the book, Lavoisier called this list a ‘Table of Simple Substances.’ Some historians of chemistry consider this book to on obstacles, constitute one of the first, if not the first, of the esl australian, modern chemistry textbooks. 8) Elementary chemical nomenclature is attributed to him and a few colleagues- what is the essays on obstacles overcome, story here? Lavoisier had apparently made the suggestion that while the so-called simple non-decomposable substances be referred to as elements, the contrasting essays, combination of any given elements, however, should be henceforth called compounds. Overcome. Thus, the term chemical compounds owes its origin to Lavoisier and is commonly used to this day. Furthermore, he said that if a substance was known to undergo a chemical reaction with oxygen, the substance should be referred to as having been ‘oxidized,’ calling the new chemical variation an ‘oxide.’ Thus Lavoisier is recognized has having an important and long-lasting influence upon the nomenclature nature within the study of the chemical substances. 9) Conservation of matter in a specific chemical equation- why was this important? Prior to Lavoisier’s involvement with the phlogiston hypothesis, the principle of the conservation of matter had been put forth by Mikhail Lomonosov in esl australian, 1756. Lavoisier’s experimental studies with the anti-phlogiston work was completely in essays overcome, line with the law of matter conservation in that the overall weights of both starting and ending materials remained largely unchanged.

The so-called law of conservation of matter is essay vitally important not only for essays on obstacles overcome, chemicals, as noted in Lavoisier’s studies, but also critical when considering energy. The mass conservation principle is widely applicable to the fields of chemistry, physics, engineering, mechanics, etc. Lastly, the quoting letters, work of Lavoisier in this area began transition from the end of alchemy as we know it to the start of modern chemistry, as it exists today. 10) Sadly, for on obstacles, whatever reason, like so many in esl australian voices, France at the time, he faced the on obstacles, guillotine. What happened? Unknown to ny times photo, him, the path to on obstacles, the guillotine started early on for Lavoisier. First, as a result of the inheritances from his devoted Aunt and his Grandmother Punctis, Antoine became an independently wealthy individual, leaving him plenty of free time to pursue intellectual interests when he became an adult. Ny Times Photo Essay. It also provided needed funding to perform many of his important experiments. On Obstacles. Unfortunately, however, it also provided a secure means for other new and rather dubious investments, one being an investment in a notorious tax-collecting firm. It is reported, however, that Lavoisier had indeed tried to real simple essay contest, institute tax true reform measures that were meant to actually help the poor, but to no avail. During the period of the French Revolution, all of the supremely hated tax collectors and anyone even remotely associated with tax collecting, such as Lavoisier, and his father-in-law, were themselves collected (arrested) by essays, the revolutionaries, given a highly questionable and obviously unfair, but speedy trial, all based on world ib word limit, trumped up charges, and essays overcome, were summarily condemned to death.

It is also told that part of his demise centered on his refusal to ny times photo essay, allow admittance of Jean-Paul Marat to the French Academy of Sciences, a slight that Marat never forgot and was later to exploit in an effort to destroy Lavoisier. Thus, his minor business association, in addition to being a bona fide member of the aristocracy, of course, were also to constitute another important motive for the prosecution of Lavoisier. His many scientific contributions were summarily rejected and deemed insufficient by his persecutors for any sort of essays, hope of redemption. Sadly, on the day of the execution of Lavoisier by guillotine on the 8 th of May in of words in thesis abstract, the year 1794, he was apparently first made to stand and essays on obstacles, watch the beheading of his beloved father-in-law, just before undergoing the execution himself. 11) His wife carried on his work after his death. Any ideas about her contributions? In 1771, when Lavoisier was already 28 years old, he married the then 13 year old Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, the quoting letters, daughter of on obstacles, one of his senior tax-collecting business associates.

His new wife, Madame Lavoisier, was reported to have had an educational background in the sciences and was well studied in limit, the arts and languages. The story is told that the marriage of Lavoisier to the very young Marie-Anne was actually a favor to her father, a senior business partner of the essays, tax collecting firm, La Ferme Generale , of which Lavoisier was an investor. Apparently, the 40-year old Count d’Amerval had proposed to young Marie-Anne and made it clear that if she refused, her father would be fired from the esl australian, tax-collecting firm. Thus, in order to have a convenient excuse for overcome, refusing the Count’s proposal, Lavoisier and literature essay ib word limit, Marie-Anne quickly got married. The ‘ruse’ apparently worked, and the Count was put off. The newlyweds, however, were devoted to each other for the rest of his life, and she proved to be a strong supporter and advocate for Antoine and of his career in particular.

Prior to his death, Madame Lavoisier had been continually at his side, able to ‘talk shop’ with Lavoisier on a routine basis. She translated journal articles from on obstacles English to French for him to read. She participated in the actual experimental research as his laboratory assistant. Letters In An Essay. She was even to elegantly produce many of the essays, illustrative engravings featured so prominently in his publications, her illustrations forever archived within the important scientific literature in chemistry. After his untimely death, Madame Lavoisier, who was spared the guillotine during the French Revolution, continued on with the work of her late husband. She made every effort to retrieve her husband’s laboratory notes and books which had been confiscated during his prosecution. She was able to assure continued publications of later printings for his works, ensuring their permanent archival in the published literature. She also worked on and published his memoirs. Quoting Letters In An Essay. She hosted many gatherings in which prominent investigators of the day were invited to present and overcome, discuss new scientific contributions in the newly established field of modern chemistry. Madame Lavoisier lived for many years after the death of her beloved husband Antoine in simple essay, 1794.

Marie-Anne died on the 10 of February in overcome, the year 1836 at world literature essay ib word, 78 years of on obstacles, age. 12) I think as a closing comment, I will quote Joseph Lagrange who said “It took but a moment to sever that head, though a hundred years perhaps will be unable to replace it.” Lavoisier was known as the Father of Modern Chemistry? Has anyone replaced him? I think that the quotation you to which you refer and which is rightly attributed to voices, Lagrange, is a noticeably profound one, and I believe it is most certainly an on obstacles, apropos observation. Lavoisier was so prominent in of words in thesis, the fledgling subject of modern chemistry with so many amazing discoveries it is difficult to comprehend what other additional great contributions he might have been able to make, had he not been quite unfairly executed at such an early age. Many great scientists have made their greatest contributions to science in their later years. I believe that in terms of playing such an essays on obstacles, important role in the transition from alchemy, a dubious and esl australian, defunct area, to the field of modern chemistry, a widely accepted and extremely important scientific discipline today, Lavoisier certainly has no equal. charles w blackwell on overcome, Tell Your Kids: Bring Your Bible To School Tomorrow – October 5th child on To Improve Teacher Training, States Try ‘Micro Credentials’ JerryS on Cyberbullying – 20 National Bullying Prevention Month Images Bobbi Liz Vustos on DEATH OF DOCTORS THAT COME OUT AGAINST THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY The Content When it comes to Advanced schooling Soccer Pro athletes Actually being Payed off | LemonChutney on The Information Regarding College Football Athletes Being Paid child on SICK! Teachers desecrate American flag — Inside a school library Mary Ellen Stypinski on Elementary School Librarian Rejects Melania Trump’s Book Donation.

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essay online scoring FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. For your convenience, our Frequently Asked Questions page is on obstacles overcome divided into four parts: Click below on essay ib word any section or topic that you want to view. Using Holt Online Essay Scoring in essays on obstacles, the Classroom. How many writing prompts are available?

Currently, we have sixty-six prompts available on our live and voices essay demo Web sites. We post additional prompts regularly. What types of writing are represented in the writing prompts? Writing prompts are available in ten modes: expository/informative, persuasive, how-to, descriptive, writing about literature, writing about nonfiction, and narrative (both high school and on obstacles middle school), plus biographical narrative, definition, and cause and effect (high school only). Visit our writing prompts page to view a list of all available prompts. How are the writing prompts developed?

Every year, our development team identifies which prompts and writing modes are most popular with our users. At the same time, we review current state writing assessments for voices essay, newly released writing prompts and changes in scoring rubrics. Using this research, we develop prompts designed to best meet our users' needs and to reflect current trends in writing assessment. Can I develop my own prompt using Holt Online Essay Scoring? No. For each new prompt, the Intelligent Essay Assessor™ (IEA) requires training on hundreds of student essays scored by humans in order to learn how to score other essays written on that topic. Essays Overcome! Only writing prompts that have been reviewed by contrasting a writing assessment expert and have gone through a rigorous training process are posted to essays overcome our site. What reports are available to teachers through Holt Online Essay Scoring? Through Holt Online Learning's Web-based Learning Management Center, teachers can organize students' essays and world essay limit scores by class and by student.

Our system saves every essay submitted by students, listing the essays on obstacles overcome, time and date each was entered as well as each essay's holistic score. Photo Essay! Teachers can view each essay as well as the holistic and analytic feedback each student received. These reports are available in real time, immediately after students submit their essays. For more information about reporting, visit our classroom management page. How long does it take to essays score an essay? Most essays are scored within a few seconds.

During that time, the essay is literature essay ib word limit sent to Knowledge Analysis Technologies in Boulder, Colorado, where the company's Intelligent Essay Assessor reviews and assigns a score to the essay. Overcome! Keep in ny times photo, mind that when your school's Internet connection is essays on obstacles overcome slow or busy, scores may take longer to simple contest appear on essays on obstacles the screen as the page refreshes. What types of feedback do students receive? Students receive several types of feedback on their essays, including a holistic score and an analytic assessment in write contrasting, each of overcome, five different writing traits: content and development; focus and world essay ib word organization; effective sentences; word choice; and grammar, usage, and mechanics. Holt Online Essay Scoring also provides level-specific writing activities to help students revise their writing, interactive model essays for overcome, each writing prompt, and special advisories to alert teachers and students to highly unusual writing styles. To learn more about each, visit our student feedback page. Can students submit the same essay more than once? Students cannot submit identical essays during the same scoring session.

This safeguard is in place so that students do not waste hits in a teacher's or a district's account. Students can, however, submit as many revisions of their essays as they desire. Essay! Revised essays are considered brand-new submissions and overcome are evaluated by ny times essay our system without regard to previous scores. Can Holt Online Essay Scoring detect plagiarism or inappropriate content? No. Holt Online Essay Scoring can only evaluate the essay itself and cannot compare essays with other students' writing in the class or with other content. Similarly, our computer cannot determine what different educators might consider appropriate or inappropriate content. How does Holt Online Essay Scoring help students plan and revise their essays? Holt Online Essay Scoring has several types of prewriting activities and on obstacles tips for revision. To help students draft essays, we offer prewriting tips, revision tips, and six different interactive graphic organizers. After submitting an photo essay essay, a student also has access to writing activities specifically designed for writers at his or her performance level.

In addition, students can view and click on a fully annotated interactive model essay for further writing instruction. Essays On Obstacles Overcome! All of these features are in addition to the holistic and analytic feedback displayed for each essay. To sample these features, visit our demo site. What is a graphic organizer? Graphic organizers help students visually organize their ideas as a precursor to quoting in an drafting their essays. Essays! Holt Online Essay Scoring offers six different types of graphic organizers: the number of words in thesis abstract, freeform Web diagram, the essays overcome, cluster diagram, the spider map, the fishbone planner, the all-purpose planner, and ny times photo essay the persuasive planner. Essays On Obstacles Overcome! Students can choose the diagram or planner that best fits their purpose, type in their ideas, and then print out the completed organizer for review. What is an essay interactive model essay? An interactive model essay is an annotated high-scoring essay designed to demonstrate—and demystify—techniques used by good writers. Every writing prompt has a link to a model essay written in response to that prompt.

The models offer clickable headings that highlight thesis statements, conclusions, topic sentences, and essays other key parts of the of words abstract, essay. Each heading expands into overcome, an instructive annotation that discusses the writer's technique and suggests how students might apply the technique to their own writing. In this way, the model essay not only demonstrates good writing but also shows students how to put effective writing approaches into action. Visit a sample interactive model essay posted on our demo site (Note: Users must have Macromedia Shockwave and Flash Players in order to view the model essay). Do my students have to essay type their essays directly into Holt Online Essay Scoring? No. Many students choose to compose their essays in essays on obstacles, a word-processing program and voices then copy and paste them into the Holt Online Essay Scoring interface. On Obstacles! If students are importing their work from an e-mail program or across Mac and PC platforms, they should be sure that any special characters in the essay (such as em dashes, smart quotes, and quoting ampersands) have been successfully translated before submitting the essay for scoring. Can students save their essays or graphic organizers in Holt Online Essay Scoring? Students cannot save or retrieve their own essays using their student accounts. However, after students submit an essays on obstacles overcome essay for scoring, their essays are saved in their teacher's classroom manager portfolio.

A teacher then may access and view the full text of each student's essay. Content entered into graphic organizers cannot be saved. After students have typed in their ideas, they must print out their organizers for review. What are the number of words abstract, technical requirements for on obstacles overcome, using Holt Online Essay Scoring? To get the greatest benefit from contest Holt Online Essay Scoring, HRW recommends that you use a current version of one of the essays on obstacles overcome, two most common Web browsers: either Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above, or Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 or above. You can download a current version of voices, these browsers by clicking on the links below.

Macromedia Shockwave and Flash Players. The model essays on this site require that you use a current version of Macromedia's Shockwave and Flash Players: Shockwave 8 or above and Flash Player 6 or above. To download these free players, click on the link below. How do I reach Technical Support? Holt, Rinehart and Winston Technical Support can put you in touch with trained support analysts for assistance. Essays On Obstacles Overcome! Call, send an e-mail, or visit the HRW Technical Support Web site. Monday through Friday. 7:00 A.M. to 10:00 P.M., CST.

About Rubrics and Scoring. Can Holt Online Essay Scoring prepare my students for state writing assessments? Holt Online Essay Scoring can provide useful practice for the kinds of essays used in simple lessons, statewide writing assessments. Teachers and students should note, however, that the conditions will not be the same as those that states mandate for writing assessment. The score a student receives on our site should be taken only as an evaluation of one practice essay—not as a predictor of performance on any writing test. What scoring rubrics are used? Holt has developed a holistic rubric for each essay mode (expository, persuasive, and on obstacles overcome so on) posted on our site—and a standard rubric for analytic scoring. Esl Australian! Our rubrics draw on careful research into essays, scoring standards employed in statewide writing assessments all over the country. The goal is to assess student writing in write contrasting, ways that parallel standardized writing assessments.

To view our holistic and essays overcome analytic rubrics, visit our student feedback page. What is the difference between holistic and analytic scoring? Holistic scoring is an overall score that indicates a student's performance when compared to a specially-designed four- or six-point scoring scale. Comparing Contrasting! The criteria used for holistic scoring are topic and essays purpose; organization; development; content/ideas; and word choice, grammar, usage, and mechanics. Each of these criteria is weighted equally to letters in an help determine an overall score. An analytic score is a more specific measure of five writing traits: content and development; focus and essays overcome organization; effective sentences; word choice; and number of words grammar, usage, and mechanics. The student is scored in each of these five traits as having advanced, competent, limited, or emerging ability. Analytic feedback can identify a writer's strengths and essays overcome weaknesses better than a holistic score. For example, if a student's ideas are weak but his or her use of vocabulary is strong, he or she might score limited in content and development but advanced in word choice. For more information about holistic and quoting analytic scoring, visit our student feedback page. Are holistic and on obstacles analytic scores correlated?

Each analytic trait is scored independently of the holistic score and of other analytic traits. Therefore, a student's holistic score and analytic feedback may vary from literature one another, sometimes significantly. A perceived discrepancy between the holistic and analytic feedback may actually be a useful distinction between a student's overall performance and overcome a student's performance using particular writing skills. Therefore, although there is usually some kind of relationship between the holistic and analytic feedback, variation between them is also expected because each is essay assessed separately. Does Holt Online Essay Scoring's rubric align to my state's writing assessment rubric? Because our holistic and essays analytic scoring rubrics were developed to reflect writing assessment standards shared by several states across the country, your state's writing assessment rubric may vary somewhat in language and emphasis from the Holt Online Essay Scoring rubrics. Comparing Essays! However, most states' rubrics correlate in part or in whole to ours. In addition, all students are matched by the computer to a four- or six-point scoring scale based on which scale their state writing assessment uses (See How does Holt Online Essay Scoring determine whether to score an essay on a four- or six-point scale?). How does Holt Online Essay Scoring determine whether to essays on obstacles overcome score an essay on quoting in an essay a four- or six-point scale? Most state writing assessments are scored on a four- or six-point holistic scale. To better match a user's own state's rubric, Holt Online Essay Scoring remembers the essays, state the user entered during setup and scores student essays on the scale used by that state.

So, for example, a California user will be scored on a four-point holistic scale while a Florida user will be scored on photo a six-point holistic scale. The exception to this rule is the holistic scale used for text-based writing prompts. Like most state writing assessments, essays written about a reading passage are scored on a four-point scale. How does Holt Online Essay Scoring score essays with highly unusual writing styles? An essay with a highly unique writing style or unusual construction may receive an advisory message along with a score. In addition, essays over 1,200 words will receive an on obstacles overcome advisory about length. If an essay is off-topic, written in a language other than English, too brief or too repetitive, a written refusal to write, or otherwise incomprehensible, a student will receive an advisory that his or her essay is unscorable. These advisory messages ask the student to discuss the essay and all feedback with his or her teacher to of words in thesis abstract ensure an appropriate evaluation of the writing. Does the length of an essay affect its score? An essay under 100 words or over 1,200 words will receive an on obstacles advisory from our system.

For essays falling within those boundaries, length is not a criterion for essay scoring. However, longer responses have more opportunity to demonstrate development of ideas, elaboration, careful word choice, and so on. The student papers used to train Holt Online Essay Scoring often reflect these practical correlations between length, development, and quality. In this way, length can indirectly influence the way an essay is scored because many of the better training papers are well developed and literature essay ib word therefore longer. What if I disagree with a score given by the computer?

It is important to remember that the computer system cannot replace what you do as a writing teacher. The computer does not know your individual grading standards, nor does it know about your classroom or your students and their lives. Rather, the computer knows the on obstacles overcome, assessment standards we have used to develop our scoring rubrics; it knows how previous essays have been scored by assessment experts. Our scoring system cannot and should not replace your vital role in the assessment of photo, your students' writing. It serves, rather, as a supplement to what you do, giving students another opportunity to practice important writing skills and another form of essays on obstacles overcome, feedback about their writing. About the Technology Behind Holt Online Essay Scoring. How are essays submitted to Holt Online Essay Scoring evaluated? Essays submitted to Holt Online Essay Scoring are evaluated by world ib word limit the Intelligent Essay Assessor™ (IEA), a software application developed by essays on obstacles Knowledge Analysis Technologies (KAT).

Founded in ny times photo essay, 1998, KAT developed IEA, its cornerstone product, to give instantaneous evaluation and feedback on written essays. What is the Intelligent Essay Assessor? The Intelligent Essay Assessor is on obstacles a powerful Web-based learning tool that has been proven to provide evaluations of written essays as competently as a professional educator. The only essay-evaluation system in which meaning is dominant, IEA measures factual knowledge, based primarily on semantic content rather than surface features such as word counts, punctuation, grammar, or keywords. IEA also extensively checks of the validity of its scoring system. IEA uses Latent Semantic Analysis, a patented technology based on over ten years of corporate and university research and development. Latent Semantic Analysis is a sophisticated computer analysis of write comparing essays, text. Essays On Obstacles! It assesses the world, total content of an essay as well as the on obstacles, correlation between the essay's content and that of training essays previously scored by expert human readers. How is the computer trained to of words score student essays? Long before a prompt appears on overcome Holt Online Essay Scoring , we collect student papers written for that prompt. After collection, these papers are scored—holistically and analytically—by experts in writing assessment.

Then, the training papers are forwarded to real simple essay Knowledge Analysis Technologies, where the papers and their scores are used to train the computer to score new student essays on the prompt. The computer at KAT learns to recognize how papers differ for each score point on a scoring rubric. How does the on obstacles, human scoring work? For holistic scoring, our writing experts assess a paper's overall effectiveness, using mode-specific rubrics. Quoting Letters! For analytic scoring, they examine a paper for on obstacles overcome, five important traits: content and development; focus and organization; effective sentences; word choice; and voices essay grammar, usage, and mechanics. Each essay is scored by two readers for the holistic score and again by two readers for each of the on obstacles, five analytic traits.

If the quoting letters in an, two readers diverge on any score, a third reader scores the paper to settle the discrepancy. How does the computer recognize a good essay? The Intelligent Essay Assessor measures the relationship between each word in an essay and every other word in the essay. Further, it compares the essays overcome, interrelationship of words in ny times essay, a particular essay with the interrelationship of words in the training essays. When a student submits an essay for on obstacles overcome, scoring, the system immediately measures the content and world literature ib word structure of the essay itself; then, it compares the essay to the training essays—looking for similarities—and assigns a holistic score by placing the overcome, essay in a category with the essay, most similar training essays.

Analytic scoring occurs in much the same way. For each trait, the system assesses the student essay, compares it to the training essays, and overcome then categorizes the trait in question as advanced, competent, limited, or emerging. How does IEA scoring compare to the way teachers grade writing? IEA's approach is world literature limit designed to mirror the essays on obstacles, way experienced teachers grade essays. When teachers evaluate a student's essay, they look for characteristics that would identify it as an A or C paper, for example. Their expectations are likely based on their previous experience as a grader and on criteria for the assignment in question.

In other words, teachers search for a match between the write contrasting, essay itself and the criteria for on obstacles overcome, a particular grade or score. The Intelligent Essay Assessor is trained to mimic this process. Purchasing Holt Online Essay Scoring. How much does Holt Online Essay Scoring cost? Holt Online Essay Scoring is sold for $1.00 per number, hit in essays, batches of fifty hits. How can I purchase Holt Online Essay Scoring? You can purchase Holt Online Essay Scoring online, by of words in thesis abstract mail, or by phone. For more information about online purchases, click on your grade.

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