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Essay on beauty of darkness

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The Beauty Of Darkness - Mary E Pearson

Apprentice Carpenter Resume Sample. A carpenter apprentice resume needs to clearly communicate to hiring managers that while you may lack a specific stage of experience, you still have the credentials, background and essay professional skills to maintain a carpentry business#8217; high level of customer service. While an apprentice is essentially someone looking to essay work with a more experienced tradesman, they still need to have a solid understanding of the field. A carpenter apprentice resume should highlight anything industry related that shows a hiring manager what a candidate brings to the table. The resume will need to show the candidate#8217;s knowledge of construction and essay maintenance works. Some type of decisions essay formal education is definitely a plus for a carpenter apprentice, but it won#8217;t be as impressive as sound knowledge and of darkness experience. The carpenter apprentice resume should show an ability to membrane work independently. They should have sound capability in organization, problem solving, critical thinking, decision making and planning. It#8217;s good to essay show that you are motivated, hard working and have a desire to learn and questions grow as a carpenter. Of Darkness? For the purposes of dealing with customers, the candidate will need excellent communication and interpersonal skills. The carpenter apprentice resume needs the details of all hands on experience.

Carpentry, cabinet making, fastening timber or lumber, scaffolding and working with screws, glue, nails, pegs, surfaces and technical equipment of both the manual and power type. If there are any significant projects worked on, such as installs or repair structures, or taking local buildings and conforming to code, they should be listed. It would be beneficial if there is operational knowledge of design software. Essay? It#8217;s understood that as an essay on beauty of darkness, apprentice, a candidate is looking for experience, not wealth. Apprentices usually work for low wages, often for a fixed period of new world time. They may even work for essay on beauty no pay at all. Brave New World Thematic? An apprenticeship is more about getting on-the-job training with a qualified mentor. The candidate can learn, grow and use the experience to improve their chances in the industry at a later date.

Sample Carpenter Apprentice Resume Use the on beauty of darkness sample resume template below to help frame any carpenter apprentice resume. It has been structured with all the elements of an effective resume that will catch a hiring manager#8217;s attention. New Cityland, CA 91010. Cell: (555) 322-7337. Energetic Apprentice Carpenter specializing in house remodel, new construction, and fence repair for residential homes seeking Journeyman Carpenter position.

Embraces challenge my remaining flexible. Accurate, organized, and equipped with the tools necessary to thesis complete tasks on time and with little guidance. Decking and fencing. On Beauty Of Darkness? Log home construction. Analytical problem solver. Strong communication skills.

Valid California driver#8217;s license. October 2009 to April 2014. Bunyan Carpentry New Cityland, CA. Framed new construction of single-family homes and townhomes. Writing An Introduction To An Essay? Examined buildings and project specifications to determine measurements and dimensions. Installed cabinets, base cabinets, and on beauty of darkness crown molding. Built and stained oak casing and hardwood floors. Worked independently on projects and tasks within a carpentry team. Consistently completed projects that were square and level. Safely used band, circular, jig, reciprocating, chop, and compound miter saws.

Constructed custom built-in bookshelves for residential home office areas. Selected lumber based on lancia, the particular species, characteristics, size, and applications, as well as customer preferences on look, cost, and feel. April 2007 to October 2009. John Michaels, Carpenter New Cityland, CA. Cut and laid out wood flooring for residential and commercial buildings. Essay Of Darkness? Organized materials for easy access to keep high workflow on 3.2, job sites. Assisted with repair and of darkness maintenance of older properties, including renovating flooring, walls and ceilings, installing fixtures, and model essay remodeling bathrooms and kitchens. Operated power saws, planers, jointers, routers, and pneumatic equipment. September 2005 to April 2007. Huxtable Construction New Cityland, CA. Built fencing and on beauty decking and refinished cabinetry for numerous small home improvement projects.

Sized and estimated jobs and submitted estimation paperwork to supervisor for approval. Took pride in completing projects on time, at budget, and decisions essay according to high company standards. Writing the perfect resume has never been easier. Our easy-to-use resume builder helps you create a personalized resume that highlights your unique skills, experience, and accomplishments. First, tell us about yourself. We use this information to deliver specific phrases and suggestions to make your resume shine. Also, we guide you step-by-step through each section, so you get the help you deserve from of darkness, start to finish. How to Get a Job That Doesn't Suck! TOP 100 Employment Site for 2011/12. Award for Outstanding Website - 2011/12. Award for Standard of Excellence - 2012/13.

Award for Best Employment Intractive Application - 2013/14. Writing the perfect resume has never been easier. Our easy-to-use resume builder helps you create a personalized resume that highlights your unique skills, experience, and accomplishments. First, tell us about yourself. We use this information to new world essay deliver specific phrases and suggestions to make your resume shine. Also, we guide you step-by-step through each section, so you get the help you deserve from start to finish.

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The Beauty Of Darkness - Mary E Pearson

on line essay background and analysis by Scott Miller. from his book Sex, Drugs, Rock Roll, and Musicals. The year is 1959, a pivotal moment in American cultural history, when rock and roll was giving birth to the Sexual Revolution and everything in America culture was about to be turned upside down. Record companies were releasing more than a hundred singles every week and essay of darkness the country was about to explode. Grease , generally considered a trivial little musical about brave new world essay, The Fabulous Fifties, is really the story of America’s tumultuous crossing over from the essay of darkness 50s to the 60s, throwing over repression and tradition for decisions essay freedom and adventure (and a generous helping of cultural chaos), a time when the styles and culture of the disengaged and disenfranchised became overpowering symbols of teenage power and autonomy. Originally a rowdy, dangerous, over-sexed, and insightful piece of on beauty, alternative theatre, Grease was inspired by membrane questions the rule-busting success of Hair and of darkness shows like it, rejecting the trappings of other Broadway musicals for a more authentic, more visceral, more radical theatre experience that revealed great cultural truths about America. An experience largely forgotten by thesis 3.2 most productions of the show today. Like Hair before it and essay on beauty The Rocky Horror Show which would come a year later, Grease is a show about repression versus freedom in American sexuality, about the clumsy, tentative, but clearly emerging sexual freedom of the late 1950s, seen through the lens of the middle of the decisions essay Sexual Revolution in the 1970s. Essay! It’s about the cell near carnal passion 1950s teenagers felt for their rock and roll, the first art form that actually changed human sexuality. (The phrase rock and roll was originally African American urban slang for essay sexual intercourse, going as far back as the 1920s, and it made its way onto many rhythm and blues recordings before the 1950s.) As theatre, Grease finds its roots in the rawness, the rowdiness, the lancia lack of polish that made Hair and other experimental pieces in the 1960s such cultural phenomena. The impact of Hair on Grease can even be seen in the two shows’ titles, both taking as their primary symbols the hairstyles of essay on beauty of darkness, young Americans as a form of rebellion and and effects cultural declaration of independence.

Just as the characters of Hair and Grease reject conformity and authority, so too do both Hair and Grease as theatre pieces. Like Hair , Grease is an anti-musical, closer to the experimental theatre pieces of New York’s off off Broadway movement in on beauty of darkness, the 60s, and light years from other musicals running on writing an introduction to an Broadway at the time, like No No Nanette (in a terrible revival), Sugar, The Rothschilds, Applause, or A Little Night Music . Goodbye to Sandra Dee. Also like Hair , Grease is about authenticity , the on beauty watchword of that first rock and roll generation. Teen sexuality has been an issue in essay composition, America since the invention of the rumble seat, always moving forward like a freight train, forever going faster and essay of darkness farther; and model composition Grease is a snapshot of America right before teen sexuality exploded, examining the early cracks in the armor of middle-class respectability and essay of darkness repression, the fantasy American Dream that never was but that came beaming into Americans’ homes over the television airwaves. Essays And Effects Of Global! Movie star Sandra Dee becomes Grease ‘s overarching metaphor for the artificiality of on beauty, adult American life, a symbol that needed piercing. Sandra Dee was a big star at this point, and just in lancia thesis, the two years that Grease spans, she released The Restless Years (1958), The Reluctant Debutante (1958), A Stranger in My Arms (1959), Gidget (1959), Imitation of Life (1959), The Wild and the Innocent (1959), and essay of darkness A Summer Place (1959), jumping back and forth between empty-headed teen comedies and stark melodrama.

Today, it may be hard to model essay, understand what Sandra Dee represented, but she was the on beauty of darkness poster girl for the big studios’ attempts to make teen movies, a genre which was up until that point the exclusive territory of small, low-budget producers like the ubiquitous Roger Corman ( The Little Shop of Horrors, Bucket of Blood , and others). But the studios’ teen flicks were inevitably artificial in the extreme, creating a freakish – and clueless – adult imitation of the teen world, a kind of cultural Frankenstein, that teens could see right through. To savvy teenagers, Sandra Dee was a teen sellout, and in a world where authenticity was the essay goal, there was nothing worse. She was a fake – in essay on beauty of darkness, her life, in her acting style, and in her onscreen emotions. Questions! Teen audiences didn’t want that; they wanted High School Hellcats and essay Teenage Doll . But adults loved Sandra Dee; she reassured them that their teen was a good girl. And many American girls took Sandra Dee as a role model – but not the brave new world thematic essay real Sandra Dee, the essay on beauty cheery public character Sandra Dee, confusing her onscreen persona with her real life. Brave Thematic! Millions of Americans in postwar America were trying to live an American Dream that was pure fiction, particularly for the working class; and that fiction is essay on beauty symbolized by Sandra Dee, a fiction at the heart of Sandy’s arc in Grease . But on another level, the metaphor gets even deeper – and this demonstrates the craftsmanship of this script – because Sandy’s relationship with Danny mirrors Sandra Dee’s difficult real life relationship with Bobby Darin. As Rizzo taunts Sandy with Look at Me, I’m Sandra Dee, she doesn’t really know how dark that dark underbelly really is… Darphne Merkin wrote in The New York Times in writing essay university, 2005 at the time of essay of darkness, Sandra Dee’s death: …the darling, pink world, as she herself characterized it, that Sandra Dee was thought to inhabit by her fans had always been a grotesque mockery, plagued not by an overripened case of virginity but by childhood incest. Thesis! The girl with brimming brown eyes and a fizzy lilt to her voice was born Alexandria Zuck in Bayonne, New Jersey.

Her parents divorced when she was five; her father, a bus driver, disappeared from her life shortly thereafter, and her mother, Mary, married a much-older real-estate entrepreneur named Eugene Duvan within a few years. . . Worse yet, Dee's devoted but manipulative mother turned a conveniently blind eye to the defiled sexual appetites of essay of darkness, her new husband. Duvan, who liked to tease his wife that he married her just to get Sandy, started having sex with his beautiful stepdaughter when she was 8 and continued doing so almost until his death when she was 12. As a result, Sandra Dee later suffered from anorexia, depression, and alcoholism throughout her life. All this made her cynically manufactured faade of sweetness even darker and more complex. This was the conventional, repressed, hypocritical, manufactured life from essays, which Sandy Dumbrowski must escape. The thing is, [her career] happened so fast, was over practically before it began, that we can almost be forgiven for misconstruing her as a cultural simulacrum: a blip on essay the monitor, a media invention, an essay, adorable incarnation of a feminine ideal of the reluctant or unwitting nymphet, rather than a flesh-and-blood creature with needs and wishes (not to mention raging demons) of her own. Grease looks at the fifties with twenty-twenty hindsight and it sees the darkness and deception of the on beauty decade’s role models and authority figures. Sandra Dee wasn’t happy in her real life because she was never allowed to writing essay, be herself – to be authentic – and Sandy Dumbrowski suffers the same problem. Of Darkness! Sandra Dee represents not just strict morality and virginity in Grease , but the entire manufactured mainstream culture of 1950s America, a culture the kids of Grease reject. Rizzo’s pretty great at choosing metaphors… Still, for most kids, the lancia fifties were a time when America caught its breath.

After decades of upheaval – World War I, Prohibition, the Depression, World War II, and the Korean War – suddenly times weren’t so hard and on beauty of darkness the world didn’t seem as dangerous. (Kids were told about the threat of a Cold War nuclear attack, but it didn’t mean much to them and didn’t really affect their lives.) Before the 50s, if kids worked it was for new world the family’s survival. During the 50s, if kids worked it was because they were saving up to buy a car or buy parts for the car they had. It was a happy, playful decade for many (white) Americans, even those in essay on beauty, the working class, as family cars transformed adult culture and rock and cell membrane roll transformed teen culture. And one of the points of essay of darkness, Grease is brave that kids of the 50s could afford to worry only about their own trivial problems; there was no world war, no Hitler to fear anymore. Though Grease implies many complex things, it is actually about the ordinary, everyday lives of on beauty, a group of teenagers. Their chief worries are whether or not they’ll have a date to thematic, the dance and can they get the car. But the fifties were only a brief window of respite before the dark, dangerous times would return, with Vietnam, race riots, the anti-war movement, Watergate, and recession. Today, some conservatives idealize the on beauty of darkness 1950s as a time of moral clarity, patriotism, family stability, and traditional values, a time to which America should return. But that 1950s never actually existed. What looks to them like moral clarity was actually well-masked racism, sexism, and economic oppression. The only essay people who were safe and comfortable were middle class and on beauty of darkness upper class white men (the only demographics that still idealize that time).

What they see as patriotism was more like nationalistic terrorism, demagoguery, witch hunts. What they see as family stability was really mind-numbing conformity and drug-addicted suburban housewives. What they label traditional values were nothing short of race, class, and gender warfare. And it all boiled down to two central bogeymen, inextricably linked in the minds of the lancia thesis 3.2 mainstream: sex and rock and roll. The Twin Gods of Grease . As Grace Palladino asks in Teenagers: An American History , Did the world really work better when girls had no choice in life but to get married, blacks knew their servile place, and kids who lived outside the of darkness charmed circle of upper-middle class life were invisible? The story of Grease is set during the 1958-59 school year, at exactly the writing essay same time that America was facing the preliminary rumblings of the Sexual Revolution that would arrive in the mid-1960s and essay on beauty blossom in the 70s, only to be ended by AIDS in the early 80s. And like The Rocky Horror Show did later, Grease shows us how America reacted to this tumultuous time though two of its main characters.

Danny Zuko (along with Rizzo and thesis Kenickie) represents that segment of American teens already sexually active in the 1940s and 50s, who ultimately frees the conforming Sandy to express her sexuality without fear or shame, leading her into a new life and of darkness a new decade of sexual freedom – a theme also at the heart, though far more cautiously, of the lancia thesis 1959 film A Summer Place , starring Sandra Dee and Troy Donahue. Sandy Dumbrowski (notice how ethnic all the character names are, to essay on beauty, suggest that they are working class) is mainstream America, reluctant to essays and effects, throw off the essay on beauty of darkness sexual repression of the conforming 1950s for of global warming the sexual adventuring of the 1960s. That is the story of Grease –and the story of America – the way sex was changing and the part rock and roll and essay of darkness cars and decisions essay drive-ins played in that transformation. In the movie, the central love story may be the point, but on stage the romance is of darkness just a device for making a larger, more interesting point. Grease isn’t about brave new world essay, Danny and Sandy (which is why fifteen of the show’s twenty songs have nothing at all to do with them); Grease is on beauty of darkness about how rock and roll changed sex in America.

And those who criticize Grease for its immoral ending don’t understand what this show is really about – and they really haven’t paid attention to the lyric of an introduction to an university, All Choked Up. The Word Made Flesh. Grease first opened in Chicago, where its story is set, in 1971. To a large extent, the essay on beauty of darkness 1970s marked the end of the Rodgers and Hammerstein revolution. It was the brave decade that gave permanent berth to essay of darkness, both the concept musical and of global warming the rock musical, both explored during the essay on beauty sixties but now taking their rightful place in mainstream musical theatre. Decisions Essay! These were shows that rejected the sunny optimism of essay of darkness, earlier decades and instead revealed the feelings of rage and loss that pervaded America in this era of Vietnam and Watergate. Decisions Essay! The concept musical had been germinating since Marc Blitzstein’s very political, very angry The Cradle Will Rock in on beauty, 1937, but it wasn’t until Stephen Sondheim and Hal Prince’s Company in 1970 that the model composition concept musical was in essay on beauty of darkness, a position to change everything. The rock musical had been born with Expresso Bongo in 1958 and became mainstream with Hair in 1968, but it became a fixture on membrane Broadway during the seventies, partly because the of darkness definition of rock was so pliable, so inclusive by then.

A rock musical could be Jesus Christ Superstar, Hair, Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Rocky Horror Show , or Grease, none of which sounded anything like the others; and yet they all shared a disdain for authority, a taste for rebellion, and lancia thesis a sexual frankness to essay on beauty of darkness, which only the language of rock and roll could give full voice. The phenomenon that was Grease began its long life in decisions essay, the summer of 1971 at Chicago’s Kingston Mines Theatre, in which its authors Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey were acting ensemble members. The show opened February 5, 1971, in a basement theatre where an audience of a hundred sat on essay the floor on newspaper. Thesis! The set consisted of backdrops painted on of darkness brown paper. At that time the show had far less music, far less plot, and no central characters. Writing An Introduction To An University! But it did have infectious songs like Greased Lightning, Beauty School Dropout, Those Magic Changes, and essay on beauty of darkness We Go Together, and a solo for Patty Simcox that was later cut, Yuck. Questions! New York producers Ken Waissman and Maxine Fox saw the of darkness show and recognized its surprising honesty and decisions essay the appeal of its rough edges. Two of the essay Chicago cast members, Dinah Manoff (Marty) and James Canning (Doody) would play those roles on Broadway. Manoff would continue her role in the film.

Once the model essay producers decided to essay, bring Grease to writing an introduction university, New York, they set about finding a production staff. One agent tried to sell them on hiring the bright young director-choreographer Michael Bennett, but they didn’t think he was right for Grease . They were probably right. They asked Gerald Freedman to direct, since he had helmed the original off Broadway production of Hair , but Freedman turned them down without even reading the script. Essay On Beauty! They finally settled on director Tom Moore and choreographer Patricia Birch who had created such interesting, real staging and choreography for The Me Nobody Knows ё a show about decisions essay, homeless kids. The producers wanted everything about the show to essay, feel rough, unpolished, de-glamorized – honest and authentic, like Hair – a concept the subsequent film and brave new world revivals did not understand.

According to Adrienne Barbeau’s autobiography There Are Worse Things I Could Do , the producers hired Moore to on beauty of darkness, direct because Tom's strength was getting performances that were so realistic the audience didn't believe they were watching actors. That's what Ken [Waissman] and Maxine [Fox] wanted for Grease . What they didn't want was a cotton-candy musical. It’s easy to hear on the original 1972 Grease cast album the thematic essay raw, pure, untrained sound of on beauty, 1950s rock and roll. Writing An Introduction! Grease knows that sound because its creators lived it, the sound of Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Bo Diddley. The earliest rock and roll was never about polish or precision; this was the punk rock of the fifties, purposefully rejecting mainstream necessities like playing in essay, tune, singing on pitch, keeping the tempo, staying together. It was a wholesale rejection of the values of their parents and their parents’ culture, an aggressive fuck you to Pat Boone and cell membrane the like. Essay Of Darkness! Three decades later, American kids in the Reagan Era (The Neo-50s) would rebel in much the same way with the creation of punk rock. Just as the greasers sported leather jackets, engineer boots, crazy hairstyles, and other rebellious fashions, so did their descendants, the punks, have their rebellious fashion statements in tattoos, piercings, and occult symbols. And now, so does the hip-hop community. Critic Michael Feingold wrote in his introduction to the 1972 published Grease script: The people of Grease are a special class of aliens, self-appointed cynics in a work-oriented, upwardly mobile world.

We know from the prologue that history has played its dirty trick on them before they even appear. Essay! They are not at the reunion; they will not be found among the prosperous Mrs. Honeywells and the go-getting vice presidents of Straight-Shooters, Unlimited. Nor, on the other hand, did they actively drop out; that was left to their younger siblings and cousins. Of Darkness! (Memory of a line too explicit, and cut from the script early on: Course I like life. Whaddaya think I am, a beatnik?) They were the group who thought they had, or chose to have, nowhere to go. They stayed in the monotonous work routine of the lower middle class, acquiring, if they were lucky, enough status to move to one of the more nondescript suburbs, and losing their strongest virtue – the group solidarity that had made them, in high school, a force to be reckoned with.

It is appropriate that the essays of global finale of Grease celebrates that solidarity, with the essay on beauty of darkness saving of its heroine, and the reclamation of its hero from the clutches of respectability – a good lusty razz at the sanctimonious endings of those Sal Mineo j.d. [juvenile delinquent] movies ( Somebody Up There Likes Me , remember?) wherein the tough punk is saved for society at the end. Everybody knew you didn’t go to those films to see that part. After only three and a half weeks of rehearsal (again, in an effort to model, keep it from looking too polished), Grease opened off Broadway at the Eden Theatre on Valentine’s Day 1972. The reviews were negative to mixed. On Beauty! One hapless television reviewer said, The worst thing I’ve ever seen opened tonight at composition the Eden Theatre. It ran 128 performances anyway. And then the show moved uptown in June 1972 to the Broadhurst Theatre. Of Darkness! In December 1979, Grease broke Broadway’s long-run record. It made several moves during its Broadway run and finally closed April 13, 1980, after a total run of essays on causes and effects, 3,388 performances. It was nominated for seven Tony Awards but won none. The original production paid back its investors four thousand percent.

The show also ran for of darkness over two years in Mexico under the title Vaselina, becoming the model longest-running musical there. The watered-down 1978 film version starring John Travolta, Olivia Newton-John, and essay on beauty of darkness Stockard Channing became one of the writing to an essay most successful movie musicals of essay on beauty of darkness, all time. After fifteen years of declining numbers, the teenage population in an introduction to an essay university, America began to essay on beauty, grow again in the early 1990s – They’re Back, said one Business Week cover – and so a glitzy, brainless, neon-scorched revival of Grease opened on and effects warming Broadway in May 1994, painfully misdirected and misunderstood by Tommy Tune’s protg, director-choreographer Jeff Calhoun (who would years later direct a brilliant revival of essay on beauty of darkness, Big River for Deaf West Theatre). Completely ignoring (or just missing) Grease ’s agenda as social commentary, this terrible revival decked out its set in bright, neon colors, making it into a simple-minded cartoon, and essays it added an essay of darkness, actual 50s song, Since I Don’t Have You, a song completely without the irony of the new world essay rest of the score and therefore completely out of synch with the rest of the show. The revival’s logo was a picture of Danny from behind, his leather jacket bedazzled with rhinestones that spell Grease . Could they have misunderstood the essay of darkness Burger Palace Boys any more? But despite the lack of composition, taste or honesty, it was apparently perfect for essay the theme park Broadway had become by that point and it ran 1,503 performances. Essay! It was not, however, Grease . Over its life, Grease gave starts to many now well-known actors, including John Travolta (who had begun as Doody in the first national tour), Richard Gere, Treat Williams, Patrick Swayze, Adrienne Barbeau, Barry Bostwick, Jeff Conaway, Greg Evigan, Marilu Henner, and essay Judy Kaye, among others.

In 2003 the British television network Channel 4 held a poll to determine the greatest musicals of all time. Grease won the top honor. In 2007, NBC created a reality show through which to choose the two leads for a new Broadway revival helmed by Kathleen Marshall, though any hopes of authenticity from a new Broadway Grease were slight. But perhaps it’s time for Grease in its original form to return at decisions essay last, in this new Age of Ironic Detachment. In 2005, Norman Lebrecht wrote about the new postmodern musicals ( Urinetown, Bat Boy, Hedwig and the Angry Inch, Spelling Bee ) in his online column: The music in each of these shows amplifies this element of on beauty, separation, licensing us to cell membrane, stand apart from what we are seeing and enter a third dimension where each of us can individually decide whether to take the plot literally or sardonically, whether to take offense or simply collapse in essay, giggles. This degree of Ironic Detachment is the very making of the decisions essay postmodern hit musical. Ironic Detachment would be unattainable in a Tom Stoppard play because I.D. Essay! requires musical inflexion; it is impossible in opera and ballet, which are stiffened by tradition against thesis 3.2, self-mockery. Its application is unique to the musical comedy, an ephemeral entertainment which has found new relevance through its philosophical engagement with 21st century concepts of irony and alienation. Still, Ironic Detachment isn’t entirely new in musical theatre – we’ve seen it before, periodically over essay on beauty, the twentieth century, in The Threepenny Opera (1928), Of Thee I Sing (1931), The Cradle Will Rock (1937), Guys and Dolls (1950), The Fantasticks (1959) , How To Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1961) , Promenade (1965), Cabaret (1966), Promises, Promises (1969), Company (1970), The Rocky Horror Show (1973), The Robber Bridegroom (1974), and yes, Grease.

Sock Hop Baby, Roll Up Your Crazy Jeans! Almost every American musical sets up the same challenge for the protagonist – assimilate or be removed. These central characters must make a choice to either change in certain ways in decisions essay, order to join the existing community or they must be removed from that community either by leaving or by on beauty dying. In The Music Man , Harold Hill turns legit in order to essay, join the River City community. In Sweeney Todd, Jesus Christ Superstar, Bat Boy, and essay Evita , the main characters will not (or cannot) change so they must be removed by death. In Brigadoon , Tommy decides he must reject his previous life and change everything in thesis, order to stay in essay on beauty, Brigadoon and become part of the community. In Show Boat , Julie and Steve will not play by mainstream society’s rules, so they must be removed, and they leave the Cotton Blossom. In Man of La Mancha , Quixote/Quijana refuses to live by essay conventional rules of behavior, so he must die. In Grease , Sandy ultimately assimilates into on beauty the greaser community, rejecting her parents’ world view. Many people are uncomfortable with the show’s ending because they miss the fact that Sandy doesn’t actually become a slut in the finale; she just learns how to dress like one, finally letting go of the new world thematic essay tendency of too many Americans to stigmatize sexuality as dirty and shameful.

She gives up the desexualizing poodle skirt that hid away her female form and replaces it with clothing that reveals and celebrates – and takes ownership of – her body and its adult curves. On Beauty Of Darkness! This is not a descent into decadence for Sandy; it is thesis 3.2 a throwing open of the doors of her moral prison. The authors’ intentions are clear in essay of darkness, a stage direction in the final scene. After describing Sandy’s new hypersexual look – the tight pants, leather jacket, earrings, wild new hair – the script says, Yet she actually looks prettier and more alive than she ever has. Teenagers’ clothing was a major source of contention at the time. Grace Palladino writes in her fascinating history Teenagers : School authorities solved the immediate problem (teenage delinquency) with dress and behavior codes. Tight blue jeans, ducktail haircuts, and excessive makeup were prohibited in school.

Dress Right campaigns set appropriate high school styles that drew national attention in the late 1950s. Boys were required to wear shirts and ties, standard trousers (or neatly pressed khakis), and polished shoes (or clean white bucks). Girls were required to wear dresses or shirts and forgo pincurls, dungarees, and essay composition slacks. As an article in Newsweek explained the theory: Bejeaned girls behave better when they’re in essay of darkness, ladylike dress. Sandy’s clothing in All Choked Up is extraordinarily subversive. The end of Grease suggests that a lasting, healthy relationship is only possible when both partners are openly and brave thematic completely themselves, without regard for other people’s opinions, social conventions, or personal insecurities – and also when neither of them are afraid of their sexuality. This was not the message of the conforming adult world; this was a uniquely teen perspective. Both Sandy and Danny have to essay on beauty of darkness, learn to be themselves, to shake off the cell masks of cool and respectable. Of Darkness! If there is any question about who the protagonist of the lancia thesis 3.2 show is, Sandy is primary; she’s the one who has changed, who has learned something significant. On Beauty Of Darkness! The same may be true of Danny, but to membrane essay, a much lesser extent.

But the on beauty ending of Grease isn’t a moral and shouldn’t be read that way. It doesn’t declare what we should or shouldn't do; it's an objective and accurate description of America in 1959. Brave New World Thematic Essay! Sandy is America in its progression from puritanical repression in the 50s to sexual freedom in the Sexual Revolution of the essay on beauty 60s. (And yet, as her lyric in All Choked Up tells us quite explicitly, she isn’t ready to give up her virginity quite yet.) In 1959 America was about to cell questions, grow up sexually, into adolescence in the 60s ( Hair ), and into full sexual adulthood in the 70s ( Rocky Horror ). Too many people believe that the message of of darkness, Grease is that to writing to an essay, win the man you love, you have to be a slut. But there's not a single line or lyric anywhere in the show to suggest Sandy has changed anything but her looks. Essay! Like Eliza Dolittle in My Fair Lady , Sandy learns The Secret, that anyone can Fit In just by talking and model looking the right way (and don’t we all do that to some extent?), and her overnight transformation proves that it’s all just play-acting – and that they all know it ! She has learned what Rizzo and the girls have known all along. On Beauty! Sandy has become one of them just by changing her clothes! She throws off the weight and triviality of 1950s conformity and allows herself the freedom of the coming 1960s, a refusal to fear her own sexuality, to see sex as dirty, the essay freedom to be able to of darkness, talk and laugh openly about sex. But behind all the rest, there’s a simpler, more subversive message. Model! Sandy isn’t just saved by how she dresses; she’s saved by singing rock and roll. It isn’t until she can achieve the authenticity and sexual frankness of rock and roll, that she can be healed.

Grease doesn’t moralize; it just reports. Grease is set in 1958 and 1959 for a good reason – it’s not just about the changing of decades but also the changing of eras . Sandy’s triumphant line late in the show, Goodbye to essay, Sandra Dee, puts away not only Sandy’s false good-girl persona, but also the model composition 1950s as a whole, a world in which the essay on beauty goody-goody Sandra Dee can be a role model, in which facades were cracking. We were moving on… The Fabulous Fractious Fifties. The Fabulous Fifties. The Decade Deluxe. Cell Membrane Essay Questions! The Ike Age. These were the good old days, the happy days, the source of many an American’s earliest, fondest memories and essay on beauty many of our postwar institutions. For the past two decades Americans had lived in the grip of poverty and war. Now they were ready for decisions essay some giddy, goofy fun. On Beauty! The country was swept up in frivolous fads – baton twirling, hula hoops, paint-by-number art kits, Davy Crockett hats, 3-D movies.

Life seemed a wide-screen, stereophonic special effect. Culture popped – in shades of turquoise, pink, salmon, and, if one color wasn’t enough, delicious two-tones. Madison Avenue created an unlikely world of new world essay, perfect appliances and perfect families, of highballs and essay on beauty of darkness hi-fis, Bermuda shorts and backyard barbecues. In the ads, the wives are beautiful (mowing the essay lawn in peasant blouses and a hint of lingerie); the children above average (exuberantly joining in the Saturday morning car wash). Over the of darkness clink of ice cubes, Americans mingled and misbehaved. That’s how James Petersen’s book The Century of Sex describes 1950s America and the false, repressed world from which Sandy must escape.

There were three distinct cultures in America during the 1950s – mainstream middle-America, New York City (including the Beat writers), and membrane questions teenagers – and they rarely intersected each other, so none of them spoke the essay others’ languages or shared their morality. Most of mainstream adult America lived a life of complete ignorance, happily watching safely artificial television sitcoms and carefully censored studio films, having little or no idea what was going on decisions essay in teen America, in teen music, movies, magazines, social life, and most significantly, teen sexuality. After World War II, most adult women had been expected to essay on beauty, leave behind the independence of model essay, their lives on the home front during the war and of darkness return to decisions essay, a life of near complete dependence again – no more job, no more money, no more sexual control or choice. On Beauty! Betty Friedan wrote of the times, It was fun at cell essay first, shopping in those new supermarkets. And we bought barbecue grills and made dips out of sour cream and dried onion soup to serve with potato chips, while our husbands made the martinis as dry as in the city and cooked hamburgers on the charcoal, and we sat in canvas chairs on our terrace and thought how beautiful our children looked, playing in the twilight, and how lucky we all were, and that it would last forever. On Beauty Of Darkness! These were the real people behind the metaphor of the 1956 film Invasion of the to an university Body Snatchers. As The Century of of darkness, Sex says, Conformity became a national passion, part of a return to sexual and political conservatism. The Battle Over Sex has always been waged between the Haves and the Have-Nots in writing essay, America. Throughout history, there has been great sexual freedom and essay of darkness little shame among the Have-Nots, since they have nothing which can be imperiled. But the Haves are always terrified of decisions essay, any kind of cultural change, especially sexual, because the fallout could always endanger their position as Haves. Sandy is essay on beauty a Have, Danny is a Have-Not.

The sparks are bound to fly. All in all, the 1950s was one of the essay most interesting decades of the twentieth century – so much wealth, so much repression, so many massive changes in the culture, perhaps most significantly the invention of the suburbs, in which middle-class wives would be forever isolated and tranquilized. The characters in Grease were born around 1942, the last generation born before the Baby Boomers, and they went to high school from fall 1955 to summer 1959. The cultural influences on them during this period were some of the fiercest America had yet seen. In 1951, J.D. Salinger’s controversial Catcher in the Rye had been published and became an instant, lasting hit among teenagers, with its profanity and frank discussions of on beauty, teenage angst and sexuality. An Introduction To An Essay! Then, just as these kids were hitting puberty, America was hit with The Wild One in 1953, starring Marlon Brando, the movie that started the whole leather jacket greaser thing as well as the essay teen exploitation film genre. Membrane Questions! The central relationship in Grease between Danny and Sandy is a goofier imitation of the central relationship in The Wild One between Johnny and Kathie. Exactly like the teen market they were targeting, teen exploitation films were full of sex and essay sin and booze and cars, but many of cell membrane essay, them also had a sanctimonious moral laid out explicitly, at the beginning or end of the film, often by a nameless authority figure behind a desk or podium, sometimes by a survivor of the tragedy.

These fake morals gave the raunchy stories the patina of on beauty, respectability to thematic essay, placate parents and would-be censors. But for the kids, these movies mirrored the real world, in which teenagers were discovering they had a certain kind of power, a kind of power that just might be able to challenge the power of essay of darkness, their parents. And the teen rebel was born. In 1954, just a year before the Grease kids would start high school, Elvis Presley burst upon cell the American scene with his first hit, forever changing notions of gender and sexuality, rebelling against the strong, silent type model of previous generations of men like John Wayne and Gary Cooper, in favor of a remarkably sexual, nakedly emotional new model of maleness embodied by the likes of Marlon Brando and James Dean. John Waters documented this cultural shift in his film Cry-Baby , set just a few years before Grease. While the Grease kids – and on beauty of darkness the show’s authors – were in high school, the movies Rock Around the Clock and Rock, Rock, Rock were released in 1956 (the same year the mayor of Jersey City, New Jersey, banned all rock and roll within the an introduction essay city limits), giving some teens their first chance to actually see Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley and the Comets, The Platters, and many others performing their songs.

That same year the essay on beauty of darkness teen exploitation flick Hot Rod Girls was also released. Model Composition! In 1957, Roger Corman’s daring Teenage Doll (which still holds up pretty well) and essay on beauty Eighteen and Anxious were released. Teenage Doll was about a girl gang out for revenge after one of their members is murdered by thesis 3.2 a rival gang. The film ended with a giant rumble with girl and boy gangs fighting in an auto salvage yard. This was not their parents’ kind of movie.

That same year saw Michael Landon in of darkness, I Was a Teenage Werewolf , a much more serious film than it sounds, about a damaged, misunderstood teen and about American teenagers’ feelings (reinforced by rock and roll) of us vs. 3.2! them. Jack Kerouac’s groundbreaking, anti-authoritarian On the essay on beauty Road was published that year too, the inevitable follow-up to essays on causes warming, Catcher in the Rye . In 1958, two more teen movies were released that showed us the underbelly of American teenage life (real or imagined), High School Confidential and the girl-gang High School Hellcats . In 1959, T-Bird Gang was released, one of the great teen gang drive-in movies, as well as A Summer Place , one of the great make-out movies. The 1928 sexually charged novel Lady Chatterley’s Lover was finally released in America in 1959 and sold six million copies the first year. Just after these kids graduated, in 1960, The Wild Ride was released, starring Jack Nicholson as the kind of cocky, smartass rebel that the Burger Palace Boys in Grease wish they could be. But 1960 also brought us that moment toward which everything had been leading and from which everything would flow. Dick Clark saw some kids doing a sexually suggestive dance called The Twist in his studio, inspired by of darkness a year-old record. Clark called the record label and asked for a new recording of The Twist.

It caught on like wildfire and convinced the adult population of America that the world was coming to writing an introduction to an, an end. Sex was no longer subtle or implied. Sex had broken free of the bedroom and the 1960s were coming. These kids in Grease are on on beauty the cusp of that moment, just as they are on the cusp of essays and effects of global, adulthood. Michael Feingold wrote: Grease does not discourse about our presence in Saigon. Nor does it contain in-depth study of such other 50s developments as the growth of on beauty, mega-corporations and conglomerates, the suburban building boom that broke the backs of our cities, the separation of labor’s political power from the workers by union leaders and organization men.

Although set in and around an urban high school, it does not even discuss one of the composition decade’s dominant news stories, the massive expansion of the university system, and essay on beauty of darkness the directing of a whole generation of cell membrane, war babies toward the essay on beauty pursuit of college degrees. Grease is an escape, a musical designed to cell questions, entertain, not to concern itself with serious political and social matters. But because it is truthful, because it spares neither the details nor the larger shapes of the of darkness narrow experience on which it focuses so tightly, Grease implies the topics I have raised, and many others. So I think it is a work of art, a firm image that projects, by writing an introduction to an essay means of essay of darkness, what it does contain, everything it has chosen to leave out. And between the throbs of its ebullience, charm, and comedy, it conveys a feeling, about where we have been and how we got to where we are… During the Greasers’ senior year at Rydell High, in February 1959, another epoch changing event took place, the plane crash that killed Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and The Big Bopper – the day the music died.

The 1950s were coming to a close, and a decade full of chaos and lancia controversy was coming fast, with a whole new kind of essay, rock and a whole new kind of American sexuality. Grease is lancia a prequel to Hair , every bit as well crafted, every bit as authentic, every bit as insightful, and just as truth about an on beauty of darkness, incredibly volatile, fascinating moment in American history. Rock and Roll Party Queen. In the book Fever: How Rock’n’Roll Transformed Gender in America , author Tim Riley writes, The boomers born after World War II, both men and women – the characters in Grease were all born around 1942 – learned much of membrane essay, what they know about how to be young, how to seek and earn love, and how to struggle toward adulthood from the popular music they listened to. As it would be for decades to come, rock music was more of an authority figure than any adult could ever be.

Rock stars helped their young fans grow from boys to men and of darkness girls to model composition, women, Riley writes, by exploring and celebrating the nature of that struggle – the essay full range of model composition, sexual bewilderment, frustration, and longing. Grease chronicles exactly that phenomenon. The kids in Grease may well have seen their rock heroes in essay on beauty, person, since DJs like Alan Freed (a likely inspiration for Vince Fontaine) frequently hosted live rock and roll concerts in Cleveland, Chicago and elsewhere. Howard Miller, known as Uncle Moo Moo, was the number one morning DJ in and effects of global, Chicago from 1947-1968, on WIND, where the Grease kids would no doubt listen to him every morning before school. In 1957, Miller produced the first live rock show in Chicago, featuring Tab Hunter, Charlie Gracie, Chuck Berry, Eddie Cochran, and essay the Everly Brothers. That same year Alan Freed got his own TV show, and it was such a success, the next month ABC picked up Dick Clark’s American Bandstand as well. In The Century of Sex, Petersen writes, Previously, teenagers had shared their parents’ world – watching the same movies, listening to the same songs on writing an introduction to an university the radio. On Beauty Of Darkness! Now they had their own teenage idols, their own films, music, fads, and fashions.

In retrospect we know that the well-behaved youngsters of yesteryear weren’t well-behaved because they were morally superior, but because they rarely had the opportunity to mis behave. In the 1950s – and even more so in the decades to come – those opportunities would be almost without limit. Adults were no longer sources of wisdom; adults were now outsiders. Teenagers had power and, more important, they had their own culture. Palladino writes in model composition, Teenagers : By the mid-1950s, however, Seventeen [magazine]’s respectable brand of adolescent culture had real competition – white, middle-class teenagers were not the only high school students with money to spend! Postwar prosperity had opened the door to an entirely different teenage world, one that was populated by working-class and black teenagers who had never participated in high school social life before.

This demographic shift changed the nature – and essay of darkness the appeal – of the teenage market. These two worlds are represented in Grease by Sandy and Danny. Rock and roll was the first music ever created specifically for teenagers, and essay many adults literally predicted the apocalypse when they heard it. Now all American teens would lose their moral compass, they wailed, they would abandon all ambition and drive, and drown in essay of darkness, a morass of juvenile delinquency. (These were the cell membrane essay questions same arguments against essay, swing music in the 40s and drugs in the 60s, yet America kept plugging along.) Sure, there were occasionally riots at rock concerts, but there had also been a riot at to an essay university a Guy Lombardo concert in 1944. In The Century of Sex , Petersen writes: The ethic, if that’s what it could be called, was simply: Don’t get in trouble. On Beauty! The sexually active lived in writing an introduction, fear of pregnancy. The Kinsey Report had revealed that a large number of women were having premarital sex. A third Kinsey Institute report on essay on beauty of darkness Pregnancy, Birth and Abortion, which was published in membrane questions, 1958, would reveal that one out of every five women who had premarital sex became pregnant. Of those, one in five would be forced into marriage. The other four women had their pregnancies terminated by abortion.

Grease ’s subplot with Rizzo and her fear of pregnancy was a real part of essay on beauty of darkness, life in the 50s for many unmarried, sexually active women. Unlike their parents, rock and roll took teenagers seriously . It took teenage sex and teenage love seriously. It put teenage emotions on a level with adult emotions, and it made teenagers feel like adults. Writing An Introduction! And the best part for the kids was that parents hated rock and roll. (A 1957 article in Cosmopolitan asked Are You Afraid of Your Teenager?) Much of the authenticity of Grease lies in its songs, a virtual catalog of 1950s styles, structures, chord progressions, lyrical themes, distinctive bass lines, and unforgettable guitar licks, all as authentic as a 1954 Fender Stratocaster. Essay On Beauty Of Darkness! By opening the show with the composition old-fashioned Alma Mater, followed by the explosion of the hard rocking Alma Mater Parody, the kids of Grease literally rebel against their older selves (at the reunion), the past assaulting the of darkness present, reminding the adults in the audience that most of them have become what they once hated most: The Establishment. The Alma Mater Parody, blasts off with one of the questions most famous guitar licks of all time, created by Chuck Berry for the hit Johnny B. On Beauty Of Darkness! Goode. Berry was one of the decisions essay fathers of rock and roll, and so in this first scene, Grease instantly establishes its authenticity and its street cred as a rock and roll document. The third song in the show Those Magic Changes comments on rock’s most important characteristic – aside from the beat – the on beauty of darkness treatment of teenage love and emotion as serious and legitimate. The lyric starts off as a classic 50s teen lament, but it quickly becomes self-referential, a postmodern 50s song. It’s a song about falling in love but also about chord changes, about the comfort and thematic familiarity of those four simple chords that undergirded the majority of early rock and essay roll. And those four chords open Magic Changes—C, A minor, F, and cell membrane essay G7 ,or I, vi, IV, V 7 . The singer here is a boy lamenting lost love but finding safety and essay happy memories in composition, those same four chords that he hears in every song:

I have never heard that song before, But if I don’t hear it anymore, It’s still familiar to me, Sends a thrill right through me, ‘Cause those chords remind me of. The night that I first feel in love. To those magic changes. (And notice the on beauty internal rhyming that gives the song such momentum: before/anymore, to me/through me, of/love …) But Doody goes even further with the metaphor, now suggesting that it’s actually teenage emotion that creates, that incarnates rock and roll. He sings: My heart arranges. A melody that’s never the same, A melody that’s calling your name.

And begs you, please, come back to me . Rock gives him those four never-changing chords, and writing to an essay his heart supplies the always-changing melody. Of Darkness! This ever-present chord progression wasn’t simple because songwriters were untalented; it was simple to get out cell of the way of the emotions of the songs, just like the best of rhythm and blues did. Unlike other musical forms – and this was something the adults just couldn’t get – chords weren’t the point here. The point is the emotion. This boy has been jilted, but he’s not in love with her anymore; now the essay object of his love is rock and roll itself. Lancia! Rock and roll understood teenagers.

It wanted what they wanted. The fact that Doody plays the guitar is very significant. The guitar was the essay symbol of rock and roll, and by extension, of teenage rebellion. An electric guitar was a weapon (just watch how rock Chuck Berry physically used his guitar). Brave New World Essay! The guitar represented freedom, teen culture, emotion, romance, angst – and quite often, a penis! The guitar instilled confidence ! That also explains Johnny Casino and essay the Gamblers in Grease ’s prom scene – every boy wanted to be a rock and 3.2 roll star.

1959 was a pivotal moment for rock and roll. Up to that time, rock and roll addressed teen angst and misfired romance; but once the on beauty sixties arrived, rock songs would tackle war, injustice, sexual oppression, drugs, hypocrisy and authority, religion, and essays politics. The songs in Grease straddle those two worlds, posing as the simpler songs of the fifties while subtextually delivering potent social commentary and satire. Feingold wrote in his Grease introduction: Grease is in possession of a truth, one of its strongest, about the media and how they worked on us. This is of course best seen in its superb, sharp-eared songs. On Beauty! The musical basis of 50s rock is fractured by comedy quite early in cell membrane questions, the enumeration of Those Magic Changes. Essay! After that it is a matter of astonishment how many delicate subforms there were to questions, the songs of the essay on beauty period, and how many different comic approaches Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey use to pin them down: Imitative homage (Rock ‘n Roll Party Queen), outright burlesque (Sandra Dee) ironic, look-the-other-way dirty joke (Mooning), character satire (Freddy, My Love), improbable-situation parody (Beauty School Dropout), and, best of all to my taste, the quiet revelation of fact as an antidote to the sentimentality of the originals.

Take It’s Raining on Prom Night – truthful, admittedly, but pretty squalid. Small. Petty. Not the deep sentimental tragedy you will find in a prototypical serious song like Tell Tommy I Miss Him or Teen Angel. This song is essay easier to essay on beauty of darkness, laugh at than some of the others because it is more firmly distanced – not a report of something that actually happens to our heroine, just a convenient index to her momentary emotions. Jazz was made for decisions essay the brain. It was about detachment, bemusement, coolness . Essay Of Darkness! But rock and roll came straight for the heart and the groin. It was about primal feelings and essays and effects warming desires.

It stripped its sound of precision, elegance, finesse, training (just like Punk). Real rock and roll was animal, outlaw. It was sweaty. It didn’t float like jazz. It exploded. It pounded. Rock and roll was banned in major cities across America. It terrified white adult America. Listening to on beauty, rock became the ultimate rebellion for white kids especially. Their parents saw it as the biggest danger to all that’s decent since ragtime in the 1910s… or alcohol in the 1920s… or marijuana in essay, the 1930s… or swing in the 1940s… Rock and roll was responsible for on beauty an emotional revolution in America.

It began as race music (in other words, black music) and was initially declared unacceptable for young white ears. But it fast became the decisions essay first truly racially integrated American art form, coming from equal parts black rhythm blues and white country music. (And the kids in essay on beauty, Grease know RB; Rizzo even references Bull Moose Jackson’s 1948 RB song Sneaky Pete in the pajama party scene.) This was the first time in America that blacks and writing essay university whites shared in the same culture, both consuming and creating it. And once Elvis appeared, rock and roll finally became (marginally) acceptable for white kids. For the essay of darkness first time in American history, white (young) people were being open and honest – even inappropriate – about their emotions. This was the most nakedly emotional music most white Americans had ever heard. And it changed everything. Soon after, in decisions essay, the 1960s, rock and roll would morph into Pop and Top 40, and it would no longer be the exclusive domain of the young. The adult world could finally got a grip on it. Elvis had been sent overseas. Chuck Berry was sent to prison for sexual misconduct. Congress held payola hearings to essay on beauty of darkness, ruin DJs like Alan Freed, who broadcast his last live radio show in November 1957.

Now, rock and roll would become commercialized and forget its roots. Decisions Essay! This would continue to essay, happen to rock every decade or so. But Grease is essay about the beginning, when rock and roll was still pure, still naked, still dangerous, and America was still terrified of it. The Stacks of Wax. The score of Grease is remarkable in on beauty of darkness, its craft and essays and effects authenticity, even referencing actual songs of the period. Essay! Many of the actual period songs that influenced the Grease score were not chart toppers, because the Grease kids didn’t always listen to on causes of global, the most popular music; they were more musically and culturally adventurous than that. They listened to songs you could only hear late night on Alan Freed’s radio show, race songs, dirty songs, songs that scared adults.

But it’s important to essay on beauty of darkness, note that the songs of Grease differ from real rock and roll songs in writing to an, one significant way. The lyrics to real 50s rock and roll songs were the least important element of the song, often just dummy lyrics used as a vehicle for the artists’ personal vocal stylings, or for sophisticated harmonies or melodic ornaments. As in rhythm and blues, one of essay on beauty, rock and roll’s parents, a song didn’t have to thesis, convey information, just style and emotion, most of which was delivered through the on beauty abstract language of music. But theatre songs have to convey a lot of information or the essay composition show won’t work (which is why it was such a mistake to essay on beauty of darkness, put a real 50s song into the 1994 revival). Cell Membrane Questions! Because sung lyrics take more time than spoken dialogue, musicals have to do a lot of storytelling in essay on beauty, fewer words than a play. To An Essay! So in Grease , Summer Nights lays out the central backstory, as well as characterizing most of the two gangs through their pointed questions. Magic Changes and essay Rock and Roll Party Queen lay out and and effects of global explore the of darkness show’s central themes. Most of the girls’ songs provide psychological character details – Marty and Rizzo’s cynical view of love in Freddy My Love and Worse Things; the 3.2 friction between Rizzo and Sandy in Sandra Dee – but we also find commentary on 50s sexuality in Greased Lightning, Mooning, Drive-In Movie, and of course Worse Things. Every lyric contributes to the agenda of essay, this deceptively sophisticated concept musical.

Grease opens with an authentically bland and properly pious Alma Mater, the sound of the adult world, of thematic essay, authority, complete with archaic language (like foretell, hovel, and on beauty of darkness thou shalt ) which then is ripped apart, deconstructed, unexpectedly exploding into (a close facsimile of) that famous Chuck Berry electric guitar riff, invoking Johnny B. Goode, as well as that audacious rejection of adult culture, Roll Over Beethoven. Like Berry’s School Day (Ring, Ring Goes the decisions essay Bell), this parody Alma Mater is an assault, a declaration of culture war, a defiant fuck you to essay, the adult world, as they literally steal away the adult’s anthem, give it a driving beat, and twist it to suit their own purposes. Model! And so Grease is off and running. This will not be a nice show, a tame show, a traditional show, the music tells us. This will be aggressive, even obnoxious. Essay On Beauty! This will be rock and lancia roll theatre. We move into the second scene and Summer Nights, the introduction of two of the leads and on beauty of darkness their central plotline, inspired by real rock songs like Huey Piano Smith’s Don’t You Just Know It?, a song released in model, 1958 as these kids were starting their senior year. Summer Nights introduces the ten main characters, allowing each of them to ask questions that reveal their characters. Marty wants to on beauty of darkness, know if this guy has a car, while Frenchy only an introduction to an essay wants to on beauty, know if Sandy’s in love. Kenickie wants to know if the sex was rough, while Sonny only an introduction university wants to know if the girl could fix him up with a friend.

We see here and in of darkness, the scene leading up to the song who each of the ten leads are – Kenickie and Rizzo, both damaged, beaten down, angry young adults; Roger, the clown; Jan, the cynic; Doody and Frenchy, the innocents; Sonny, the dangerous one; and Marty, the Material Girl. And the song also establishes the and effects of global central conflict of Grease and of the 1950s, that Danny is comfortable with sexuality while Sandy is lost – trapped? – in the fantasy of essay on beauty of darkness, perfect love, thanks to the likes of Sandra Dee, her handlers, and the movie studios (which were losing all their pervious power, due in essay, part to the burgeoning teen market). Some sources report that Rizzo’s dismissal of Sandy’s tale, Cause he sounds like a drag, was originally written, Cause he sounds like a fag . It’s certainly plausible, since Sandy describes a boy who barely touches her all summer, and in Rizzo’s world, that might well mean the boy is gay (or at least it would be a solid, cynical put-down of Sandy’s romantic story). After the song, Rizzo suggests Sandy’s summer lover may be a fairy. Now that the characters are established and the plot is underway, Grease takes a moment with Those Magic Changes to explore the show’s central themes, to underline the importance and centrality of essay on beauty, music in and effects of global, this story and on beauty also in cell membrane, the show’s social commentary. Closely based on essay on beauty Paul Anka’s Diana and its distinctive bass line (you can actually sing Magic Changes to Diana), it also includes those distinctive falsettos vocal ornaments that pay homage to songs like The Diamonds’ comic doo-wop hit, Lil Darlin’. Doody starts off solo, then the girls join in, then the boys join in, then two of the boys take off on those falsetto riffs, giving the university whole song the tang of improvisation, as if these kids are just fooling around between classes. This is part of what gives Grease such a unique feel, unlike almost any other musical. This is a song that connects love – but also sex in the form of the magic changes of puberty – to rock and roll. On Beauty! This wasn’t just music to this generation; it was life , it was love, it was sex.

This was their music. On Causes! They charted their lives to the songs on the radio, the song they fell in love to, the song they first had sex to. And as Magic Changes reminds us, every song is essay on beauty every other song, since so many of lancia, them used those exact same chord changes, a chord progression seemingly invented just for them (though really coming from rhythm and blues). Essay Of Darkness! All of rock and roll is those magic changes that Doody dreams of essay, returning to of darkness, him every night. The idea that all you need is a guitar to be a rock and roll star (perhaps in tribute to Bobby Bare’s satirical 1958 Elvis song, All-American Boy) was a deeply ingrained part of teen culture. The next song, Freddy My Love is the show’s female doo-wop number, with a lead melody and rich harmonic back-up, closely based on Eddie My Love by The Tea Queens, while also slyly parodying The Shirelles’ I Met Him on a Sunday and Ronnie Spector’s Be My Baby, reinforcing old female stereotypes while also undermining and revising them.

The driving triplet accompaniment here was a common beat in thematic essay, early rock and on beauty roll, invented by Fats Domino for Every Night About This Time. Decisions Essay! They’re living in the 1950s, but these are women of the 60s. The idea of the other girls becoming back up singers for Marty shows us how much they love the girl doo-wop groups, an entirely new phenomenon at that moment that would become huge in the 60s. The Ronettes were the first slutty girl group to make it big singing rock and of darkness roll. Decisions Essay! They were what the girls wanted to be (to get the guys) and what the guys dreamed about essay on beauty of darkness, getting. Freddy, My Love is a song about early feminism, about women being sexual and aggressive. Decisions Essay! But it’s also about the materialism of the 1950s, a mindset in which money is better than sex, and gifts are the only true expression of love. And the idea of Marty singing to essay on beauty, a guy stationed in Korea references the fact that Elvis was still in the Army overseas at this point, a sad fact for essays on causes and effects of global many teenagers. Greased Lightning combines two of the three major cultural forces of the 50s, cars and rock and roll.

Possibly inspired by essay on beauty of darkness The Cadillacs’ cocky Speedo, or Chuck Berry’s You Can’t Catch Me, this is a companion piece to Freddy My Love. This is the guys’ perspective in the language of doo-wop: it’s all about sex, cars, and sex in cars. An article on Answers.com describes the provocative, lusty Chuck Berry, duckwalking through You Can't Catch Me, in the 1956 film Rock, Rock, Rock : …his guitar as phallic looking a stage prop as anything seen on composition the screen this side of the bananas in a Carmen Miranda production number. Had a Black man ever before been permitted such a degree of sexual expression (and you can see the delightful, proud smugness on Berry's face, knowing what audience the movie was aimed at) in a movie intended for of darkness white audiences? This is the unfettered sexuality that terrifies the adult world, and it does the same to Sandy. Greased Lightning is essay university about America’s love affair with cars and essay teenagers’ love of speed . Model Essay! According to essay on beauty of darkness, Rolling Stones ’ excellent history Rock of Ages , American automakers were asserting their products’ virtues of speed and power, turning the 1957 models into rocketship fantasies with nose cones, chrome grills, and razor sharp fins. This song is thesis not just a catalog of car accessories, but instead a real insight into the dreams of these guys.

After all, this is not a real car Kenickie’s singing about, but an unreachable fantasy car (which is why it may be better if we don’t actually see it onstage), the ultimate, luxury, high-performance, drag racing car, with high-priced accessories for speed and performance (lifters, fins, fuel injection), and also for of darkness automotive sex appeal (palomino dashboard, purple frenched tail lights, twin tail pipes). And it’s clear from the details that this will be a car intended for drag racing, the gladiator sport of essays of global, 1950s teenagers, an extreme and dangerous sport pitting one man against one man , in what was sometimes a battle to actual death. (Kenickie acknowledges this danger, and even knows how to diminish it with a fuel-injection cut-off, which stops the flow of gasoline in the event of essay on beauty, a crash, in model, order to lower the danger of an explosion.) Drag racing was illegal, sometimes deadly… and really sexy ! Skill and success in drag racing could always get a guy laid, as Kenickie well knows (or at least imagines): You know that ain’t no shit; I’ll be gettin’ lots of tit in Greased Lightning. Essay On Beauty! . . Cell Essay Questions! You know that I ain’t braggin’; she’s a real pussy wagon… But the song also tells us that Kenickie doesn’t really know much about drag racing or about customizing cars. A true drag racing enthusiast knows that the essay on beauty accessories Kenickie dreams of don’t all make sense together. For example, the four-barrel quads refers to a carburetor, but a car with fuel injection (as in new world, his fuel injection cut-off) doesn’t have a carburetor – those two things would not be on on beauty of darkness the same car. And no one would chrome-plate connecting rods; chrome-plating was just for show and nobody can see connecting rods on model composition a car. And though palomino leather was popular for car interiors, no one would put palomino leather on a dashboard.

Finally, a kid in 1959 would either make his car look good or go fast; no kid had the money to do both (although you could argue that this is just a fantasy). In fact, a drag car that looked too good was the sure sign of a driver who wasn’t really serious about racing. Essay Of Darkness! It’s safe to membrane questions, assume that Kenickie probably knows very little about cars or drag racing, which gives this lyric far more complexity, humor, and character detail than it seems. The song Mooning may have been inspired by The Mello-Kings’ Tonight, Tonight or The Skyliners’ Since I Don’t Have You, and though the other songs in Grease proclaim a new worldview of sex and essay on beauty of darkness love, this one also trashes the old worldview, reducing the tepid moon-spoon-June romance of the 30s and 40s to silly anachronism. It contrasts love today (1959) with love yesterday (their parents’), the physical versus the romantic, the play between the old definition of mooning as an over-sentimentalizing of young love, and the new definition of mooning as the act of baring one’s ass. Like Summer Nights, this is a song about the difference between chaste love and carnal love, the love Sandra Dee falls into versus the membrane more real, more carnal love of naked, sweaty bodies. Of Darkness! But this song goes further, into wickedly funny social satire; Summer Nights is about two kids, but Mooning is about the cell membrane essay whole generation. This song is essay on beauty also a great example of the new world thematic craftsmanship of the songs in this show. Far from essay of darkness, being merely tribute or parody, they are well written theatre songs. The lyric for Mooning contains some smart, sly, internal rhymes: Lyin’ by myself in 3.2, bed, I.

Cry an’ give myself the red eye… They rhyme lyin’ with cry an’ ; and on beauty also bed, I with red eye , with the repetition of essays on causes of global warming, myself in the middle for essay on beauty structure. And in decisions essay, the couplet’s payoff, they also sneak in essay on beauty, another rude ass joke, playing with two meanings of red eye , referring to tear-reddened eyes but also that phrase’s 1950s slang definition, meaning the anus. As a companion piece to Mooning, Rizzo makes the to an university comparison more personal with Look at Me, I’m Sandra Dee, an assault on Sandy’s false role models, a shot across the bow, making certain that Sandy knows that Rizzo knows that it’s all bullshit. The music is a classic, brilliantly imitative 1950s novelty song, with a meter and an introduction lovingly ripped off from essay on beauty of darkness, David Seville’s The Chipmunk Song, the surprise hit of the 1958 Christmas season. But the laughs get even darker when you realize that every male movie star mentioned in the lyric was a closeted gay man, forced to essay, live a lie by his studio. This is a song about sexual repression, false lives, and false role models, and it’s proof that Rizzo knows more than we thought, that she has genuine insight into the world around her. And this peek into her mind allows her to carry the on beauty of darkness weighty There Are Worse Things I Could Do later in Act II. The act ends with We Go Together, an an introduction university, archetypal Happy Teenager song, very closely modeled on The Kodaks’ Oh Gee, Oh Gosh and Lewis Lyman’s I’m So Happy, maybe with a little dash of Little Richard’s Tutti Fruitti. (You can actually sing We Go Together to both I’m So Happy and Oh Gee, Oh Gosh.) This is a song celebrating the nonsense syllables of early rock and roll, songs like Gee (The Crows), Bip Bam (The Drifters), Oop Shoop, (The Queens), Sh-Boom and on beauty of darkness Zippity Zum (both by The Chords).

Little Richard’s famous phrase that We Go Together celebrates actually started off as Awop-bop-a-loo-mop, a good goddamn!, followed by Tutti Fruiti, good booty … It was later cleaned up. But this lyric succeeds as more than just send-up; it is also an articulation and celebration of this created family that nurtures and protects these kids, an artificial and also very real family that has through necessity replaced their dysfunctional, probably abusive birth families. It is this family at the heart of the show’s surface plot which must survive the difficulties and obstacles of teenage life, and also which must be sustained even as its leader attempts to create a relationship outside the family for to an the first time. On Beauty Of Darkness! This lyric tells us – and these kids are telling each other – that these Ties That Bind are indeed strong enough to withstand the current conflicts, and the song’s reprise at the end of the show reminds us of the importance of that strength for these kids. Shakin’ at the High School Hop. Act II picks up where Act I left off, with Shakin’ at membrane essay questions the High School Hop, a loving tribute to Little Richard’s Ready Teddy, as well as many other legendary songs, like Shake, Rattle, and Roll (Big Joe Turner, then Elvis, and others), Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ On (Jerry Lee Lewis), High School Confidential (Jerry Lee Lewis), and At the Hop (Danny and the Juniors).

The song’s introductory chords come from Bobby Freeman’s Do You Wanna Dance? In fact, High School Confidential actually contains the lyric, Shakin’ at the high school hop… There’s also be a touch of Bobby Darin’s Splish Splash, a song which references other early rock and roll songs, just as High School Hop catalogues the dances of the essay on beauty time, including The Chicken, The Stroll, The Shimmy, The Cha-Cha, The Walk, The Hully-Gully, The Hand Jive, The Stomp, The Calypso, The Slop, and The Bop. It also names several songs of the period, including Alley Oop and Mr. Lee, among others. It’s Raining on Prom Night is a Connie Francis number, combining attributes from several of her weeper songs, including Frankie (with a spoken section), Valentino, Carolina Moon, and Happy Days and Lonely Nights, among others. The Latin beat recalls her fondness for decisions essay recording Italian language ballads like the essay of darkness hit Mama, and Frankie even contains the idea of hiding tears, that later shows up in writing an introduction to an essay, Worse Things I Could Do. It also has echoes of of darkness, The Diamonds’ Little Darlin’, with its Latin beat and one spoken verse. According to some sources, this was the lancia thesis 3.2 first Grease song Jacobs and Casey wrote, even before they had conceived the show, satirically putting the trivial and on beauty mundane at the center of 3.2, a big, emotional lament.

Far more than any other song in the score, this is parody more than tribute or invocation. The Prom Scene is the centerpiece of essay, Act II and, not surprisingly, almost the entire scene is questions accompanied by dance music. This is a scene that’s entirely about the rock and roll. And the centerpiece of the on beauty of darkness scene is Born to Hand Jive, with its now universally famous choreography. The Hand Jive was invented for the Johnny Otis song, Willie and the Hand Jive, which hit the writing an introduction essay charts in 1958 and stayed in the Top Ten for sixteen weeks. This Hand Jive also takes inspiration (and its bass line) from Bo Diddley’s self-titled song, Bo Diddley, with its famous beat (the hambone) that would accompany so many of Diddley’s songs. The beat is relentless, dangerous, wild abandon, the beat of sex. Once again, rock and on beauty roll is sex. Johnny Casino and the Gamblers are an example of the membrane essay questions thousands of garage bands that appeared in the 50s.

The lyric of Hand Jive clearly tells us that anyone can be a rock star if they’ve got the Beat in them, and of darkness the fact that everyone knows how to Hand Jive means everyone has the an introduction Beat. This was the beginning of the democratization of pop music that would continue into the 60s. Essay On Beauty! Grace Palladino writes, If unremarkable kids like Dion Di Mucci and his group, the Belmonts, who hailed from the Bronx, could make it on decisions essay American Bandstand , [teenagers] reasoned, then anyone with talent and determination had the essay on beauty same chance to cell membrane, succeed. Beauty School Dropout, Frenchy’s wacky nightmare of the on beauty misogynist mainstream real world, was inspired (musically) by songs like The Penguins’ classic Earth Angel. But this scene also references the 1957 film Tammy and the Bachelor with Debbie Reynolds. Just before Beauty School Dropout starts, Frenchy wishes for a guardian angel like in thesis, that Debbie Reynolds movie. Essay! In the questions film, Aunt Renie (Mildred Natwick) plays the essay on beauty role of essay, Tammy's (metaphorical) fairy godmother, who transforms her into essay a captivating Southern belle, looking just like the portrait of an ancestor of this elite Southern family. She even gives Tammy the ancestor’s dress to brave new world thematic, wear, so she can win the heart of her love. This is the fantasy Frenchy wants. Of Darkness! And of brave new world essay, course, it’s what will eventually happen to Sandy, being taken under the wing of other women, given new clothes, and taught new manners, though all in essay, a hard-core, rock-and-roll kinda way… And it’s also a smart parody of those psychological dream sequences in old-fashioned musical dramas like Oklahoma!, West Side Story, Lady in the Dark, and others, in which the lancia thesis 3.2 leading lady works through her dilemma in the form of a dream. The joke here is on beauty that Frenchy doesn’t get the answer she wants from her dream, because Grease isn’t an essays on causes and effects, old-fashioned musical.

Danny’s big character song (sadly replaced in the film), Alone at essay of darkness a Drive-In Movie, is a delicious tribute to and parody of the teen laments of early rock and roll, including The Penguins’ Earth Angel (you can sing Drive-In Movie to the original recording of thesis 3.2, Earth Angel), The Platters’ The Great Pretender, The Flamingos’ Would I Be Cryin’?, and Johnny Ray’s Cry. It is a classic male doo-wop song, with its independent bass line and falsetto tenor floating up above the lead melody. The song works both as a musical theatre I Want character song, and also as an authentic 50s rock lament. This moment couldn’t be clearer: Sandy may want acceptance, (self-)love, self-knowledge, but Danny just wants sex . These two worlds have to find an accommodation, and essay on beauty of darkness they will in the show’s finale. Lancia! (The replacement song in the film, Sandy, isn’t a bad song, but it doesn’t achieve half of what Alone at a Drive-In Move does, textually, thematically, or musically.) But this song also works on a second level, as a cultural commentary on the power of drive-in movies in teen culture in the 50s. Cars had been changing sex since the essay on beauty of darkness 1920s, but by the 50s, more teenagers had access to cars than ever before, giving them the privacy they craved on a regular basis. Drive-in movies had been created as family entertainment, and between 1943 and 1953, more than 2,900 drive-in theatres opened in essay questions, America, the total reaching nearly 5,000 by 1958. And once television stole the family audience, drive-in owners targeted their marketing exclusively at teens, while small, low-budget studios started cranking out material specifically for this new niche market, creating teen exploitation films that drastically changed and radicalized teenagers’ perception of themselves and each other. Of Darkness! Drive-ins became a place to cruise for girls, hang with the wrong crowd, get drunk and get laid (awkwardly, in writing to an university, the back seat).

These films opened teenaged eyes to sex, violence, and on beauty other various vices like never before, inadvertently creating a new, more sophisticated, more cynical teen market. Membrane Essay! The fake movie dialogue in the scene leading up to Alone at the Drive-In Movie lampoons the two most prevalent genres of drive-in films: horror movies (a comic mix of I Was a Teenage Werewolf and those paranoid 1950s science run amok flicks, like 1954’s Them! ) and drag racing movies. Strangely enough, television had also come close to killing radio, in ratings and advertising revenue, until radio did what the on beauty drive-ins did by targeting teenagers. Rock and Roll Party Queen is another song (like Magic Changes and Hand Jive) that reminds us that Grease isn’t primarily about Danny and Sandy; it’s about rock and roll and how it impacted American sex. This is a tribute to the Everly Brothers and their perfect-thirds harmonies, modeled on Wake Up, Little Susie (a song about having sex at the drive-in) and other Everly Brothers hits, as well as songs like the Dell-Vikings’ Come Go With Me.

The lyric says more than it seems, describing a party girl that all the kids know (in the Biblical sense?), that they talk about, who stays out late with boys, and who will soon be seventeen (the age of sexual consent, which of course means she’s currently under the age of consent…). The Party Queen is the fully sexual girl that Rizzo is and Sandy may become. In context, the writing song both comments on Rizzo’s fears of essay of darkness, pregnancy and foreshadows Sandy’s realization that she’s too repressed sexually. This scene also shows us another aspect of model, 50s teen culture, the Basement Party. Grace Palladino writes in Teenagers , If their parents could afford it, they followed the experts’ advice to fix up party rooms to of darkness, keep young teenagers safe at home . . . complete with a television set, soft drink bar, and plenty of room for dancing. To An University! Jan hosts this party and Marty hosts the pajama party in Act I – their parents clearly know about essay, this philosophy.

But the scene is 3.2 important dramatically because it’s the essay first time we see both Rizzo and essays Kenickie grapple with real, serious emotions, revealing a vulnerability that is uncomfortable for both of them. Rizzo’s big Eleven O’Clock Number (the big character-revealing song just before the finale) is the essay on beauty now classic There Are Worse Things I Could Do, possibly inspired by The Tune Weavers’ Happy, Happy Birthday, Baby, a 50s song with a similar broken heart theme and beat. Rizzo is (spiritually if not actually) one of the essays of global Beats (commonly – and derisively – called Beatniks by the mainstream to suggest that they were Communists), a group most famously represented by Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, who in the 1950s rejected mainstream values, morality, and on beauty of darkness art, trying to break through the faade of polite society to essays warming, a more honest, more authentic way of living. On Beauty! Worse Things contains the entirety of 1950s youth (and Beat) morality in its lyric. Like everything else in Grease , Rizzo represents that transition from the 50s to the 60s. She’d like us to essays and effects of global warming, think she’s as authentic as they come, but she hides Kenickie’s paternity from him and she hides her hurt from her friends.

It’s only when Sandy calls Rizzo on her mask that Rizzo sings There Are Worse Things I Could Do, beginning a two-song arc of on beauty of darkness, revelation for Sandy. Structurally, this song links these two women. In each of the composition three verses, Rizzo attacks Sandy for her perceived sins – being a tease (leading Danny on but not delivering), being self-pitying (most notably in Raining on Prom Night), and being judgmental (in the scene leading up to the song). As often happens in real life, the sins Rizzo sees in Sandy are also Rizzo’s sins as well. Worse Things segues directly to of darkness, its companion piece, Sandy's parallel self-evaluation, the reprise of on causes and effects, Look at Me, I'm Sandra Dee, in on beauty, which Sandy finally sees and accepts the truth in Rizzo’s metaphor, finally recognizing that she must reject artificial values imposed by othersand find her own way. Decisions Essay! But Sandy only comes to this realization because Worse Things opened her up to the idea of authenticity as a fundamental value; now she can act on that newfound wisdom in of darkness, her reprise (just like in all the ancient hero myths). Tim Riley argues in Fever that early rock and roll delievered a powerful message to its listeners: The challenge of building an original identity, rather than accepting a received identity predicated on the values of their parents, became a necessary life passage. Like all the best theatre songs, Sandy makes a decision in the Sandra Dee reprise, and essays and effects of global warming the plot takes a turn toward its final destination. Sandy must decide who she is herself and on beauty of darkness what she values; she must embrace all of who she is, including her sexuality. She now realizes that only thesis when she is true to herself can she be happy with Danny, and this final revelation will lead us to the show’s rowdy, playful finale All Choked Up (sadly replaced in the film by the less carnal disco number You're the One That I Want).

And again, we can see Jacobs and Casey’s lyric writing craft here, as they effortlessly spin out multiple internal rhymes without ever disrupting a line or thought: There has to be. Something more than what they see. Wholesome and pure, Also scared and unsure, A poor man’s Sandra Dee. Poor even rhymes (unnoticed) with pure and unsure . The bridge is loaded with long e and on beauty long i sounds, in an ABCABC rhyme scheme, with a close interior rhyme at the end, in has and last : When they criticize.

And make fun of brave essay, me, Can’t they see the tears in my smile? Don’t they realize. There’s just one of essay on beauty, me, And it has to an introduction to an essay, last me a while?

And the rhyming accelerates in essay, the last verse, giving the song real momentum as Sandy marches toward triumph: Must start anew. Don’t you know what you. Hold your head high, Take a deep breath and sigh, Here again, some usually unnoticed treasure, in decisions essay, the powerful alliteration of Hold your head high , as each successive line climbs musically higher and higher to the climax.

But this song isn’t just about Sandy saying goodbye to her false idols; it’s also about America saying goodbye to essay on beauty, the false idols of the 1950s, saying goodbye to the turning of its collective blind eye away from the hidden horrors of the decade: rampant racism, sexism, homophobia, teen pregnancy and abortion, prescription drug abuse in the suburbs, and so much more. Sandy has to face herself and find her own authenticity, but so too does America. The rowdy All Choked Up, the show’s climax, is clearly inspired by Jerry Lee Lewis’ Great Balls of cell membrane questions, Fire and of darkness perhaps also by Little Willie John’s Fever (later recorded by Peggy Lee in 1958), not only paying tribute to the music but also to model essay composition, the content of Great Balls of Fire, with the idea of love causing sickness. Here Grease shows us the turmoil ahead in the 1960s, as sexual roles are reversed. Now that Sandy is a sexual being, she can finally sing real rock and roll. Now Sandy is the aggressor, a lesson she learned from rock and roll, a social trend that would soon push boundaries further and on beauty of darkness further, from Tina Turner’s A Fool in Love well into the 1970s. Cell Membrane Questions! This is the beginning of feminism. Now American women could be sexual too. Essay On Beauty! Many of those who still object to the show’s ending miss the point of the show and may be unconsciously still caught up in gender stereotypes from the 50s that remain pervasive today. If a boy is sexually aggressive (as in Greased Lightning) he’s just a Guy. If a girl is sexually aggressive, she’s a Slut.

Have we really come all that far since 1959? But notice the lyric that Sandy sings: Oh baby, take it slow and model composition don’t complain… She’s still not ready to sleep with Danny. And later in the song: Danny: Oh baby, take my ring ‘cause you’re my match. Sandy: Well, I still think there’s strings attached… Danny: You’re writin’ my epitaph! Sandy: Well, that’s just tough and half. Danny: You’re gonna make me die! Sandy: Don’t make me laugh!

Sandy may have changed the way she looks, and essay on beauty she may now have a more progressive philosophy of sexuality, but no matter how dramatically Danny pleads, she’s still not going all the way just yet; that part of 3.2, her has not changed fundamentally. Of Darkness! She has not become a slut. But perhaps even more significant than Sandy’s new sexualized rock and roll persona in All Choked Up is her line after the song: Danny asks her if she’s still mad at him and she answers, Nah, fuck it. Essay Composition! That this is the first time we’ve heard Sandy talk like that is certainly important, but even more so is what her answer means . The phrase is not just obscene; it’s also a universally recognized idiom with two related meanings. First, it says to on beauty, the world that the speaker just doesn’t care anymore. Sandy’s not just cussing here; she’s publicly rejecting all the values of her past life, in particular the brave essay idea that sex is dirty.

She’s moving from the 50s to the 60s. The other parallel meaning is that regardless of the consequences, the speaker is charging ahead, and on beauty that’s part of this moment as well.

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Transcript: President Obama's Convention Speech. Transcript of President Obama's acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention, as delivered. Source: Federal News Service: President Obama gives his acceptance speech at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on Thursday. Of Darkness! Alex Wong/Getty Images hide caption. President Obama gives his acceptance speech at model essay, the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, N.C., on essay on beauty, Thursday. Alex Wong/Getty Images. PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you. Thematic Essay! (Sustained cheers, applause.) Thank you. Thank you.

Thank you so much. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: Thank you so much. Thank you. Thank you very much, everybody. (Cheers, applause.) Thank you. Michelle, I love you so much. (Cheers, applause.)

A few nights ago, everybody was reminded just what a lucky man I am. (Cheers, applause.) Malia and Sasha, we are so proud of you. (Cheers, applause.) And yes, you do have to go to school in the morning. (Chuckles.) (Laughter, applause.) And Joe Biden, thank you for being the very best vice president I could have ever hoped for — (cheers, applause) — and being a strong and loyal friend. Madam Chairwoman, delegates, I accept your nomination for president of the United States. (Cheers, applause.) President Obama addresses the Democratic National Convention, from on beauty PBS NewsHour. AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) Four more years! Four more years! Four more years! Four more years!

PRESIDENT OBAMA: Now, the first time I addressed this convention, in 2004, I was a younger man — (laughter) — a Senate candidate from Illinois who spoke about essay composition, hope, not blind optimism, not wishful thinking but hope in the face of essay on beauty, difficulty, hope in the face of uncertainty, that dogged faith in the future which has pushed this nation forward even when the odds are great, even when the road is long. Eight years later that hope has been tested by the cost of new world thematic, war, by one of the worst economic crises in history and by political gridlock that's left us wondering whether it's still even possible to tackle the challenges of our time. I know campaigns can seem small, even silly sometimes. Trivial things become big distractions. Serious issues become sound bites. The truth gets buried under an avalanche of money and advertising. Essay Of Darkness! And if you're sick of hearing me approve this message, believe me, so am I. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) But when all is said and done, when you pick up that ballot to vote, you will face the clearest choice of any time in a generation. (Cheers.) Over the next few years big decisions will be made in Washington on decisions essay, jobs, the economy, taxes and deficits, energy, education, war and peace — decisions that will have a huge impact on our lives and on our children's lives for essay, decades to come. And on every issue, the choice you face won't just be between two candidates or two parties.

It will be a choice between two different paths for America, a choice between two fundamentally different visions for on causes warming, the future. Ours is a fight to restore the values that built the largest middle class and the strongest economy the world has ever known — (cheers, applause) — the values my grandfather defended as a soldier in Patton's army, the values that drove my grandmother to on beauty, work on a bomber assembly line while he was gone. Brave New World Thematic Essay! They knew they were part of something larger — a nation that triumphed over of darkness, fascism and depression, a nation where the most innovative businesses turn out the world's best products, and everyone shared in that pride and success from the corner office to the factory floor. My grandparents were given the chance to membrane, go to college and buy their home — their own home and fulfill the basic bargain at the heart of America's story, the essay on beauty, promise that hard work will pay off, that responsibility will be rewarded, that everyone gets a fair shot and everyone does their fair share and thesis everyone plays by the same rules, from Main Street to Wall Street to Washington, D.C. (Cheers, applause.) And I ran for president because I saw that basic bargain slipping away. I began my career helping people in the shadow of on beauty of darkness, a shuttered steel mill at a time when too many good jobs were starting to move overseas.

And by 2008 we had seen nearly a decade in which families struggled with costs that kept rising but paychecks that didn't, folks racking up more and more debt just to make the mortgage or pay tuition, put gas in the car or food on the table. Brave Thematic Essay! And when the of darkness, house of cards collapsed in the Great Recession, millions of innocent Americans lost their jobs, their homes, their life savings, a tragedy from which we're still fighting to recover. Now, our friends down in model, Tampa at the Republican convention were more than happy to talk about everything they think is wrong with America. Essay On Beauty! But they didn't have much to say about how they'd make it right. (Cheers, applause.) They want your vote, but they don't want you to know their plan. Brave Thematic! And that's because all they have to offer is the essay on beauty, same prescriptions they've had for the last 30 years. Have a surplus? Try a tax cut. Deficit too high — try another. Feel a cold coming on? Take two tax cuts, roll back some regulations, and writing an introduction to an essay call us in the morning. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I've cut taxes for those who need it — (cheers, applause) — middle-class families, small businesses.

But I don't believe that another round of tax breaks for millionaires will bring good jobs to our shores, or pay down our deficit. On Beauty Of Darkness! I don't believe that firing teachers or kicking students off financial aid will grow the economy — (cheers, applause) — or help us compete with the scientists and engineers coming out of China. After all we've been through, I don't believe that rolling back regulations on Wall Street will help the small-businesswoman expand, or the brave thematic essay, laid-off construction worker keep his home. We have been there, we've tried that, and we're not going back. We are moving forward, America. (Cheers, applause.) Now, I won't pretend the path I'm offering is quick or easy. I never have. You didn't elect me to tell you what you wanted to hear. You elected me to tell you the truth. Of Darkness! (Cheers, applause.) And the truth is, it will take more than a few years for us to composition, solve challenges that have built up over decades. It'll require common effort, shared responsibility, and the kind of bold, persistent experimentation that Franklin Roosevelt pursued during the only crisis worse than this one. (Cheers, applause.)

And by on beauty, the way, those of us who carry on his party's legacy should remember that not every problem can be remedied with another government program or dictate from cell essay Washington. But know this, America: Our problems can be solved. (Cheers, applause.) Our challenges can be met. (Applause.) The path we offer may be harder, but it leads to a better place, and I'm asking you to choose that future. (Applause.) I'm asking you to essay of darkness, rally around a set of goals for on causes warming, your country, goals in manufacturing, energy, education, national security and the deficit, real, achievable plans that will lead to new jobs, more opportunity and rebuild this economy on essay of darkness, a stronger foundation. An Introduction To An Essay! That's what we can do in the next four years, and that is why I am running for a second term as president of the on beauty, United States. (Cheers, applause.) We can choose a future where we export more products and outsource fewer jobs. After a decade that was defined by model essay, what we bought and borrowed, we're getting back to basics and on beauty of darkness doing what America's always done best. We are making things again. Brave New World Thematic Essay! (Applause.) I've met workers in Detroit and Toledo who feared — (cheers, applause) — they'd never build another American car.

And today they can't build them fast enough because we reinvented a dying auto industry that's back on essay of darkness, the top of the world. (Cheers, applause.) I worked with business leaders who are bringing jobs back to America not because our workers make less pay, but because we make better products — (cheers) — because we work harder and smarter than anyone else. (Cheers, applause.) I've signed trade agreements that are helping our companies sell more goods to millions of new customers, goods that are stamped with three proud words: Made in America. (Cheers, applause.) AUDIENCE MEMBERS: (Chanting.) USA! USA! USA! USA! USA!

USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! USA! PRESIDENT OBAMA: And after a decade of decline, this country created over and effects of global, half a million manufacturing jobs in on beauty, the last 2 1/2 years. (Cheers.) And now you have a choice. We can give more tax breaks to corporations that shift jobs overseas PRESIDENT OBAMA: — or we can start rewarding companies that open new plants and train new workers and create new jobs here in the United States of America. Essay University! (Cheers, applause.) We can help big factories and small businesses double their exports. And if we choose this path, we can create a million new manufacturing jobs in the next four years. You can make that happen. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future.

You can choose the path where we control more of our own energy. After 30 years of inaction, we raised fuel standards so that by the middle of the next decade, cars and trucks will go twice as far on a gallon of gas. (Cheers, applause.) We have doubled our use of renewable energy, and thousands of Americans have jobs today building wind turbines and long-lasting batteries. Essay Of Darkness! (Cheers, applause.) In the last year alone, we cut oil imports by 1 million barrels a day, more than any administration in recent history. Model Composition! (Cheers, applause.) And today the United States of America is less dependent on foreign oil than at any time in the last two decades. (Cheers, applause.) So now you have a choice between a strategy that reverses this progress or one that builds on of darkness, it. We've opened millions of new acres for oil and gas exploration in the last three years, and we'll open more. But unlike my opponent, I will not let oil companies write this country's energy plan or endanger our coastlines or collect another $4 billion in corporate welfare from our taxpayers. (Cheers, applause.) We're offering a better path. We're offering a better path where we — a future where we keep investing in cell questions, wind and solar and clean coal, where farmers and on beauty of darkness scientists harness new biofuels to power our cars and writing essay trucks, where construction workers build homes and of darkness factories that waste less energy, where — where we develop a hundred-year supply of writing an introduction essay university, natural gas that's right beneath our feet. If you choose this path, we can cut our oil imports in half by on beauty of darkness, 2020 and support more than 600,000 new jobs in new world thematic essay, natural gas alone. Essay! (Cheers, applause. And yes, my plan will continue to on causes and effects of global warming, reduce the carbon pollution that is heating our planet, because climate change is not a hoax. More droughts and floods and wildfires are not a joke. (Cheers, applause.) They are a threat to our children's future. And in this election, you can do something about it. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where more Americans have the on beauty of darkness, chance to gain the skills they need to compete, no matter how old they are or how much money they have.

Education was the gateway to opportunity for me. (Cheers.) It was the gateway for Michelle. It was — it was the gateway for brave new world thematic essay, most of you. And now more than ever it is the gateway to essay on beauty, a middle-class life. For the first time in a generation, nearly every state has answered our call to raise their standards for teaching and learning. (Cheers, applause.) Some of the worst schools in cell membrane, the country have made real gains in essay on beauty, math and reading. Lancia Thesis! Millions of students are paying less for college today because we finally took on a system that wasted billions of on beauty, taxpayer dollars on banks and lenders. (Cheers, applause.) And now you have a choice. We can gut education, or we can decide that in the United States of America, no child should have her dreams deferred because of a crowded classroom or a crumbling school. No family should have to lancia thesis 3.2, set aside a college acceptance letter because they don't have the of darkness, money. (Cheers, applause.) No company should have to look for workers overseas because they couldn't find any with the right skills here at home. (Cheers, applause.) That's not our future. That is not our future. (Cheers, applause.)

A government has a role in this. But teachers must inspire. Principals must lead. Parents must instill a thirst for thesis 3.2, learning. And students, you've got to do the essay on beauty of darkness, work. (Cheers, applause.) And together, I promise you we can outeducate and outcompete any nation on earth. Writing An Introduction To An! (Cheers, applause.) So help me. On Beauty! Help me recruit a hundred thousand math and science teachers within 10 years and decisions essay improve early childhood education. (Cheers, applause.) Help give 2 million workers the chance to learn skills at their community college that will lead directly to a job.

Help us work with colleges and on beauty universities to cut in half the membrane, growth of tuition costs over the next 10 years. We can meet that goal together. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose that future for America. (Cheers, applause.) That's our future. You know, in a world of new threats and new challenges, you can choose leadership that has been tested and proven. Four years ago I promised to end the essay on beauty, war in Iraq. We did. (Cheers, applause.) I promised to refocus on the terrorists who actually attacked us on 9/11, and we have. (Cheers, applause.) We've blunted the Taliban's momentum in Afghanistan and in essays and effects of global warming, 2014, our longest war will be over. Essay! (Cheers, applause.) A new tower rises above the New York skyline, al- Qaida is on the path to defeat and Osama bin Laden is lancia 3.2, dead. On Beauty! (Cheers, applause.) And tonight we pay tribute to the Americans who still serve in harm's way. Decisions Essay! We are forever in debt to a generation whose sacrifice has made this country safer and of darkness more respected. Writing An Introduction To An University! We will never forget you, and so long as I'm commander in chief, we will sustain the strongest military the on beauty, world has ever known. Membrane Essay Questions! (Cheers, applause.) When you take off the uniform, we will serve you as well as you've served us, because no one who fights for this country should have to fight for a job or a roof over their head or the care that they need when they come home.

Around the world, we've strengthened old alliances and forged new coalitions to on beauty, stop the spread of nuclear weapons. We've reasserted our power across the essays on causes and effects of global, Pacific and stood up to China on behalf of essay of darkness, our workers. From Burma to model essay, Libya to South Sudan, we have advanced the rights and dignity of all human beings — (cheers) — men and women; Christians and Muslims and Jews. (Cheers, applause.) But for all the progress that we've made, challenges remain. Terrorist plots must be disrupted. Europe's crisis must be contained. Our commitment to Israel's security must not waver, and neither must our pursuit of peace. (Cheers, applause.) The Iranian government must face a world that stays united against its nuclear ambitions. The historic change sweeping across the Arab world must be defined not by the iron fist of a dictator or the hate of extremists, but by the hopes and aspirations of ordinary people who are reaching for the same rights that we celebrate here today. (Cheers, applause.) So now we have a choice. Essay! My opponent and his running mate are new to thematic, foreign policy. (Laughter, applause.) But from all that we've seen and heard, they want to take us back to on beauty, an era of blustering and blundering that cost America so dearly.

After all, you don't call Russia our number one enemy — not al- Qaida, Russia — (laughter) — unless you're still stuck in cell membrane, a Cold War mind warp. (Cheers, applause.) You might not be ready for diplomacy with Beijing if you can't visit the Olympics without insulting our closest ally. (Laughter, cheers, applause.) My opponent — my opponent said that it was tragic to end the war in Iraq. And he won't tell us how he'll end the war in Afghanistan. Well, I have, and I will. (Cheers, applause.) And while my opponent would spend more money on military hardware that our Joint Chiefs don't even want, I will use the money we're no longer spending on war to pay down our debt and of darkness put more people back to lancia 3.2, work — (extended cheers, applause) — rebuilding roads and bridges and schools and essay runways, because after two wars that have cost us thousands of lives and over a trillion dollars, it's time to model essay composition, do some nation building right here at home. (Cheers, applause.) You can choose a future where we reduce our deficit without sticking it to the middle class. (Cheers, applause.) Independent experts say that my plan would cut our deficit by $4 trillion. (Cheers.) And last summer I worked with Republicans in Congress to cut a billion dollars in essay, spending, because those of us who believe government can be a force for good should work harder than anyone to reform it so that it's leaner and more efficient and more responsive to the American people. (Cheers, applause.) I want to reform the lancia 3.2, tax code so that it's simple, fair and asks the wealthiest households to on beauty, pay higher taxes on an introduction to an, incomes over $250,000 — (cheers, applause) — the same rate we had when Bill Clinton was president, the same rate we had when our economy created nearly 23 million new jobs, the biggest surplus in history and essay of darkness a whole lot of an introduction essay university, millionaires to boot. Now, I'm still eager to essay on beauty of darkness, reach an agreement based on lancia, the principles of my bipartisan debt commission. No party has a monopoly on wisdom.

No democracy works without compromise. I want to get this done, and we can get it done. But when Governor Romney and his friends in Congress tell us we can somehow lower our deficits by spending trillions more on essay of darkness, new tax breaks for the wealthy, well — (boos) — what'd Bill Clinton call it? You do the arithmetic. And Effects Of Global Warming! (Laughter, cheers, applause.) You do the math. I refuse to go along with that, and as long as I'm president, I never will. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to essay, ask middle-class families to give up their deductions for owning a home or raising their kids just to pay for cell membrane essay questions, another millionaire's tax cut. (Cheers, applause.) I refuse to ask students to pay more for of darkness, college or kick children out of Head Start programs to eliminate health insurance for millions of essay, Americans who are poor and essay on beauty of darkness elderly or disabled all so those with the most can pay less. Decisions Essay! I'm not going along with that. (Continued cheers, applause.) And I will never — I will never turn Medicare into a voucher. Essay Of Darkness! (Cheers, applause.) No American should ever have to decisions essay, spend their golden years at the mercy of on beauty of darkness, insurance companies.

They should retire with the care and the dignity that they have earned. Yes, we will reform and writing an introduction to an essay strengthen Medicare for the long haul, but we'll do it by reducing the cost of health care, not by asking seniors to pay thousands of on beauty, dollars more. (Cheers, applause.) And we will keep the promise of Social Security by decisions essay, taking the on beauty, responsible steps to 3.2, strengthen it, not by turning it over to Wall Street. On Beauty Of Darkness! (Cheers, applause.) This is the choice we now face. This is cell membrane questions, what the election comes down to. Essay On Beauty! Over and over, we've been told by lancia thesis, our opponents that bigger tax cuts and essay of darkness fewer regulations are the university, only way, that since government can't do everything, it should do almost nothing. If you can't afford health insurance, hope that you don't get sick. Essay! (Murmurs of thesis 3.2, disapproval.) If a company releases toxic pollution into the air your children breathe, well, that's the price of progress. Essay Of Darkness! If you can't afford to start a business or go to college, take my opponent's advice and borrow money from your parents. (Laughter, mixed cheers and boos, applause.)

You know what, that's not who we are. That's not what this country is about. As Americans, we believe we are endowed by our Creator with certain inalienable rights, rights that no man or government can take away. We insist on personal responsibility, and we celebrate individual initiative. We're not entitled to decisions essay, success. We have to earn it. We honor the of darkness, strivers, the dreamers, the risk- takers, the entrepreneurs who have always been the driving force behind our free enterprise system, the model, greatest engine of on beauty, growth and prosperity that the world's ever known. But we also believe in something called citizenship — (cheers, applause) — citizenship, a word at cell membrane essay, the very heart of our founding, a word at the very essence of our democracy, the idea that this country only works when we accept certain obligations to one another and to future generations. We believe that when a CEO pays his autoworkers enough to buy the cars that they build, the whole company does better. On Beauty Of Darkness! (Cheers, applause.)

We believe that when a family can no longer be tricked into signing a mortgage they can't afford, that family's protected, but so is the value of other people's homes — (cheers, applause) — and so is the new world thematic essay, entire economy. (Applause.) We believe the on beauty, little girl who's offered an escape from poverty by a great teacher or a grant for essay composition, college could become the next Steve Jobs or the scientist who cures cancer or the essay of darkness, president of the United States — (cheers, applause) — and it is in our power to essays on causes, give her that chance. (Cheers, applause.) We know that churches and of darkness charities can often make more of a difference than a poverty program alone. We don't want handouts for thesis 3.2, people who refuse to help themselves, and we certainly don't want bailouts for banks that break the rules. (Cheers, applause.) We don't think the government can solve all of our problems, but we don't think the government is the source of all of our problems — (cheers, applause) — any more than our welfare recipients or corporations or unions or immigrants or gays or any other group we're told to blame for our troubles — (cheers, applause) — because — because America, we understand that this democracy is ours. We, the people — (cheers) — recognize that we have responsibilities as well as rights; that our destinies are bound together; that a freedom which asks only, what's in it for on beauty, me, a freedom without a commitment to others, a freedom without love or charity or duty or patriotism, is unworthy of our founding ideals, and those who died in their defense. (Cheers, applause.) As citizens, we understand that America is not about what can be done for us. Essay! It's about what can be done by us, together — (cheers, applause) — through the hard and frustrating but necessary work of of darkness, self-government. That's what we believe.

So you see, the election four years ago wasn't about me. It was about you. (Cheers, applause.) My fellow citizens — you were the change. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason there's a little girl with a heart disorder in Phoenix who'll get the surgery she needs because an insurance company can't limit her coverage. You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young man in Colorado who never thought he'd be able to afford his dream of earning a medical degree is about to get that chance. You made that possible. (Cheers, applause.) You're the reason a young immigrant who grew up here and went to school here and pledged allegiance to our flag will no longer be deported from the thesis 3.2, only country she's ever called home — (cheers, applause) — why selfless soldiers won't be kicked out of the military because of essay on beauty, who they are or who they love, why thousands of families have finally been able to say to the loved ones who served us so bravely, welcome home. (Cheers, applause.) Welcome home.

You did that. You did that. (Cheers, applause.) You did that. If you turn away now — if you turn away now, if you buy into the cynicism that the change we fought for isn't possible, well, change will not happen. If you give up on essay composition, the idea that your voice can make a difference, then other voices will fill the void, the lobbyists and special interests, the people with the on beauty, $10 million checks who are trying to buy this election and brave new world essay those who are trying to make it harder for essay on beauty of darkness, you to cell membrane essay, vote, Washington politicians who want to essay of darkness, decide who you can marry or control health care choices that women should be making for themselves. (Cheers, applause.) Only you can make sure that doesn't happen. New World Essay! Only you have the on beauty of darkness, power to move us forward. You know, I recognize that times have changed since I first spoke to to an university, this convention. Times have changed, and so have I. Essay On Beauty! I'm no longer just a candidate. I'm the president. (Cheers, applause.) And — (applause) — and essay that's AUDIENCE MEMBERS: Four more years!

Four more years! PRESIDENT OBAMA: And that — and essay on beauty that means I know what it means to send young Americans into battle, for I've held in writing essay university, my arms the mothers and fathers of those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and of darkness the frustration of essay, workers who've lost their jobs. If the critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on polls, then I must not be very good at reading them. Essay On Beauty Of Darkness! (Laughter.) And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together — (cheers) — I'm far more mindful of my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to my knees many times by decisions essay, the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. , for I have held in my arms the mothers and fathers of on beauty, those who didn't return. I've shared the pain of families who've lost their homes, and cell membrane essay the frustration of workers who've lost their jobs. Of Darkness! If the critics are right that I've made all my decisions based on of global warming, polls, then I must not be very good at reading them. And while I'm proud of what we've achieved together, I'm far more mindful of on beauty, my own failings, knowing exactly what Lincoln meant when he said, I have been driven to my knees many times by the overwhelming conviction that I had no place else to go. An Introduction Essay! (Cheers, applause.) But as I stand here tonight, I have never been more hopeful about of darkness, America. (Cheers, applause.) Not because I think I have all the answers.

Not because I'm naive about the magnitude of our challenges. I'm hopeful because of composition, you. The young woman I met at a science fair who won national recognition for her biology research while living with her family at a homeless shelter — she gives me hope. Essay! (Cheers, applause.) The auto worker who won the lottery after his plant almost closed, but kept coming to writing, work every day, and bought flags for his whole town and one of the cars that he built to surprise his wife — he gives me hope. The family business in essay on beauty, Warroad, Minnesota, that didn't lay off a single one of their 4,000 employees when the recession hit — (cheers, applause) — even when their competitors shut down dozens of plants, even when it meant the owner gave up some perks and some pay because they understood that their biggest asset was the essays, community and the workers who had helped build that business — they give me hope. (Cheers, applause.) I think about the young sailor I met at Walter Reed Hospital still recovering from a grenade attack that would cause him to have his leg amputated above the knee. And six months ago we would watch him walk into a White House dinner honoring those who served in Iran (sic; Iraq) — tall and 20 pounds heavier, dashing in his uniform, with a big grin on his face, sturdy on his new leg. And I remember how a few months after that I would watch him on a bicycle, racing with his fellow wounded warriors on a sparkling spring day, inspiring other heroes who had just begun the hard path he had traveled. Essay On Beauty Of Darkness! He gives me hope. (Cheers, applause.) He gives me hope.

I don't know what party these men and cell membrane essay women belong to. I don't know if they'll vote for on beauty of darkness, me. On Causes Of Global! But I know that their spirit defines us. They remind me, in the words of Scripture, that ours is a future filled with hope. (Cheers.) And if you share that faith with me, if you share that hope with me, I ask you tonight for essay, your vote. If you reject the composition, notion that this nation's promise is reserved for on beauty, the few, your voice must be heard in this election. Brave New World Thematic Essay! (Cheers, applause.) If you reject the notion that our government is on beauty of darkness, forever beholden to the highest bidder, you need to stand up in this election. (Cheers, applause.) If you believe that new plants and factories can dot our landscape, that new energy can power our future, that new schools can provide ladders of decisions essay, opportunity to this nation of essay of darkness, dreamers, if you believe in a country where everyone gets a fair shot, and lancia thesis everyone does their fair share and on beauty everyone plays by the same rules, then I need you to vote this November. Decisions Essay! (Cheers, applause.) America, I never said this journey would be easy, and essay I won't promise that now. And Effects! Yes, our path is harder, but it leads to a better place. Essay Of Darkness! (Cheers.) Yes, our road is model, longer, but we travel it together. Essay On Beauty Of Darkness! (Cheers.)

We don't turn back. Membrane! We leave no one behind. (Cheers.) We pull each other up. (Cheers, applause.) We draw strength from our victories. (Cheers, applause.) And we learn from on beauty of darkness our mistakes. But we keep our eyes fixed on that distant horizon knowing that providence is with us and essay composition that we are surely blessed to essay of darkness, be citizens of the greatest nation on earth. Thank you, God bless you and God bless these United States. (Cheers, applause.)

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ad analysis essay Grace Gould, Claire Ramey, Lucy Butcher. Of Darkness. This 2009 “integrated recruitment campaign” from the an introduction university, Oregon-based athletic wear giant Nike – via the Californian advertising agency 72andSunny – “taps into the competitive spirit of young runners” and calls them to gendered action: “Join the on beauty, Men vs. Women Challenge at Nikeplus.com” ( 72andsunny.com 2011; Hoovers.com 2011). Runners entered the competition, which launched in early March 2009 and ended in late April of the same year (won by the men), through the Nike plus ( Nike+ )website, where they could purchase customizable athletic shoes and clothing as well as software for tracking distances run ( RunningfromZombies 2009; Nike Runing 2011). Acquisition of this software, compatible with iPods or a specially designed Nike+ SportBand, granted access to “the world’s largest running club,” a Facebook- like social network that continues to provide personalized training schedules and progress reports as well as opportunities for interacting with fellow runners. Indeed, though the essays on causes and effects, “Men vs. Women Challenge” has ended, the Nike+ network is still available, and maintainsan active user base, emphasizing the essay, running community as a whole ( Nike Running ). Cell Membrane Essay. (Click to essay on beauty, enlarge). Why did Nike invoke gendered competition to lure its initial audience?

The 2009 campaign speaks to resilient Euro-American constructions of lancia gender as consisting of essay on beauty of darkness two discrete and composition heteronormative categories, at once opposed and unified, and of all gender relations as an inherent biological and psychological battle for dominance (see Pinker 1997). Thorne (1993), in of darkness her study of American children’s interactions on school playgrounds, observes that “friendly” competitive frameworks are often employed to indirectly address certain underlying tensions. “Kids use the frame of play (‘we’re only playing’; ‘it’s all fun’) as a guise for often serious, gender-related messages about sexuality and aggression,” she explains (5). Decisions Essay. This “friendly” competition speaks to cultural realities enacted in daily life, where abstract ideals of masculinity and of darkness femininity are continuously enacted through coded behaviors. Similarly, in Nike’s ad campaign, the thesis, challenge is constantly couched in terms of play. Nike’s television ad, for example, features men and women gleefully attempting to slow each other down through childish pranks – stealing glasses, tripping each other, etc. As the more serious and essay on beauty of darkness competitive implications of the lancia thesis, print ads illustrate, however, (note the intense facial expressions, the dedicated hand gestures, etc.) underlying this friendly framework is a narrative of very real battle for dominance. The “Men vs. Women Challenge” calls for young runners to prove not just their own merit, but that of essay their entire gender. Suddenly, the popularly circulated and aspired to notion of masculinity – couched in notions of athletic superiority and competitive aggression – is in question. What are men they if let the women beat them at their own game?

Suddenly, women’s assertions of gender equality are in question – they have to prove that they are better than the men, first at running, and then in the public sphere, all the while maintaining sexed female traits. Essays And Effects Warming. A race between men and essay of darkness women becomes an indirect dialogue concerning physical and social power as well as the negotiation of gendered behaviors. Combined, these ads reflect the high stakes of gender politics. The explicit message of the ad series is largely conveyed through text. The text is large, white, and prominently placed against questions dark backgrounds. Though there is not a clear sequence for on beauty of darkness, the blurbs, the ad featuring the man and woman together seems a summing up of the content of the other three, since its rhetoric isn’t inherently inciting. It posits a simple binary between “men” and “women,” which Nike, like most companies and agencies, thinks to be most effective in essays warming attracting a wide pool of consumers. The word “challenge” is set off by essay on beauty of darkness, itself spatially in an attempt to emphasize the competitive instinct that Nike wishes to instill in viewers – a drive that will bring them to the Nike Plus website to purchase special shoes needed to compete with. The initial firing up of viewers, however, is left mostly to the other three ads.

The ads featuring the single woman and the single man are interdependent: it takes two for lancia thesis 3.2, a proper competition. However, without one ad near the essay of darkness, other, it’s easy to jump to sexist conclusions suggested by the text. The men’s slogan, “One more thing for men to rule,” is juxtaposed with the women’s slogan, “Ladies first. Men second.” By design, both should be equally arousing and empowering, if we miss or choose to overlook the an introduction essay university, connotations of “ladies first.” This phrase references both the age of chivalry in which the ideal manly disposition determined the courteous treatment of women, and its modern adaptation that can either be used derisively or to maintain unequal gender expectations. Essay On Beauty Of Darkness. Voicing the essay university, usually implied “men second” after the phrase is not enough to offset the fact that men fashioned it for their own prestige. “Ladies first” carries with it an unmistakable patronizing tone. Essay. Conversely, “One more thing for men to rule” points directly to essay, men’s frequent dominance beyond the on beauty of darkness, comparatively trivial Nike challenge at hand.

The shoe-featuring ad supports the notion that women need assistance to be “first.” Its slogan, “Custom fit for girls. Trouble for guys,” implies that only brave new world essay with special equipment can women hope to successfully challenge men. This Nike-enabled equality doesn’t foster equanimity between the sexes, however – it means “trouble for guys,” suggesting that otherwise men feel natural in their dominant cultural/social positions. The end of the subtext also presents a double message: “Give the guys something to chase” both restates that women aren’t worth competing against unless they have equipment to up their performance and insinuates that a woman can become more desirable socially/sexually to men by acquiring this particular shoe. Either way, the ad seeks to bolster women’s confidence by essay of darkness, subtly undermining it first, thus establishing the need to thematic essay, buy Nike shoes. The portrayal of male and female runners in of darkness Nike’s campaign consolidates all the intricacies embedded in the language and strategies of the ad – notions of competitiveness, gender dichotomy, sexualization, domination, etc. – in visual form. Similarly to its textual counterpart, the portrayal of bodies seems to begin in the individual ads, and culminates in the ad featuring both male and female runners. As such, the thesis, “grammar” (Jhally 1995: 82) of the images differs according to intended audience, offering, in one frame, a determined and on beauty agile female athlete, in the next, a woman pursued. Just as the strategy and language of the campaign offer two levels of interpretation (play vs. battle, “egalitarian” vs. sexist), the an introduction to an, portrayal of bodies lends itself to multiple meanings as well. These meanings, though slickly airbrushed over, are important to uncover because they reveal “the ways in which we think men and women behave,” (Jhally 1995: 81) and essay on beauty offer to on causes and effects, the viewer some form of “illusory happiness” (Jhally 1995: 80), a desire conveniently commodified in sneaker form – all in the blink of an essay, eye. It is important to investigate, then, what exactly Nike hopes to an introduction to an university, communicate visually before the reader turns the on beauty of darkness, page.

In the ads featuring solo athletes, both man and woman appear to be dedicated, active agents. At first glance, their positioning is fairly equal – both stare intently at their goal, arms in motion, actively engaged in the race. Upon more detailed inspection, however, subtle differences can be observed – the man offers the photographer a sturdy thumbs-up, while the woman’s hand, though engaged, is placed daintily over her hip. While these differences certainly suggest a hierarchy of difference, it is a hierarchy obscured by the advertisements’ text. Overall, then, these two images seem to be intended to, for the most part, stand on equal footing. This is likely due to essay composition, the ads’ intended audience, as each aims to of darkness, motivate its respective gender to participate in the competition. The ads featuring both male and female athlete, on the other hand, are far more problematic, and reveal the issues of battle, domination, and sexualization underlying the text and strategy. The runners’ bodies are positioned in membrane essay an erotically-charged manner, hips almost touching. The man turns completely away from the essay, camera, staring overtly at his competition. Writing An Introduction Essay University. The viewer is left to determine the meaning of this gaze.

Is he flirting with her? Egging her on? Pursuing her against her wishes? Several physical indicators seem to essay of darkness, imply the existence of a an aggressive and sexual underpinning. 3.2. The woman’s facial expression, for example, though similar to her individual photo, has changed. Her lips have drawn down, as if worried, whereas before her face was smooth and on beauty relaxed. Additionally, she does not return the man’s gaze, and does not seem to be enjoying his pursuit. These indicators are complicated further by the man’s overt dominance. He is featured at composition, the center of the on beauty, ad, both in front of and taller than the woman’s body.

His right hand is constricted strongly, as if grasping an invisible object – a gesture invoking strength – while his left still offers a vigorous thumbs-up. The woman’s fingers, however, have curled inwards, giving her a far less agentive look. Advertising campaigns like the one highlighted above trade in acculturated notions of gender and power. They reflect the ways in which these categories circulate in popular discourse, invoking and reinforcing them at the same time. Only by becoming aware of these concepts can we attempt to disamntle the structures that they support. Hoovers.com . 2011. Decisions Essay. 9 April 2011. Essay Of Darkness. http://www.hoovers.com/company/NIKE_Inc/rcthci- Jhally, Sut.

Image-Based Culture: Advertising in Popular Culture. Gender Race and Class in Media. Ed. Gail Dines. [S.l.]: [s.n.], 1995. Print. Pinker, Steven. “Family Values,” How the Mind Works.

New York: Norton, 1997. Runningfromzombies.com 20 April, 2009. 10 April 2011. Thorne, Barrie. Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School. New Brunswick: Rutgers University.

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