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“MEMORIES OF MY HIGH SCHOOL LIFE” | Euliza Gie Mendoza

Essay about my highschool life

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My life as a senior in high school | Young Minds | wvnews com

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My life as a senior in high school | Young Minds | wvnews com

Mutations in essay my highschool, VANGL1 Associated with Neural-Tube Defects. Zoha Kibar, Ph.D., Elena Torban, Ph.D., Jonathan R. McDearmid, Ph.D., Annie Reynolds, M.Sc., Joanne Berghout, B.Sc., Melissa Mathieu, B.Sc., Irena Kirillova, Ph.D., Patrizia De Marco, Ph.D., Elisa Merello, Ph.D., Julie M. Hayes, B.A., John B. Reality On Society! Wallingford, Ph.D., Pierre Drapeau, Ph.D., Valeria Capra, M.D., and Philippe Gros, Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1432-1437 April 5, 2007 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa060651. Neural-tube defects such as anencephaly and spina bifida constitute a group of common congenital malformations caused by complex genetic and environmental factors. We have identified three mutations in about my highschool life, the VANGL1 gene in patients with familial types (V239I and essay book of mice and men R274Q) and a sporadic type (M328T) of the disease, including a spontaneous mutation (V239I) appearing in a familial setting. In a protein–protein interaction assay V239I abolished interaction of VANGL1 protein with its binding partners, disheveled-1, -2, and -3. These findings implicate VANGL1 as a risk factor in human neural-tube defects. Neural-tube defects affect 1 to my highschool life 2 infants per 1000 births 1 and thesis picture are caused by a partial or complete failure of the neural tube to close during embryogenesis.

1 The most common forms of neural-tube defects are described as open defects (including anencephaly and myelomeningocele, or spina bifida), which result from the failure of fusion in the cranial and essay life spinal region of the research building neural tube, respectively. 1 Other open dysraphisms (including myeloschisis, hemimyelomeningocele, and essay about my highschool hemimyelocele) are sometimes associated with a Chiari II malformation. A number of skin-covered (closed) neural-tube defects are categorized clinically depending on paper construction the presence of about a subcutaneous mass (lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele) or the absence of such a mass (complex dysraphic states, including split cord malformations, dermal sinus, caudal regression, and segmental spinal dysgenesis). 2 All infants with anencephaly are stillborn or die shortly after birth, whereas many infants with spina bifida now survive but with severe disabilities. 1.

Maternal periconceptional supplementation of folic acid reduces the incidence of neural-tube defects by 50 to 70%. 3 Polymorphic variants in genes of the folate and homocysteine pathways have been associated with an Design Framework, increased risk of neural-tube defects, including a common variant (C677T) in the MTHFR gene (5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase). 3 However, population- and family-based studies indicate a complex multigenic cause of neural-tube defects. 1 Although no causative gene has been identified in humans, mutated Vangl2 is essay about my highschool present in building, the Loop-tail ( Lp ) mouse mutant 4,5 with a severe defect known as craniorachischisis. 6 Vangl2 is the mammalian homologue of the my highschool drosophila (fly) gene Stbm/Vang, which is required for tv effect, establishing planar cell polarity in the developing eye, wing, and about my highschool life leg tissues. 7,8. In the fly, planar cell polarity is controlled by a membrane-associated signaling complex composed of several proteins, including Stbm/Vang, frizzled (Fz), disheveled (Dvl), flamingo (Fmi), and prickle (Pk). Activation of planar cell polarity involves an thesis picture, asymmetric redistribution of essay about life these core proteins in which cytoplasmic Dvl and Pk are recruited to the plasma membrane, forming complexes with Fz and Stbm/Vang, respectively. Research! 9 In vertebrates, a second VANGL gene ( VANGL1 ) has been described. VANGL1 and VANGL2 proteins are highly similar.

Each has four predicted transmembrane domains and a cytoplasmic domain that includes a PDZ-binding motif that mediates protein–protein interaction. 10 In mice, Vangl1 and life Vangl2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are expressed in the ventral and Design Framework dorsal portions of the developing neural tube, respectively. 11. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in the VANGL1 and VANGL2 genes cause neural-tube defects and essay abrogate the physical interaction of the VANGL1 protein and disheveled proteins. This study included 144 patients with neural-tube defects, including 137 Italian patients with nonsyndromic spinal dysraphisms who were recruited at the Spina Bifida Center of the harrison resolved Gaslini Hospital in Genoa and 7 fetuses with craniorachischisis that were obtained from Groupe Hopitalier Necker-Enfants Malades in Paris. The Spina Bifida Center of Gaslini Hospital has recruited children with neural-tube defects since 1976, mainly from the life north and south of Italy. On Culture! All mothers of Italian patients lacked periconceptional supplementation of folic acid. Thirteen of the essay life Italian patients had a positive family history documented by research paper, clinical records — including findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and my highschool life radiography, which were obtained from essay of the book parents of patients — whereas all other patients had sporadic disease ( Table 1 Table 1 Characteristics of the Patients. , and Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix, which is about my highschool life available with the full text of this article at www.nejm.org). The control group consisted of 106 unrelated, randomly selected children who had been admitted to the Gaslini Children's Hospital for miscellaneous illnesses and healthy young adults who had contributed samples to essay on culture the blood bank of the Gaslini Institute. None of the patients had a first-degree relative with a neural-tube defect. The samples from all control subjects were anonymous.

Information associated with these samples included sex, region of birth, and age. All patients and control subjects were Italian with ancestors from about my highschool all parts of the country, as determined during genetic-counseling sessions. The experimental protocol was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients or their parents. We analyzed additional samples from 65 subjects in the control group obtained from the essay of mice and men Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) repository, which contains samples from French, Venezuelan, and Amish persons and also persons from Utah with northwestern European ancestry. The coding exons of VANGL1 (National Center for about life, Biotechnology Information accession number, NM_138959) were amplified by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay from genomic DNA with the use of primers flanking the exon–intron junctions, as described previously. 4 Primer sequences are available from the authors on request.

The PCR products were purified with the use of a Qiaquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen) and were sequenced with the essay clash use of the BigDye Terminator V2.0 cycle sequencing kit and an automated ABI 3700 instrument (Applied Biosystems). All mutations were verified by the dideoxynucleotide termination method and 33 P sequencing with the use of the Thermo Sequenase radiolabeled terminator cycle sequencing kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). Physical interactions between human VANGL1 and disheveled proteins were monitored as described previously. 10 For details, see the Methods section of the about my highschool Supplementary Appendix. We identified three Italian patients who were heterozygotic for missense mutations in thesis picture, VANGL1 (V239I, R274Q, and M328T). Essay About My Highschool Life! These mutations were predicted to affect amino acid residues that are conserved across members of the VANGL family. We did not detect these variants in research building construction, ancestrally matched controls or in my highschool life, CEPH controls. We observed V239I and essay book of mice R274Q in two patients with familial types of disease (Patient 103 and Patient 48, respectively) and M328T in a patient with a sporadic type (Patient 151).

The remaining 11 patients with familial types of a neural-tube defect did not carry any disease-specific mutation in the open reading frame of VANGL1 . We identified eight other sequence variants in the open reading frame of VANGL1 that were silent (that is, they did not change the predicted amino acid), that were present in both patients with neural-tube defects and control subjects, or that did not affect highly conserved residues (Table 2 of the Supplementary Appendix). Essay About My Highschool Life! On the other hand, we sequenced VANGL2 in both series of on culture clash patients and identified several variants but none that were predicted to about my highschool affect protein sequence (data not shown and in agreement with previous findings). 11. We detected a missense mutation in VANGL1 that is predicted to result in the substitution of valine with isoleucine at position 239 (V239I) in Patient 103, a 10-year-old Italian girl who had a severe form of Design Framework caudal regression (type IV of sacral agenesis, according to Pang's classification 12 ) with lipomyeloschisis, anorectal malformation, hydromelia, and tethered spinal cord (Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix). The girl's mother showed no clinical signs of essay about neural-tube defect, and her brother had a milder form of the disease, dermal sinus.

V239I was present in tv effect on society, the brother and mother of essay about life Patient 103 and was absent in the father and maternal aunt. However, the maternal grandparents did not carry the mutation, indicating that it had arisen de novo in reality tv effect, the germ line of one of the maternal grandparents or somatically in essay my highschool life, the mother and was subsequently transmitted through the harrison bergeron conflict resolved mother's germ line ( Figure 1A Figure 1 VANGL1 Mutations Associated with Neural-Tube Defects. The familial pedigrees are shown for Patient 103 (Panel A) and Patient 48 (Panel B), who carry the V239I (715G>A) and R274Q (821G>A) mutations, respectively. Patient 103 (arrow) was affected with lipomyeloschisis, hydromyelia, and about my highschool caudal regression. Her brother was affected with dermal sinus (patterned box). V239I was present in the brother and mother and absent in the father and essay on culture the maternal aunt and grandparents. Patient 48 (arrow) was affected with lumbosacral myelomeningocele (L5–S1) and hydrocephalus. Her mother and essay my highschool maternal aunt were affected with vertebral schisis (dotted circles). R274Q was present in the mother and Design absent in the father.

Panel C shows a topologic model of VANGL1 with the approximate positions of V239I, R274Q, and M328T indicated. Panel D shows a partial alignment of VANGL1 with 10 other vertebrate and about life invertebrate Stbm/Vangl sequences. Residues that are conserved between VANGL1 and other VANGL proteins are highlighted. Construction! VANGL1 substitutions of essay about V239I (left), R274Q (center), and M328T (right) that are found in patients with neural-tube defects affect conserved residues (indicated by arrows). National Center for Biotechnology Information accession numbers are NP_620409 for thesis picture, VANGL1, XP_049695 for VANGL2, NP_277044 for mouse (m) Vangl2, XP_222896 for rat (r) Vangl2, AAK70879 for xenopus (x) Vangl2, AAL30891 for zebrafish (z) Vangl2, AK113083 for ascidian (as) Vangl2, NP_477177 for drosophila (d) Stbm/Vang, EAA00250 for African malaria mosquito (ma) Stbm, and essay my highschool NP_508500 for Caenorhabditis elegans (ce) Stbm.

The protein sequence of mouse Vangl1 was initially reported by Wolff and Rubin in thesis picture, 1998. Life! 8 ). On Culture Clash! Additional genotyping confirmed paternity, maternity, and DNA authenticity in all family members (including the paternity and maternity of the mother of the proband) from whom DNA was available (not shown). Valine at position 239 is in the fourth predicted transmembrane domain of the VANGL1 protein ( Figure 1C ). It is invariant and part of a “VLLE” motif, which is conserved across all known Vangl proteins ( Figure 1D ). Although a substitution with isoleucine preserves the hydrophobic character of essay my highschool life valine, it introduces a bulky side chain, which may have structural or functional consequences. We identified a missense mutation that is predicted to result in the substitution of glutamine for arginine at essay book position 274 (R274Q) in Patient 48, a 19-year-old Italian girl who had myelomeningocele (level L5–S1), hydrocephalus, and congenital club feet (Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix). Essay About! Her mother and maternal aunt had vertebral schisis, a minimal sign of a neural-tube defect. R274Q was present in the mother but not in the father (DNA samples from the patient's maternal aunt and book brother were not available for analysis) ( Figure 1B ). R274Q is in the cytoplasmic domain of VANGL1 ( Figure 1C ). Essay My Highschool! It is invariant in all known orthologues (genes in two or more species that have evolved from a common ancestor) except that of Caenorhabditis elegans, in which it is replaced by glutamate ( Figure 1D ). Although a substitution of glutamate in the C. elegans orthologue is nonconservative, it preserves the charged character of arginine, a physical property that is harrison bergeron not preserved by substitution with glutamine. We detected a missense mutation that is predicted to result in the substitution of methionine with threonine at position 328 (M328T) in my highschool, a 21-year-old woman with sporadic disease; she had myelomeningocele (level L3–S1), hydrocephalus, Chiari II malformation, tethered spinal cord, club feet, lumbosacral scoliosis, and sacrococcygeal kyphosis. M328T is also in the predicted cytoplasmic domain of VANGL1 ( Figure 1C ). The hydrophobic character of essay methionine is conserved at this position across evolution ( Figure 1D ). M328T is not a conservative substitution because threonine contains a hydroxyl side chain that substantially increases the hydrophilicity at this position. Mouse Vangl1 and Vangl2 proteins physically interact with cytoplasmic Dvl1, Dvl2, and Dvl3; in mice, Lp -associated mutations of Vangl2 disrupt this interaction. 10 Therefore, we tested the ability of V239I, R274Q, and M328T variants of about life VANGL1 to essay clash interact with the about my highschool Dvl proteins with use of the yeast two-hybrid system.

All VANGL1 and on culture clash Dvl constructs were stably expressed at similar levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( Figure 2A Figure 2 Interaction of Human VANGL1 Variants with Disheveled Proteins in a Yeast Two-Hybrid System. Panel A shows immunoblotting of wild-type and mutant (V239I, R274Q, M328T, D259E, and S467N) VANGL1 variants (cytoplasmic domain, positions 243–526) expressed in yeast cells with a monoclonal antibody directed against a c- myc epitope engineered at the N-terminal of VANGL1 proteins. N-terminal segments of Dvl proteins (positions 1–404 of Dvl1-5, positions 1–418 of Dvl2-5, and my highschool life positions 1–395 of Dvl3-5) consisting of the DIX and PDZ domains and a C-terminal segment corresponding to the DEP domains of Dvl3 (positions 389–717 of thesis picture Dvl3-3) were detected with the essay my highschool life use of thesis picture a monoclonal antibody against an HA epitope present in all Dvl constructs, as well as in the control pGAD vector (pGAD). In Panel B, diploid cells, produced by life, mating cells Dvl (rows) and VANGL1-expressing yeast cells (columns), were plated on a medium of increasing stringency of selection to detect interaction (growth). The medium labeled ?Leu/?Trp lacks leucine and tryptophan and supports the growth of diploid cells without a requirement for harrison, protein interaction. Essay About My Highschool! The medium labeled –His/–Leu/–Trp (which lacks histidine, leucine, and tryptophan) and the medium labeled –Ade/–His/–Leu/–Trp (which lacks adenine, histidine, leucine, and tryptophan) support the growth of diploid cells only Channel, if proteins interact.

Interaction between the various Dvl and VANGL chimeras was verified by measuring the my highschool life activity of ?-galactosidase (Panel C) and ?-galactosidase (Panel D), as described previously. 10 The I bars indicate standard deviations. Building! ). Our results indicate that VANGL1 interacts with the N-terminal half of Dvl proteins and that this interaction is disrupted either completely (D259E) or partially (S467N) by Lp -associated mutations ( Figure 2B ). The V239I mutation in essay my highschool life, VANGL1 abrogated interaction between VANGL1 and all three Dvl proteins, whereas R274Q and M238T had no apparent effect on this interaction in this assay ( Figure 2B ). We obtained similar results regardless of the Design Framework “reporter” of this interaction (the secretion of essay ?-galactosidase or the production of thesis picture ?-galactosidase) in diploid yeast cells ( Figure 2C and my highschool 2D ). We have identified three VANGL1 mutations (V239I, R274Q, and M328T) in patients with sporadic and familial neural-tube defects. These three mutations affect residues conserved in Vangl proteins across species. Our findings contrast with those of a previous study in which no disease-specific mutation was identified in VANGL1 in a group of 66 patients with neural-tube defects. 11. The phenotype associated with V239I varied among patients. Paper Construction! This finding is consistent with the proposed multifactorial model for neural-tube defects; V239I probably has a partial or complete loss-of-function effect and interacts with other genetic loci or unknown environmental factors to modulate the essay about incidence and harrison bergeron conflict severity of the defect.

Notably, the mother of the proband with the V239I de novo mutation also had the mutation (de novo) but no phenotype for essay about, a neural-tube defect, possibly reflecting mosaicism (with respect to cells carrying the mutation) or variable penetrance or expressivity. At the biochemical level, V239I abolishes the interaction of VANGL1 with Dvl proteins, which may compromise the recruitment of Dvl to essay the plasma membrane and my highschool life thus perturb molecular signaling during gastrulation and neural-tube closure. Noncoding regulatory polymorphisms in VANGL1, particularly regulatory variants modulating the level of gene transcription, could also confer susceptibility to neural-tube defects. A thorough analysis of the promoter region of VANGL1 in our series of patients may uncover additional mutations predisposing to harrison bergeron resolved the condition. However, the essay my highschool life identification of such polymorphisms is challenging in the absence of detailed information on cis -acting sequence elements that regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of VANGL1 during embryogenesis. Our results are consistent with studies that underscore the critical role of core planar-cell-polarity genes ( Vangl2, Celsr1, Dvl, and Fz ) in essay on culture clash, controlling convergent extension, a process necessary for neural-tube closure. 4,5,13-16 Moreover, it was shown that mutations in Ptk7 interact genetically with Vangl2 in mice that are heterozygous for both mutations and essay about my highschool consequently develop neural-tube defects.

17 Studying the effect of Design Framework periconceptional supplementation with folic acid, inositol, and essay my highschool methionine on reality on society essay the emergence of about neural-tube defects in these mutants may shed further light on the preventive mechanism associated with these nutrients. Additional tests of association between mutated VANGL1 and neural-tube defects in humans is clash warranted, as is the systematic genetic and biochemical testing of the about life other members of the planar-cell-polarity signaling pathway for a role in the cause of this disease. Supported by a Career Award from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (to Dr. Wallingford), by a grant from the Gaslini Foundation (to Dr. Capra), by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and by grants from the Canadian Institute for Health Research, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council, Genome Quebec, and harrison conflict resolved Genome Canada (to Drs. Drapeau and about my highschool life Gros). No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. We thank all the patients who participated in this study; the Spina Bifida Association of Italy; and T. Attie-Bitach and M. Vekemans of Hopital Necker–Enfants Malades, Paris, for their assistance with the craniorachischisis samples. From the Department of Biochemistry, McGill University (Z.K., E.T., J.B., M.M., P.G.), and the Centre for Research in research paper building construction, Neuroscience, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, and the Department of about my highschool Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal (J.R.M., A.R., P.D.) — all in Montreal; the on culture clash Institute of Hereditary Diseases, Minsk, Belarus (I.K.); Unita Operativa di Neurochirurgia, Istituto G. Gaslini, Genoa, Italy (P.D.M., E.M., V.C.); and the Institute for essay about my highschool life, Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin (J.M.H., J.B.W.). Address reprints requests to Dr.

Gros at the Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Rm. 907, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada, or at philippe.gros@mcgill.ca. Copp AJ , Greene NDE , Murdoch JN . The genetic basis of mammalian neurulation. Nat Rev Genet 2003;4:784-793. Tortori-Donati P , Rossi A , Cama A . Essay Of The! Spinal dysraphism: a review of neuroradiological features with embryological correlation and proposal for a new classification. Neuroradiology 2000;42:471-491. van der Linden IJ , Afman LA , Heil SG , Blom HJ . Genetic variation in genes of folate metabolism and neural-tube defect risk. Proc Nutr Soc 2006;65:204-215. Kibar Z , Vogan KJ , Groulx N , Justice MJ , Underhill DA , Gros P . Ltap, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh, is altered in the mouse neural tube defect mutant Loop-tail.

Nat Genet 2001;28:251-255. Murdoch JN , Doudney K , Paternotte C , Copp AJ , Stanier P . Severe neural tube defects in essay my highschool, the loop-tail mouse result from mutation of Lpp1, a novel gene involved in floor plate specification. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10:2593-2601. Stein KF , Rudin IA . Development of reality tv effect essay mice homozygous for the gene for Looptail. J Hered 1953;44:59-69. Taylor J , Abramova N , Charlton J , Adler PN . About! Van Gogh: a new Drosophila tissue polarity gene. Genetics 1998;150:199-210. Wolff T , Rubin GM . Strabismus, a novel gene that regulates tissue polarity and cell fate decisions in Drosophila.

Development 1998;125:1149-1159. Strutt H , Strutt D . Long-range coordination of essay clash planar polarity in Drosophila. Bioessays 2005;27:1218-1227. Torban E , Wang H-J , Groulx N , Gros P . Independent mutations in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family. J Biol Chem 2004;279:52703-52713.

Doudney K , Ybot-Gonzalez P , Paternotte C , et al. About! Analysis of the planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 and its co-expressed paralogue Vangl1 in neural tube defect patients. Am J Med Genet A 2005;136:90-92[Erratum, Am J Med Genet A 2005;138:415.] Pang D . Sacral agenesis and caudal spinal cord malformations. Bergeron! Neurosurgery 1993;32:755-779. Curtin JA , Quint E , Tsipouri V , et al. Mutation of Celsr1 disrupts planar polarity of inner ear hair cells and causes severe neural tube defects in the mouse. Curr Biol 2003;13:1129-1133.

Hamblet NS , Lijam N , Ruiz-Lozano P , et al. Dishevelled 2 is essential for cardiac outflow tract development, somite segmentation and neural tube closure. Development 2002;129:5827-5838. Torban E , Kor C , Gros P . Van Gogh-like 2 (Strabismus) and its role in planar cell polarity and convergent extension in vertebrates. Trends Genet 2004;20:570-577. Wang Y , Guo N , Nathans J . The role of Frizzled3 and Frizzled6 in neural tube closure and in the planar polarity of inner-ear sensory hair cells.

J Neurosci 2006;26:2147-2156. Lu X , Borchers AG , Jolicoeur C , Rayburn H , Baker JC , Tessier-Lavigne M . PTK7/CCK-4 is a novel regulator of about planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Construction! Nature 2004;430:93-98. Shuyuan Chen, Qin Zhang, Baoling Bai, Shengrong Ouyang, Yihua Bao, Huili Li, Ting Zhang. . (2017) MARK2/Par1b Insufficiency Attenuates DVL Gene Transcription via Histone Deacetylation in Lumbosacral Spina Bifida. Molecular Neurobiology 54 :8, 6304-6316. Zhiwen Shi, Xueyan Yang, Bin-Bin Li, Shuxia Chen, Luming Yang, Liangping Cheng, Ting Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Yufang Zheng. . (2017) Novel Mutation of about LRP6 Identified in Chinese Han Population Links Canonical WNT Signaling to Neural Tube Defects. Birth Defects Research 7 . Andre M. Goffinet, Fadel Tissir. . (2017) Seven pass Cadherins CELSR1-3.

Seminars in Cell Developmental Biology 69 , 102-110. Philippe Lemay, Patrizia De Marco, Alexandre Emond, Dan Spiegelman, Alexandre Dionne-Laporte, Sandra Laurent, Elisa Merello, Andrea Accogli, Guy A Rouleau, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar. . (2017) Rare deleterious variants in GRHL3 are associated with human spina bifida. Human Mutation 38 :6, 716-724. Hwa-Seon Seo, Raymond Habas, Chenbei Chang, Jianbo Wang. Research Paper! . (2017) Bimodal regulation of Dishevelled function by essay, Vangl2 during morphogenesis. Human Molecular Genetics 26 :11, 2053-2061. Malene R. Andersen, Muhammad Farooq, Karen Koefoed, Klaus W. Kjaer, Ane Simony, Soren T. Christensen, Lars A. Larsen. Harrison Conflict Resolved! . (2017) Mutation of the Planar Cell Polarity Gene VANGL1 in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. SPINE 42 :12, E702-E707. Hanna Berger, Andreas Wodarz, Annette Borchers. . (2017) PTK7 Faces the Wnt in Development and Disease. Frontiers in about my highschool life, Cell and Developmental Biology 5 . Xiaoli Chen, Yu An, Yonghui Gao, Liu Guo, Lei Rui, Hua Xie, Mei Sun, Siv Lam Hung, Xiaoming Sheng, Jizhen Zou, Yihua Bao, Hongyan Guan, Bo Niu, Zandong Li, Richard H. Finnell, James F. Gusella, Bai-Lin Wu, Ting Zhang. Clash! . (2017) Rare Deleterious PARD3 Variants in the aPKC-Binding Region are Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Human Cranial Neural Tube Defects Via Disrupting Apical Tight Junction Formation. Human Mutation 38 :4, 378-389.

Mitchell T. Butler, John B. Wallingford. . Essay My Highschool! (2017) Planar cell polarity in development and disease. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 18 :6, 375-388. Curtis W. Harrison! Boswell, Brian Ciruna. . (2017) Understanding Idiopathic Scoliosis: A New Zebrafish School of Thought. My Highschool! Trends in Genetics 33 :3, 183-196. M. Elizabeth Ross, Christopher E. Mason, Richard H. Finnell. . (2017) Genomic approaches to the assessment of human spina bifida risk.

Birth Defects Research 109 :2, 120-128. Siti W. Mohd-Zin, Ahmed I. Design! Marwan, Mohamad K. Abou Chaar, Azlina Ahmad-Annuar, Noraishah M. Abdul-Aziz. . (2017) Spina Bifida: Pathogenesis, Mechanisms, and Genes in Mice and Humans. Life! Scientifica 2017 , 1-29. Douglas W. Houston. Bergeron Conflict Resolved! . 2017. Vertebrate Axial Patterning: From Egg to essay Asymmetry.

Vertebrate Development, 209-306. Andrew J. Essay Of Mice! Copp, Philip Stanier, Nicholas D. E. Greene. . 2017. Genetic Basis of essay about my highschool life Neural Tube Defects. Textbook of Pediatric Neurosurgery, 1-28. Robert M. On Culture! Porsch, Elisa Merello, Patrizia De Marco, Guo Cheng, Laura Rodriguez, Manting So, Pak C. Sham, Paul K. Tam, Valeria Capra, Stacey S. Cherny, Maria-Merce Garcia-Barcelo, Desmond D. Campbell. . (2016) Sacral agenesis: a pilot whole exome sequencing and copy number study. BMC Medical Genetics 17 :1. Ann E. Sutherland. . (2016) Tissue morphodynamics shaping the early mouse embryo.

Seminars in Cell Developmental Biology 55 , 89-98. La Carpia Francesca, Rendeli Claudia, Clelia Molinario, Milillo Annamaria, Farroni Chiara, Cannelli Natalia, Ausili Emanuele, Paolucci Valentina, Neri Giovanni, Romagnoli Costantino, Sangiorgi Eugenio, Gurrieri Fiorella. . (2016) Variants in TNIP1, a regulator of the essay my highschool life NF-kB pathway, found in two patients with neural tube defects. Research Paper Building Construction! Child's Nervous System 32 :6, 1061-1067. Vicki Leung, Alexandra Iliescu, Christine Jolicoeur, Michel Gravel, Sergio Apuzzo, Elena Torban, Michel Cayouette, Philippe Gros. . (2016) The planar cell polarity protein Vangl2 is essay about life required for retinal axon guidance. Developmental Neurobiology 76 :10.1002/dneu.v76.2, 150-165.

Yanshu Wang, Hao Chang, Amir Rattner, Jeremy Nathans. . 2016. Frizzled Receptors in Channel, Development and Disease. Essays on my highschool Developmental Biology, Part B, 113-139. Yingzi Yang, Marek Mlodzik. . Thesis Picture! (2015) Wnt-Frizzled/Planar Cell Polarity Signaling: Cellular Orientation by Facing the Wind (Wnt). Essay About Life! Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 31 :1, 623-646. Mortada H. El-Shabrawi, Naglaa Mohamed Kamal, Mona Abbas Elhusseini, Laila Hussein, Enas Abdallah Ali Abdallah, Yahia Zakaria Abdelalim Ali, Ahmed Abelfattah Azab, Mostafa Abdelazim Salama, Muna Kassab, Michael Krawinkel. . (2015) Folic Acid Intake and Neural Tube Defects. Medicine 94 :37, e1395.

Nora Bengoa-Vergniory, Robert M. Kypta. Framework! . (2015) Canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling in my highschool, neural stem/progenitor cells. Cellular and thesis picture Molecular Life Sciences . Marta Vitorino, Ana Cristina Silva, Jose Manuel Inacio, Jose Silva Ramalho, Michal Gur, Abraham Fainsod, Herbert Steinbeisser, Jose Antonio Belo, Zoha Kibar. . (2015) Xenopus Pkdcc1 and Pkdcc2 Are Two New Tyrosine Kinases Involved in the Regulation of JNK Dependent Wnt/PCP Signaling Pathway. PLOS ONE 10 :8, e0135504. Jisheng Chen, Fei Wang, Shiqin Zheng, Tongda Xu, Zhenbiao Yang. Essay About My Highschool Life! . (2015) Pavement cells: a model system for non-transcriptional auxin signalling and crosstalks: Fig. 1.. Journal of reality tv effect Experimental Botany 66 , 4957-4970. Csilla A. Pataki, John R. Couchman, Jan Br?bek. . (2015) Wnt Signaling Cascades and the Roles of Syndecan Proteoglycans. Journal of Histochemistry Cytochemistry 63 :7, 465-480. Ke-Fu Tang, Yao-Long Li, Hong-Yan Wang. . (2015) Quantitative assessment of maternal biomarkers related to one-carbon metabolism and neural tube defects. Essay About! Scientific Reports 5 :1. Bruce F. Pennington. Research! . 2015.

Atypical Cognitive Development. Handbook of Child Psychology and essay about Developmental Science, 1-48. Tanvi Sinha, Ding Li, Magali Theveniau-Ruissy, Mary R. Thesis Picture! Hutson, Robert G. Kelly, Jianbo Wang. . Essay My Highschool! (2015) Loss of Wnt5a disrupts second heart field cell deployment and Design may contribute to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics 24 :6, 1704-1716. Nirmala Gurung, Greta Grosse, Markus Draaken, Alina Hilger, Nuzhat Nauman, Andreas Mi??ller, Ulrich Gembruch, Waltraut Merz, Heiko Reutter, Michael Ludwig. Essay About My Highschool! . Research Paper Construction! (2015) Mutations in PTF1A are not a common cause for human VATER/VACTERL association or neural tube defects mirroring Danforth's short tail mouse. Molecular Medicine Reports . Tania Puvirajesinghe, Jean-Paul Borg. . (2015) Neural Tube Defects: From a Proteomic Standpoint. Metabolites 5 , 164-183. Irene E. Zohn. . 2015. Neural Tube Defects.

Principles of Developmental Genetics, 697-721. Redouane Allache, Mingqin Wang, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar. . (2015) Genetic studies of about life ANKRD6 as a molecular switch between Wnt signaling pathways in human neural tube defects. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 103 :10.1002/bdra.v103.1, 20-26. E. Merello, S. Mascelli, A. Raso, G. Piatelli, A. Consales, A. Cama, Z. Kibar, V. Capra, Patrizia De Marco. Reality Tv Effect Essay! . (2015) Expanding the mutational spectrum associated to neural tube defects: Literature revision and description of my highschool novel VANGL1 mutations. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 103 :10.1002/bdra.v103.1, 51-61. Shaofang Shangguan, Li Wang, Shaoyan Chang, Xiaoling Lu, Zhen Wang, Lihua Wu, Jianhua Wang, Xiuwei Wang, Zhen Guan, Yihua Bao, Huizhi Zhao, Jizhen Zou, Bo Niu, Ting Zhang. . (2015) DNA methylation aberrations rather than polymorphisms of FZD3 gene increase the tv effect essay risk of spina bifida in a high-risk region for neural tube defects. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 103 :10.1002/bdra.v103.1, 37-44. Jonathan J. Wilde, Juliette R. Petersen, Lee Niswander. . Life! (2014) Genetic, Epigenetic, and Environmental Contributions to of mice Neural Tube Closure. Annual Review of Genetics 48 :1, 141007180313005. Ou-Yan Shi, Hui-Yun Yang, Yong-Ming Shen, Wei Sun, Chun-You Cai, Chun-Quan Cai. . (2014) Polymorphisms in FZD3 and essay FZD6 genes and risk of neural tube defects in paper building, a northern Han Chinese population.

Neurological Sciences 35 , 1701-1706. Madeline Hayes, Xiaochong Gao, Lisa X Yu, Nandina Paria, R. Mark Henkelman, Carol A. About Life! Wise, Brian Ciruna. Harrison Bergeron! . (2014) ptk7 mutant zebrafish models of congenital and essay my highschool idiopathic scoliosis implicate dysregulated Wnt signalling in disease. Nature Communications 5 , 4777. Michael Sebbagh, Jean-Paul Borg. . (2014) Insight into planar cell polarity. Experimental Cell Research . Alexandra Iliescu, Michel Gravel, Cynthia Horth, Philippe Gros. . (2014) Independent Mutations at Arg181 and Arg274 of research paper Vangl Proteins That Are Associated with Neural Tube Defects in Humans Decrease Protein Stability and Impair Membrane Targeting. Biochemistry 53 , 5356-5364. Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Gianluca Piatelli, Armando Cama, Zoha Kibar, Valeria Capra. . (2014) Planar cell polarity gene mutations contribute to the etiology of essay my highschool human neural tube defects in our population. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 100 :10.1002/bdra.v100.8, 633-641. Deidre R. Krupp, Karen L. Soldano, Melanie E. Essay! Garrett, Heidi Cope, Allison E. Ashley-Koch, Simon G. Gregory. . About Life! (2014) Missing genetic risk in neural tube defects: Can exome sequencing yield an insight?.

Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and on culture clash Molecular Teratology 100 :10.1002/bdra.v100.8, 642-646. Nicholas D.E. My Highschool! Greene, Andrew J. Copp. . (2014) Neural Tube Defects. Conflict! Annual Review of Neuroscience 37 :1, 221-242. Redouane Allache, Stephanie Lachance, Marie Claude Guyot, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Monica J. Justice, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar. . (2014) Novel mutations in Lrp6 orthologs in essay my highschool, mouse and human neural tube defects affect a highly dosage-sensitive Wnt non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway. Human Molecular Genetics 23 :7, 1687-1699. Yunping Lei, Huiping Zhu, Wei Yang, M. Elizabeth Ross, Gary M. Shaw, Richard H. Finnell, Osman El-Maarri. Thesis Picture! . (2014) Identification of about Novel CELSR1 Mutations in Spina Bifida.

PLoS ONE 9 :3, e92207. L. Henry Goodnough, Gregg J. DiNuoscio, James W. Ferguson, Trevor Williams, Richard A. Lang, Radhika P. Atit, Gregory S. Barsh. . (2014) Distinct Requirements for Cranial Ectoderm and Mesenchyme-Derived Wnts in Specification and Differentiation of Osteoblast and Dermal Progenitors. Thesis Picture! PLoS Genetics 10 :2, e1004152. Yi Chi, Lijun Pei, Gong Chen, Xinming Song, Aihua Zhao, Tianlu Chen, Mingming Su, Yinan Zhang, Jianmeng Liu, Aiguo Ren, Xiaoying Zheng, Guoxiang Xie, Wei Jia. Essay My Highschool Life! . Essay On Culture! (2014) Metabonomic Profiling of essay life Human Placentas Reveals Different Metabolic Patterns among Subtypes of Neural Tube Defects. Journal of Proteome Research 13 , 934-945. Masakazu Hashimoto, Hitoshi Morita, Naoto Ueno. . Essay! (2014) Molecular and cellular mechanisms of development underlying congenital diseases. Congenital Anomalies 54 :10.1111/cga.2014.54.issue-1, 1-7. Chunquan Cai, Ouyan Shi. . My Highschool Life! (2013) Genetic evidence in planar cell polarity signaling pathway in human neural tube defects. Reality Tv Effect On Society! Frontiers of Medicine . Lisette Stolk, Marieke I. Bouwland-Both, Nina H. van Mill, Michael M. Essay My Highschool! P. J. Verbiest, Paul H. C. Eilers, Huiping Zhu, Lucina Suarez, Andre G. Uitterlinden, Regine P. M. Steegers-Theunissen, Junming Yue. . Of The! (2013) Epigenetic Profiles in Children with a Neural Tube Defect; A Case-Control Study in Two Populations. PLoS ONE 8 :11, e78462.

George Kamel, Tatiana Hoyos, Lucie Rochard, Max Dougherty, Yawei Kong, William Tse, Valeriy Shubinets, Michael Grimaldi, Eric C. Essay! Liao. Of The Book! . (2013) Requirement for frzb and fzd7a in cranial neural crest convergence and extension mechanisms during zebrafish palate and jaw morphogenesis. Developmental Biology 381 , 423-433. Xue-Yan Yang, Xiang-Yu Zhou, Qing Qing Wang, Hong Li, Ying Chen, Yun-Ping Lei, Xiao-Hang Ma, Pan Kong, Yan Shi, Li Jin, Ting Zhang, Hong-Yan Wang. . (2013) Mutations in essay my highschool life, the COPII Vesicle Component Gene SEC24B are Associated with Human Neural Tube Defects. Human Mutation 34 , 1094-1101. Andrew J Copp, Philip Stanier, Nicholas DE Greene. . (2013) Neural tube defects: recent advances, unsolved questions, and controversies. The Lancet Neurology 12 :8, 799-810. Noa Safra, Alexander G. Bassuk, Polly J. Ferguson, Miriam Aguilar, Rochelle L. Coulson, Nicholas Thomas, Peta L. Hitchens, Peter J. Dickinson, Karen M. Vernau, Zena T. Wolf, Danika L. Bannasch, Tosso Leeb. . (2013) Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Dogs Enables Identification of the Homeobox Gene, NKX2-8, as a Genetic Component of Neural Tube Defects in Humans. PLoS Genetics 9 :7, e1003646. Fadel Tissir, Andre M. Goffinet. . Book Of Mice! (2013) Shaping the nervous system: role of the my highschool life core planar cell polarity genes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 14 , 525-535. Consolato Sergi, Jean Gekas, Deepak Kamnasaran. . (2013) Recurrent anencephaly: A case report and examination of the VANGL1 and FOXN1 genes.

Fetal and Pediatric Pathology 32 , 293-297. Elisa Merello, Zoha Kibar, Redouane Allache, Gianluca Piatelli, Armando Cama, Valeria Capra, Patrizia De Marco. . (2013) Rare missense variants in DVL1 , one of the human counterparts of the Drosophila dishevelled gene, do not confer increased risk for neural tube defects. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 97 , 452-455. Alexis Robinson, Darren Partridge, Ashraf Malhas, Sandra C.P. De Castro, Peter Gustavsson, Dominic N. Thompson, David J. Vaux, Andrew J. Research Building Construction! Copp, Philip Stanier, Alexander G. Bassuk, Nicholas D.E. Greene. Essay About! . Harrison Conflict Resolved! (2013) Is LMNB1 a susceptibility gene for neural tube defects in essay my highschool life, humans?.

Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 97 , 398-402. Toshinori Yoshioka, Akari Hagiwara, Yamato Hida, Toshihisa Ohtsuka. . (2013) Vangl2, the planner cell polarity protein, is complexed with postsynaptic density protein PSD-95. FEBS Letters 587 , 1453-1459. Leandro Machado Colli, Fabiano Saggioro, Luciano Neder Serafini, Renata Costa Camargo, Helio Rubens Machado, Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Sonir R. Antonini, Margaret de Castro, Raul M. Luque. . (2013) Components of the Canonical and book of mice and men Non-Canonical Wnt Pathways Are Not Mis-Expressed in Pituitary Tumors. PLoS ONE 8 :4, e62424. Patrizia Marco, Elisa Merello, Alessandro Consales, Gianluca Piatelli, Armando Cama, Zoha Kibar, Valeria Capra. . (2013) Genetic Analysis of Disheveled 2 and Disheveled 3 in Human Neural Tube Defects. Journal of my highschool Molecular Neuroscience 49 , 582-588. J. On Culture! B. Wallingford, L. A. Niswander, G. M. Shaw, R. H. Finnell. . (2013) The Continuing Challenge of Understanding, Preventing, and Treating Neural Tube Defects. Science 339 , 1222002-1222002.

Christopher N. Vlangos, Amanda N. Siuniak, Dan Robinson, Arul M. Chinnaiyan, Robert H. About My Highschool Life! Lyons, James D. Cavalcoli, Catherine E. Keegan, Wayne N. Frankel. Reality Essay! . (2013) Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies the Danforth's Short Tail Mouse Mutation as a Retrotransposon Insertion Affecting Ptf1a Expression. PLoS Genetics 9 :2, e1003205. R. Binato, T. de Souza Fernandez, C. Lazzarotto-Silva, B. Du Rocher, A. Mencalha, L. Pizzatti, L. F. Bouzas, E. Abdelhay. . (2013) Stability of human mesenchymal stem cells during in essay my highschool life, vitro culture: considerations for cell therapy. Cell Proliferation 46 :10.1111/cpr.2013.46.issue-1, 10-22. Xiaoli Chen, Yiping Shen, Yonghui Gao, Huizhi Zhao, Xiaoming Sheng, Jizhen Zou, Va Lip, Hua Xie, Jin Guo, Hong Shao, Yihua Bao, Jianliang Shen, Bo Niu, James F. Gusella, Bai-Lin Wu, Ting Zhang, Anthony WI. Lo. . (2013) Detection of Copy Number Variants Reveals Association of Cilia Genes with Neural Tube Defects. Thesis Picture! PLoS ONE 8 :1, e54492.

C. Pyrgaki, L. Life! Niswander. . 2013. Neural-Tube Defects. Neural Circuit Development and Function in the Brain, 503-519. Dae Seok Eom, Smita Amarnath, Seema Agarwala. . (2013) Apicobasal polarity and Framework neural tube closure. Development, Growth Differentiation 55 :10.1111/dgd.2013.55.issue-1, 164-172. Philipp Andre, Qianyi Wang, Na Wang, Bo Gao, Arielle Schilit, Michael M. Halford, Steven A. Stacker, Xuemin Zhang, Yingzi Yang. . (2012) The Wnt Coreceptor Ryk Regulates Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity by Modulating the Degradation of the Core Planar Cell Polarity Component Vangl2. Journal of Biological Chemistry 287 :53, 44518-44525.

Benjamin D. Solomon, Kelly A. Bear, Virginia Kimonis, Annelies de Klein, Daryl A. Essay About Life! Scott, Charles Shaw-Smith, Dick Tibboel, Heiko Reutter, Philip F. Giampietro. . (2012) Clinical geneticists' views of VACTERL/VATER association. Tv Effect! American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 158A :10.1002/ajmg.a.v158a.12, 3087-3100. John B. Wallingford. About My Highschool! . (2012) Planar Cell Polarity and the Developmental Control of building construction Cell Behavior in essay about my highschool life, Vertebrate Embryos. Annual Review of Cell and of the and men Developmental Biology 28 :1, 627-653. Yan Shi, Yi Ding, Yun-Ping Lei, Xue-Yan Yang, Guo-Ming Xie, Jun Wen, Chun-Quan Cai, Hong Li, Ying Chen, Ting Zhang, Bai-Lin Wu, Li Jin, Ye-Guang Chen, Hong-Yan Wang. My Highschool Life! . (2012) Identification of novel rare mutations of DACT1 in human neural tube defects. Human Mutation 33 :10.1002/humu.v33.10, 1450-1455. Hui Gu, Hui Li, Li Zhang, Hong Luan, Tianchu Huang, Lili Wang, Yang Fan, Yi Zhang, Xiaomei Liu, Weilin Wang, Zhengwei Yuan. . (2012) Diagnostic role of microRNA expression profile in the serum of pregnant women with fetuses with neural tube defects. Journal of reality tv effect on society Neurochemistry 122 :10.1111/jnc.2012.122.issue-3, 641-649. Jaskirat Singh, Marek Mlodzik. . (2012) Planar cell polarity signaling: coordination of cellular orientation across tissues. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Developmental Biology 1 :10.1002/wdev.v1.4, 479-499. Irene E. Zohn. Essay About Life! . (2012) Mouse as a model for Design, multifactorial inheritance of neural tube defects.

Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews 96 :10.1002/bdrc.v96.2, 193-205. Jiang Chen, Cheng-Ming Chuong. . (2012) Patterning skin by planar cell polarity: the multi-talented hair designer. Experimental Dermatology 21 :10.1111/exd.2011.21.issue-2, 81-85. Alexis Robinson, Sarah Escuin, Kit Doudney, Michel Vekemans, Roger E. About My Highschool Life! Stevenson, Nicholas D.E. Greene, Andrew J. On Culture! Copp, Philip Stanier. Life! . (2012) Mutations in the planar cell polarity genes CELSR1 and SCRIB are associated with the severe neural tube defect craniorachischisis. Human Mutation 33 :2, 440-447. Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Andrea Rossi, Gianluca Piatelli, Armando Cama, Zoha Kibar, Valeria Capra. . (2012) FZD6 is a novel gene for human neural tube defects. Human Mutation 33 :2, 384-390. Yingzi Yang. . (2012) Wnt signaling in development and disease.

Cell Bioscience 2 , 14. Charlotte E.J. Thesis Picture! Clark, C. Cathrin Nourse, Helen M. Cooper. Life! . (2012) The Tangled Web of Non-Canonical Wnt Signalling in Neural Migration. Neurosignals 20 , 202-220. Nalin Gupta, M. Elizabeth Ross. Thesis Picture! . 2012.

Disorders of essay life Neural Tube Development. Swaiman's Pediatric Neurology, 125-144. Bo Gao. Paper Building Construction! . 2012. Wnt Regulation of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP). Planar Cell Polarity During Development, 263-295. Ester Garne, Maria Loane, Helen Dolk, Ingeborg Barisic, Marie-Claude Addor, Larraitz Arriola, Marian Bakker, Elisa Calzolari, Carlos Matias Dias, Berenice Doray, Miriam Gatt, Kari Klyungsoyr Melve, Vera Nelen, Mary O'Mahony, Anna Pierini, Hanitra Randrianaivo-Ranjatoelina, Judith Rankin, Anke Rissmann, David Tucker, Christine Verellun-Dumoulin, Awi Wiesel. . (2012) Spectrum of congenital anomalies in pregnancies with pregestational diabetes. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology , n/a-n/a. Redouane Allache, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Valeria Capra, Zoha Kibar. . (2012) Role of the planar cell polarity gene CELSR1 in neural tube defects and essay about my highschool caudal agenesis. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and on culture Molecular Teratology , n/a-n/a. Diana M. Juriloff, Muriel J. Essay About! Harris. . (2012) A consideration of the evidence that genetic defects in paper construction, planar cell polarity contribute to essay the etiology of human neural tube defects.

Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and essay and men Molecular Teratology , n/a-n/a. Helen May-Simera, Matthew W. Kelley. Essay About Life! . 2012. Reality Tv Effect On Society Essay! Planar Cell Polarity in the Inner Ear. Planar Cell Polarity During Development, 111-140. V. Essay My Highschool! L. Katanaev, M. Essay Of The Book Of Mice! V. Kryuchkov. . Essay About My Highschool! (2011) The eye of essay book of mice and men Drosophila as a model system for studying intracellular signaling in ontogenesis and essay pathogenesis. Biochemistry (Moscow) 76 , 1556-1581. Ciprian M. Bosoi, Valeria Capra, Redouane Allache, Vincent Quoc-Huy Trinh, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Pierre Drapeau, Alexander G. Of The Book Of Mice And Men! Bassuk, Zoha Kibar. . (2011) Identification and characterization of novel rare mutations in the planar cell polarity gene PRICKLE1 in human neural tube defects.

Human Mutation 32 , 1371-1375. Ieda M. Orioli, Emmanuelle Amar, Jazmin Arteaga-Vazquez, Marian K. Bakker, Sebastiano Bianca, Lorenzo D. Botto, Maurizio Clementi, Adolfo Correa, Melinda Csaky-Szunyogh, Emanuele Leoncini, Zhu Li, Jorge S. My Highschool Life! Lopez-Camelo, R. Brian Lowry, Lisa Marengo, Maria-Luisa Martinez-Frias, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo, Margery Morgan, Anna Pierini, Annukka Ritvanen, Gioacchino Scarano, Elena Szabova, Eduardo E. Thesis Picture! Castilla. . (2011) Sirenomelia: An epidemiologic study in essay my highschool, a large dataset from the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and conflict Research, and essay about literature review. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C: Seminars in reality tv effect on society essay, Medical Genetics 157 :10.1002/ajmg.c.v157.4, 358-373. J. Essay About My Highschool! H. Channel Framework! Seo, Y. Zilber, S. Essay! Babayeva, J. Essay On Culture! Liu, P. Kyriakopoulos, P. De Marco, E. Merello, V. Essay! Capra, P. On Society Essay! Gros, E. Torban. . (2011) Mutations in the planar cell polarity gene, Fuzzy, are associated with neural tube defects in humans. Human Molecular Genetics 20 , 4324-4333. Saw Myat Thanda W. Maung, Andreas Jenny. . (2011) Planar cell polarity in Drosophila. Organogenesis 7 , 165-179.

Z Kibar, S Salem, CM Bosoi, E Pauwels, P De Marco, E Merello, AG Bassuk, V Capra, P Gros. . (2011) Contribution of VANGL2 mutations to isolated neural tube defects. Clinical Genetics 80 :10.1111/cge.2011.80.issue-1, 76-82. Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Armando Cama, Zoha Kibar, Valeria Capra. . My Highschool! (2011) Human neural tube defects: Genetic causes and prevention. BioFactors 37 , 261-268. Ryan S. Research Paper! Gray, Isabelle Roszko, Lilianna Solnica-Krezel. . Essay About! (2011) Planar Cell Polarity: Coordinating Morphogenetic Cell Behaviors with Embryonic Polarity. Developmental Cell 21 , 120-133. Belinda R. Davies, Juan Antonio Gimenez-Scherer. . (2011) Two Major Patterns of essay Nongenetic Malformations Are Found at Autopsy. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 14 :3, 206-213. Marie-Claude Guyot, Ciprian M. Bosoi, Fares Kharfallah, Annie Reynolds, Pierre Drapeau, Monica Justice, Philippe Gros, Zoha Kibar. . (2011) A novel hypomorphic Looptail allele at the planar cell polarity Vangl2 gene.

Developmental Dynamics 240 :10.1002/dvdy.v240.4, 839-849. Justin Hogan, Meagan Valentine, Chris Cox, Kristy Doyle, Simon Collier, Eric Rulifson. My Highschool Life! . (2011) Two Frizzled Planar Cell Polarity Signals in the Drosophila Wing Are Differentially Organized by the Fat/Dachsous Pathway. PLoS Genetics 7 :2, e1001305. Bo Gao, Hai Song, Kevin Bishop, Gene Elliot, Lisa Garrett, Milton A. English, Philipp Andre, James Robinson, Raman Sood, Yasuhiro Minami, Aris N. Economides, Yingzi Yang. . (2011) Wnt Signaling Gradients Establish Planar Cell Polarity by Inducing Vangl2 Phosphorylation through Ror2. Tv Effect! Developmental Cell 20 , 163-176. A. Kumar, R. Shane Tubbs. . (2011) Spina bifida: A diagnostic dilemma in paleopathology. Clinical Anatomy 24 :10.1002/ca.v24.1, 19-33. Gang Wu, Xupei Huang, Yimin Hua, Dezhi Mu. About! . (2011) Roles of essay planar cell polarity pathways in the development of neutral tube defects. Journal of essay about my highschool Biomedical Science 18 , 66. Stephen L. Kinsman, Michael V. Johnston. Essay Book! . 2011. Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System.

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 1998-2013. Rosario Gorgal, Carla Ramalho, Otilia Brandao, Alexandra Matias, Nuno Montenegro. . Essay About My Highschool! (2011) Revisiting Acrania: Same Phenotype, Different Aetiologies. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 29 , 166-170. Laura L. Yates, Jenny Papakrivopoulou, David A. Long, Paraskevi Goggolidou, John O. Connolly, Adrian S. Woolf, Charlotte H. Dean. . (2010) The planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 is required for mammalian kidney-branching morphogenesis and glomerular maturation. Human Molecular Genetics 19 :23, 4663-4676. Sina A. Gharib, Ehab A. Dayyat, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Jinkwan Kim, Heather B. Clair, Magdalena Kucia, David Gozal. Thesis Picture! . (2010) Intermittent Hypoxia Mobilizes Bone Marrow-Derived Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells and Activates Developmental Transcriptional Programs in Mice. Essay! Sleep 33 :11, 1439-1446. Louise Harewood, Monica Liu, Jean Keeling, Alan Howatson, Margo Whiteford, Peter Branney, Margaret Evans, Judy Fantes, David R. FitzPatrick, Pieter H. Reitsma. . (2010) Bilateral Renal Agenesis/Hypoplasia/Dysplasia (BRAHD): Postmortem Analysis of paper construction 45 Cases with Breakpoint Mapping of Two De Novo Translocations. PLoS ONE 5 :8, e12375.

Medha Tatke. My Highschool! . (2010) Nontumor lesions of spinal cord and spine. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 27 , 186-196. Sita Lakhwani, Patricia Garcia-Sanz, Mario Vallejo. . (2010) Alx3-deficient mice exhibit folic acid-resistant craniofacial midline and neural tube closure defects. Developmental Biology 344 , 869-880. Christina Pyrgaki, Paul Trainor, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Lee Niswander. . (2010) Dynamic imaging of mammalian neural tube closure. Developmental Biology 344 , 941-947. M. Elizabeth Ross. . Harrison Resolved! (2010) Gene-environment interactions, folate metabolism and the embryonic nervous system.

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine 2 :10.1002/wsbm.v2:4, 471-480. Xiaoli Chen, Jin Guo, Yunping Lei, Jizhen Zou, Xiaolin Lu, Yihua Bao, Lihua Wu, Jianxin Wu, Xiaoying Zheng, Yiping Shen, Bai-Lin Wu, Ting Zhang. . (2010) Global DNA hypomethylation is essay my highschool associated with NTD-affected pregnancy: A case-control study. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and harrison Molecular Teratology 88 , 575-581. Annie Reynolds, Jonathan R. McDearmid, Stephanie Lachance, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Valeria Capra, Philippe Gros, Pierre Drapeau, Zoha Kibar. Essay Life! . (2010) VANGL1 rare variants associated with neural tube defects affect convergent extension in zebrafish. Mechanisms of Development 127 , 385-392. Lei , Yun-Ping , , Zhang , Ting , , Li , Hong , , Wu , Bai-Lin , , Jin , Li , , Wang , Hong-Yan , . . (2010) VANGL2 Mutations in Human Cranial Neural-Tube Defects. New England Journal of Medicine 362 :23, 2232-2235. G. Wayne Brodland, Xiaoguang Chen, Paul Lee, Mungo Marsden. . (2010) From genes to neural tube defects (NTDs): Insights from multiscale computational modeling. HFSP Journal 4 , 142-152. Shu Wen, Huiping Zhu, Wei Lu, Laura E. Mitchell, Gary M. Shaw, Edward J. Lammer, Richard H. Channel Framework! Finnell. . About! (2010) Planar cell polarity pathway genes and risk for spina bifida. American Journal of essay Medical Genetics Part A 152A :10.1002/ajmg.a.v152a:2, 299-304.

Maria Piccione, Vincenzo Antona, Roberta Antona, Giovanna Gambino, Mauro Pierluigi, Michela Malacarne, Simona Cavani, Giovanni Corsello. . (2010) Array-CGH defined chromosome 1p duplication in about my highschool life, a patient with autism spectrum disorder, mild mental deficiency, and paper building construction minor dysmorphic features. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 152A :10.1002/ajmg.a.v152a:2, 486-489. Andreas Jenny. . 2010. Planar Cell Polarity Signaling in the Drosophila Eye. Invertebrate and Vertebrate Eye Development, 189-227. Guido Fitze. Essay My Highschool Life! . Thesis Picture! 2010. Kopf und Halsregion. Padiatrische Chirurgie, 5-39. N. D.E. My Highschool! Greene, P. Stanier, A. J. Copp. . (2009) Genetics of paper building construction human neural tube defects.

Human Molecular Genetics 18 , R113-R129. Michael J. Life! Harrington, Elim Hong, Rachel Brewster. . (2009) Comparative analysis of neurulation: First impressions do not count. Molecular Reproduction and Design Framework Development 76 :10.1002/mrd.v76:10, 954-965. Jeffrey D. Axelrod. . (2009) Progress and about challenges in understanding planar cell polarity signaling. Seminars in Cell Developmental Biology 20 , 964-971.

Alexander G. Bassuk, Zoha Kibar. . (2009) Genetic Basis of on culture clash Neural Tube Defects. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 16 , 101-110. Maria F. Chacon-Heszele, Ping Chen. . Essay About! (2009) Mouse models for paper, dissecting vertebrate planar cell polarity signaling in the inner ear. Essay About Life! Brain Research 1277 , 130-140. Andrew S Yoo, Gerald R Crabtree. . (2009) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in neural development. Channel! Current Opinion in Neurobiology 19 , 120-126. Jozsef Gabor Joo. . (2009) Recent perspectives on the genetic background of neural tube defects with special regard to iniencephaly. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 9 , 281-293. Satoshi Suzuki, Mary L. Marazita, Margaret E. My Highschool Life! Cooper, Nobutomo Miwa, Anne Hing, Astanand Jugessur, Nagato Natsume, Kazuo Shimozato, Naofumi Ohbayashi, Yasushi Suzuki, Teruyuki Niimi, Katsuhiro Minami, Masahiko Yamamoto, Tserendorj J. Altannamar, Tudevdorj Erkhembaatar, Hiroo Furukawa, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Jamie L'Heureux, Carla A. Brandon, Seth M. Weinberg, Katherine Neiswanger, Frederic W.B. Construction! Deleyiannis, Javier E. de Salamanca, Alexandre R. Essay About My Highschool Life! Vieira, Andrew C. Lidral, James F. Martin, Jeffrey C. Murray. . (2009) Mutations in thesis picture, BMP4 Are Associated with Subepithelial, Microform, and Overt Cleft Lip. The American Journal of Human Genetics 84 :3, 406-411.

Mindy C. Pitre, Nancy C. Lovell. . (2009) A sacral anomaly from the Quaker Cemetery, Kingston-upon-Thames, England. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology , n/a-n/a. Emily Marcinkevicius, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Jennifer A Zallen. . (2009) QA: Quantitative approaches to planar polarity and tissue organization. Journal of Biology 8 , 103. Matias Simons, Marek Mlodzik. . (2008) Planar Cell Polarity Signaling: From Fly Development to Human Disease. Annual Review of Genetics 42 :1, 517-540. Masaru Katoh. . (2008) Vangl2. Essay My Highschool! AfCS-Nature Molecule Pages . Chih-Ping Chen. Book! . (2008) Syndromes, Disorders and essay Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI). Taiwanese Journal of paper building Obstetrics and essay about my highschool Gynecology 47 , 267-275.

Tae Joo Park, Brian J Mitchell, Philip B Abitua, Chris Kintner, John B Wallingford. . (2008) Dishevelled controls apical docking and planar polarization of basal bodies in ciliated epithelial cells. Channel Framework! Nature Genetics 40 , 871-879. E. Essay About My Highschool! Torban, A.-M. Patenaude, S. Paper Construction! Leclerc, S. Rakowiecki, S. Essay Life! Gauthier, G. Andelfinger, D. Channel Framework! J. Epstein, P. Gros. . (2008) Genetic interaction between members of the Vangl family causes neural tube defects in about my highschool life, mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 , 3449-3454. Chih-Ping Chen. Thesis Picture! . My Highschool Life! (2008) Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (II). Taiwanese Journal of thesis picture Obstetrics and essay about my highschool life Gynecology 47 , 10-17.

Irene E. Paper Construction! Zohn, Anjali A. Sarkar. . 2008. Essay About Life! Chapter 1 Modeling Neural Tube Defects in paper construction, the Mouse. Essay About My Highschool Life! Mouse Models of Developmental Genetic Disease, 1-35. Robyn J. Quinlan, Jonathan L. Tobin, Philip L. Beales. Essay Of Mice And Men! . 2008. Chapter 5 Modeling Ciliopathies. Mouse Models of essay about Developmental Genetic Disease, 249-310. Jian Liu, Jing Qi, Jie Zhu, Lixia Zhang, Yan Liang, Qin Ning, Xiaoping Luo. Thesis Picture! . (2008) Effects of Retinoic Acid on the Expressions of Vangl1 and Vangl2 in Mouse Fetuses.

Journal of Neurogenetics 22 , 167-179.

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The State of Critical Thinking Today. The question at issue in this paper is: What is the current state of critical thinking in higher education? Sadly, studies of higher education demonstrate three disturbing, but hardly novel, facts: Most college faculty at essay life, all levels lack a substantive concept of critical thinking. These three facts, taken together, represent serious obstacles to essential, long-term institutional change, for only when administrative and faculty leaders grasp the nature, implications, and power of a robust concept of critical thinking — as well as gain insight into paper building construction, the negative implications of its absence — are they able to essay orchestrate effective professional development. When faculty have a vague notion of critical thinking, or reduce it to essay a single-discipline model (as in teaching critical thinking through a “logic” or a “study skills” paradigm), it impedes their ability to identify ineffective, or develop more effective, teaching practices. It prevents them from making the essential connections (both within subjects and across them), connections that give order and substance to teaching and learning. This paper highlights the depth of the essay about my highschool life problem and its solution — a comprehensive, substantive concept of critical thinking fostered across the curriculum. As long as we rest content with a fuzzy concept of critical thinking or an overly narrow one, we will not be able to effectively teach for it.

Consequently, students will continue to leave our colleges without the intellectual skills necessary for reasoning through complex issues. An Initial Look at paper construction, the Difference Between a Substantive and Non-Substantive Concept of about my highschool, Critical Thinking. Faculty Lack a Substantive Concept of essay and men, Critical Thinking. Studies demonstrate that most college faculty lack a substantive concept of critical thinking. Consequently they do not (and cannot) use it as a central organizer in the design of instruction. It does not inform their conception of the essay about life student’s role as learner. It does not affect how they conceptualize their own role as instructors. They do not link it to research paper the essential thinking that defines the essay about my highschool content they teach.

They, therefore, usually teach content separate from the thinking students need to engage in if they are to take ownership of that content. They teach history but not historical thinking. They teach biology, but not biological thinking. They teach math, but not mathematical thinking. They expect students to do analysis, but have no clear idea of how to teach students the tv effect essay elements of that analysis. Essay? They want students to use intellectual standards in their thinking, but have no clear conception of what intellectual standards they want their students to use or how to articulate them. Building Construction? They are unable to describe the intellectual traits (dispositions) presupposed for intellectual discipline.

They have no clear idea of the relation between critical thinking and creativity, problem-solving, decision-making, or communication. They do not understand the role that thinking plays in understanding content. They are often unaware that didactic teaching is ineffective. They don’t see why students fail to make the basic concepts of the discipline their own. They lack classroom teaching strategies that would enable students to master content and become skilled learners.

Most faculty have these problems, yet with little awareness that they do. The majority of college faculty consider their teaching strategies just fine, no matter what the about data reveal. Essay Clash? Whatever problems exist in their instruction they see as the fault of students or beyond their control. Studies Reveal That Critical Thinking Is Rare in the College Classroom. Research demonstrates that, contrary to popular faculty belief, critical thinking is not fostered in the typical college classroom. In a meta-analysis of the literature on teaching effectiveness in essay life, higher education, Lion Gardiner, in conjunction with ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education (1995) documented the following disturbing patterns: “Faculty aspire to develop students’ thinking skills, but research consistently shows that in practice we tend to aim at facts and concepts in the disciplines, at the lowest cognitive levels, rather than development of conflict resolved, intellect or values. Numerous studies of college classrooms reveal that, rather than actively involving our students in about life, learning, we lecture, even though lectures are not nearly as effective as other means for developing cognitive skills. Research Paper Building? In addition, students may be attending to lectures only about one-half of their time in class, and retention from lectures is low. Studies suggest our methods often fail to dislodge students’ misconceptions and essay about, ensure learning of complex, abstract concepts. Framework? Capacity for problem solving is limited by our use of inappropriately simple practice exercises. Classroom tests often set the standard for students’ learning.

As with instruction, however, we tend to emphasize recall of memorized factual information rather than intellectual challenge. Taken together with our preference for lecturing, our tests may be reinforcing our students’ commonly fact-oriented memory learning, of limited value to either them or society. Faculty agree almost universally that the development of students’ higher-order intellectual or cognitive abilities is the most important educational task of colleges and universities. These abilities underpin our students’ perceptions of the world and the consequent decisions they make. Specifically, critical thinking – the capacity to evaluate skillfully and fairly the quality of evidence and detect error, hypocrisy, manipulation, dissembling, and bias – is central to both personal success and national needs. A 1972 study of 40,000 faculty members by about my highschool life, the American Council on Education found that 97 percent of the respondents indicated the most important goal of undergraduate education is to foster students’ ability to think critically. Process-oriented instructional orientations “have long been more successful than conventional instruction in construction, fostering effective movement from concrete to formal reasoning. Such programs emphasize students’ active involvement in learning and cooperative work with other students and de-emphasize lectures . . .”

Gardiner’s summary of the research coincides with the results of essay life, a large study (Paul, et. Channel Design? al. 1997) of 38 public colleges and universities and 28 private ones focused on the question: To what extent are faculty teaching for essay about, critical thinking? The study included randomly selected faculty from colleges and universities across California, and encompassed prestigious universities such as Stanford, Cal Tech, USC, UCLA, UC Berkeley, and the California State University System. Faculty answered both closed and reality essay, open-ended questions in about, a 40-50 minute interview. By direct statement or by implication, most faculty claimed that they permeated their instruction with an emphasis on critical thinking and that the students internalized the concepts in their courses as a result. Yet only the rare interviewee mentioned the importance of students thinking clearly, accurately, precisely, relevantly, or logically, etc. Very few mentioned any of the basic skills of thought such as the ability to essay of the of mice and men clarify questions; gather relevant data; reason to logical or valid conclusions; identify key assumptions; trace significant implications, or enter without distortion into alternative points of life, view. Intellectual traits of mind, such as intellectual humility, intellectual perseverance, intellectual responsibility, etc . . . were rarely mentioned by essay on culture clash, the interviewees. Essay? Consider the following key results from the study: Though the Channel overwhelming majority of faculty claimed critical thinking to be a primary objective of their instruction (89%), only a small minority could give a clear explanation of what critical thinking is (19%). Furthermore, according to their answers, only 9% of the respondents were clearly teaching for critical thinking on a typical day in essay my highschool, class.

A Substantive Conception of Critical Thinking. If we understand critical thinking substantively, we not only explain the idea explicitly to our students, but we use it to of the and men give order and essay about my highschool, meaning to virtually everything we do as teachers and learners. We use it to organize the design of reality tv effect, instruction. Essay My Highschool? It informs how we conceptualize our students as learners. It determines how we conceptualize our role as instructors. It enables us to understand and explain the on society thinking that defines the content we teach.

When we understand critical thinking at about, a deep level, we realize that we must teach content through thinking, not content, and then thinking. Bergeron? We model the thinking that students need to formulate if they are to essay life take ownership of the content. We teach history as historical thinking. We teach biology as biological thinking. We teach math as mathematical thinking. We expect students to analyze the thinking that is the content, and on culture, then to assess the thinking using intellectual standards. Essay About Life? We foster the intellectual traits (dispositions) essential to Design critical thinking. We teach students to my highschool use critical thinking concepts as tools in entering into any system of thought, into any subject or discipline. We teach students to construct in their own minds the research paper building concepts that define the discipline. We acquire an array of classroom strategies that enable students to master content using their thinking and to become skilled learners. The concept of critical thinking, rightly understood, ties together much of what we need to understand as teachers and learners.

Properly understood, it leads to a framework for essay, institutional change. For a deeper understanding of critical thinking see The Thinker’s Guide Series, the book, Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of on culture, Your Learning and Your Life , and the Foundation For Critical Thinking Library. To exemplify my point, The Thinker’s Guide Series consists in a diverse set of contextualizations of one and the same substantive concept of critical thinking. If we truly understand critical thinking, for example, we should be able to explain its implications: for analyzing and assessing reasoning. Each contextualization in this list is developed in one or more of the guides in the series. Together they suggest the robustness of a substantive concept of critical thinking.

The idea of my highschool life, critical thinking, stripped to its essentials, can be expressed in a number of ways. Here’s one: Critical thinking is the art of thinking about thinking with a view to improving it. Critical thinkers seek to Channel Framework improve thinking, in three interrelated phases. They analyze thinking. They assess thinking. And they up-grade thinking (as a result). Creative thinking is the work of the third phase, that of my highschool life, replacing weak thinking with strong thinking, or strong thinking with stronger thinking. Creative thinking is a natural by-product of critical thinking, precisely because analyzing and assessing thinking enables one to raise it to a higher level. New and better thinking is the of the book by-product of healthy critical thought. A person is a critical thinker to the extent that he or she regularly improves thinking by studying and “critiquing” it.

Critical thinkers carefully study the way humans ground, develop, and apply thought — to see how thinking can be improved. The basic idea is life simple: “Study thinking for strengths and weaknesses. Then make improvements by building on its strengths and targeting its weaknesses.” “My thinking is just fine. If everyone thought like me, this would be a pretty good world.” “My thinking, as that of everyone else, can always be improved. Self-deception and folly exist at every level of human life. It is foolish ever to essay clash take thinking for granted. To think well, we must regularly analyze, assess, and reconstruct thinking — ever mindful as to how we can improve it.”

A Substantive Concept of Critical Thinking Reveals Common Denominators in all Academic Work. Substantive Critical Thinking Can be Cultivated in Every Academic Setting. By focusing on the rational capacities of students’ minds, by designing instruction so students explicitly grasp the sense, the logicalness, of what they learn, we can make all learning easier for them. Substantive learning multiplies comprehension and insight; lower order rote memorization multiplies misunderstanding and confusion. Though very little present instruction deliberately aims at lower order learning, most results in essay, it. “Good” students have developed techniques for short term rote memorization; “poor” students have none. But few know what it is to essay of the of mice think analytically through the content of a subject; few use critical thinking as a tool for acquiring knowledge.(see Nosich) We often talk of knowledge as though it could be divorced from thinking, as though it could be gathered up by about my highschool, one person and given to another in the form of a collection of sentences to remember. When we talk in this way we forget that knowledge, by its very nature, depends on thought. Knowledge is produced by thought, analyzed by thought, comprehended by thought, organized, evaluated, maintained, and transformed by harrison bergeron conflict, thought.

Knowledge exists, properly speaking, only in minds that have comprehended it and constructed it through thought. And when we say thought we mean critical thought. Knowledge must be distinguished from the memorization of true statements. Students can easily blindly memorize what they do not understand. Essay About? A book contains knowledge only in a derivative sense, only because minds can thoughtfully read it and, through this analytic process, gain knowledge. We forget this when we design instruction as though recall were equivalent to knowledge.

Every discipline — mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, sociology, anthropology, history, philosophy, and reality tv effect, so on — is a mode of thinking. Every discipline can be understood only through thinking. We know mathematics, not when we can recite mathematical formulas, but when we can think mathematically. We know science, not when we can recall sentences from our science textbooks, but when we can think scientifically. Essay? We understand sociology only when we can think sociologically, history only harrison bergeron, when we can think historically, and philosophy only when we can think philosophically. When we teach so that students are not thinking their way through subjects and essay my highschool, disciplines, students leave our courses with no more knowledge than they had when they entered them. When we sacrifice thought to gain coverage, we sacrifice knowledge at the same time. In the typical history class, for example, students are often asked to Framework remember facts about the about my highschool past. They therefore come to think of history class as a place where you hear names and dates and places; where you try to memorize and state them on tests. They think that when they can successfully do this, they then “know history.” Alternatively, consider history taught as a mode of thought.

Viewed from the harrison bergeron resolved paradigm of a critical education, blindly memorized content ceases to be the focal point. Learning to think historically becomes the order of the day. Students learn historical content by thinking historically about essay, historical questions and problems. They learn through their own thinking and construction, classroom discussion that history is not a simple recounting of past events, but also an interpretation of events selected by and written from someone’s point of view. In recognizing that each historian writes from a point of view, students begin to identify and assess points of view leading to various historical interpretations. They recognize, for example, what it is to interpret the American Revolution from a British as well as a colonial perspective. Essay About Life? They role-play different historical perspectives and master content through in-depth historical thought. They relate the present to harrison bergeron resolved the past. They discuss how their own stored-up interpretations of their own lives’ events shaped their responses to the present and their plans for the future.

They come to my highschool understand the research paper daily news as a form of historical thought shaped by essay my highschool life, the profit-making motivations of news collecting agencies. They learn that historical accounts may be distorted, biased, narrow, misleading. Every Area or Domain of Thought Must Be Thought-Through to Be Learned. The mind that thinks critically is a mind prepared to take ownership of new ideas and modes of thinking. Critical thinking is on culture a system-opening system.

It works its way into a system of thought by thinking-through: the purpose or goal of the system. It assesses the essay my highschool life system for clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, significance, and (where applicable) fairness. There is no system no subject it cannot open. There is a Necessary Connection Between Critical Thinking and Learning. The skills in up-grading thinking are the same skills as those required in up-grading learning. Reality Tv Effect Essay? The art of thinking well illuminates the essay about my highschool art of thesis picture, learning well. The art of learning well illuminates the essay life art of thinking well. Both require intellectually skilled metacognition.

For example, to be a skilled thinker in harrison conflict, the learning process requires that we regularly note the elements of our thinking/learning: There is a Necessary Connection Between Critical Thinking and Skilled Reading and Writing. The reflective mind improves its thinking by reflectively thinking about it. Likewise, it improves its reading by reflectively thinking about how it is reading. It improves its writing by analyzing and assessing each draft it creates.

It moves back and forth between thinking and thinking about thinking. It moves forward a bit, then loops back upon itself to check its own operations. It checks its inferences. About My Highschool? It makes good its ground. It rises above itself and exercises oversight on itself. One of the most important abilities that a thinker can have is the ability to monitor and assess his or her own thinking while processing the thinking of others. In reading, the reflective mind monitors how it is reading while it is Channel Design Framework reading. About My Highschool? The foundation for this ability is knowledge of how the mind functions when reading well. Harrison? For example, if I know that what I am reading is difficult for me to understand, I intentionally slow down. I put the meaning of each passage that I read into my own words.

Knowing that one can understand ideas best when they are exemplified, then, when writing, I give my readers examples of what I am saying. As a reader, I look for examples to better understand what a text is essay saying. Learning how to read closely and write substantively are complex critical thinking abilities. When I can read closely, I can take ownership of important ideas in a text. When I can write substantively, I am able to say something worth saying about something worth saying something about. Many students today cannot. We can Get Beyond Non-Substantive Concepts of Critical Thinking. Fragmentation and Short-Term Memorization Are Predictable Outcomes of reality essay, a Non-substantive Concept of Critical Thinking. Students in colleges today are achieving little connection and about my highschool, depth, either within or across subjects. Atomized lists dominate textbooks, atomized teaching dominates instruction, and atomized recall dominates learning. What is essay book of mice and men learned are superficial fragments, typically soon forgotten.

What is missing is the coherence, connection, and depth of essay about, understanding that accompanies systematic critical thinking. Without the concepts and tools of substantive critical thinking, students often learn something very different from what is “taught.” Let us consider how this problem manifests itself in math instruction. Alan Schoenfeld, the thesis picture distinguished math educator, says that math instruction is on essay about my highschool life the whole “deceptive and fraudulent.” He uses strong words to underscore a wide gulf between what math teachers think their students are learning and what they are actually learning. (Schoenfeld, 1982) He elaborates as follows: All too often we focus on a narrow collection of well-defined tasks and train students to thesis picture execute those tasks in essay about, a routine, if not algorithmic fashion. Then we test the students on tasks that are very close to the ones they have been taught. If they succeed on those problems, we and on society essay, they congratulate each other on the fact that they have learned some powerful mathematical techniques. In fact, they may be able to use such techniques mechanically while lacking some rudimentary thinking skills. My Highschool Life? To allow them, and ourselves, to believe that they “understand” the mathematics is deceptive and fraudulent. (p.

29) Schoenfeld cites a number of paper building, studies to justify this characterization of math instruction and its lower order consequences. He also gives a number of striking examples, at the tertiary as well as at the primary and secondary levels: At the University of Rochester 85 percent of the my highschool freshman class takes calculus, and many go on. Roughly half of reality on society, our students see calculus as their last mathematics course. About Life? Most of reality essay, these students will never apply calculus in any meaningful way (if at all) in their studies, or in their lives. They complete their studies with the life impression that they know some very sophisticated and high-powered mathematics. They can find the essay of the and men maxima of complicated functions, determine exponential decay, compute the essay life volumes of surfaces of revolution, and so on. But the fact is harrison conflict these students know barely anything at all. The only reason they can perform with any degree of competency on about my highschool their final exams is that the research paper building construction problems on the exams are nearly carbon copies of problems they have seen before; the students are not being asked to think, but merely to apply well-rehearsed schemata for specific kinds of tasks. Tim Keifer and essay, Schoenfeld (Schoenfeld, 1982) studied students’ abilities to deal with pre-calculus versions of elementary word problems such as the following:

An 8-foot fence is located 3 feet from a building. Express the length L of the ladder which may be leaned against the building and just touch the top of the fence as a function of the distance X between the essay foot of the ladder and the base of the building. Keifer and Schoenfeld were not surprised to discover that only 19 of 120 attempts at such problems (four each for 30 students) yielded correct answers, or that only 65 attempts produced answers of any kind (p. 28). Schoenfeld documents similar problems at the level of elementary math instruction.

He reports on an experiment in essay about life, which elementary students were asked questions like, “There are 26 sheep and 10 goats on a ship. How old is the captain?” Seventy-six of the 97 students “solved” the problem by adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing 26 and 10. Thesis Picture? And that is not all, the more math they had, the my highschool life greater was the tendency. Schoenfeld cites many similar cases, including a study demonstrating that “word problems,” which are supposed to require thought, tend to be approached by students mindlessly with key word algorithms. That is, when students are faced with problems like “John had eight apples. He gave three to Mary. How many does John have left?,” they typically look for words like ‘left’ to research tell them what operation to perform. Essay My Highschool Life? As Schoenfeld puts it, “… the situation was so extreme that many students chose to of mice subtract in essay my highschool life, a problem that began ‘Mr. Left’.” This tendency to approach math problems and assignments with robotic lower order responses becomes permanent in most students, killing any chance they had to harrison bergeron conflict think mathematically. Habitual robotic learning is not, of course, peculiar to math. It is the common mode of learning in every subject area.

The result is a kind of global self-deception that surrounds teaching and learning, often with the students clearer about what is really being learned than the teachers. Many students, for life, example, realize that in their history courses they merely learn to mouth names, dates, events, and outcomes whose significance they do not really understand and whose content they forget shortly after the essay test. Whatever our stated goals, at present, students are not learning to think within the disciplines they “study.” Establishing General Education Courses in my highschool life, Critical Thinking Will Not Solve the Problem. There are a number of harrison conflict, reasons why establishing general education courses in critical thinking will not, of itself, solve the problem. The first is my highschool life that most such courses are based in a particular discipline and, therefore, typically teach only those aspects of critical thinking traditionally highlighted by the discipline. Design Framework? For example, if these courses are taught within Philosophy Departments, the essay my highschool life course will typically focus on either formal or informal logic. If the harrison resolved English Department teaches sections, the course will probably focus on persuasive writing and rhetoric.

Though good in themselves, none of essay, these focuses comes close to capturing a substantive concept of of mice, critical thinking. Essay About Life? The result is that instructors in other departments will not see the Framework relevance of the “critical thinking” course to their discipline, and therefore the life course will be ignored. It will do little to help students become skilled learners. Establishing General Education Courses In Study Skills Will Not Solve the Problem. There are a number of reasons why establishing courses in research paper, study skills will not, of itself, solve the problem. The first is that most such courses are not based on essay about life a substantive concept of critical thinking. Indeed, most lack any unifying theory or organizing concept. They do not teach students how to research begin to think within a discipline. Life? They do not typically teach students how to analyze thinking using the tv effect elements of thought. About? They do not typically teach students intellectual standards, nor how to assess their own work. What is missing is the coherence, connection, and depth of understanding that accompanies systematic critical thinking.

A Substantive Concept of Critical Thinking Leads to Deep Learning. Substantive knowledge is knowledge that leads to questions that lead to further knowledge (that, in turn, leads to further knowledge and further vital questions, and on and on). Acquiring substantive knowledge is equivalent to research building acquiring effective organizers for the mind that enable us to weave everything we are learning into essay life, a tapestry, a system, an integrated whole. Substantive knowledge is found in that set of fundamental and powerful concepts and building, principles that lie at the heart of understanding everything else in about, a discipline or subject. Channel Design? For example, if you understand deeply what a biological cell is and essay about my highschool, the essential characteristics of all living systems, you have the substantive knowledge to ask vital questions about all living things. You begin to think biologically. Teaching focused on a substantive concept of critical thinking appeals to Design reason and evidence. Life? It encourages students to discover as well as to process information. Tv Effect Essay? It provides occasions in which students think their way to conclusions, defend positions on difficult issues, consider a wide variety of essay about, points of view, analyze concepts, theories, and explanations, clarify issues and conclusions, solve problems, transfer ideas to new contexts, examine assumptions, assess alleged facts, explore implications and consequences, and increasingly come to terms with the contradictions and inconsistencies of research paper building construction, their own thought and experience.

It engages students in the thinking required to essay deeply master content. (See Learning to Think Things Through ) Conclusion: Take the Long View. Critical thinking is not to be devoured in a single sitting nor yet at two or three workshops. It is a powerful concept to be savored and reflected upon. It is an idea to live and grow with. It focuses upon that part of our minds that enables us to think things through, to essay clash learn from experience, to essay about my highschool acquire and retain knowledge. It is essay book of mice and men like a mirror to the mind, enabling us to take ownership of the instruments that drive our learning.

Not only to think, but to think about how we are thinking, is the key to essay my highschool our development as learners and on culture, knowers. How do I know this? What is this based upon? What does this imply and presuppose? What explains this, connects to it, leads from it?

How am I viewing it? Should I view it differently? Short-term reform can do no more than foster surface change. Deep change takes time, patience, perseverance, understanding, and commitment. Essay About? This is not easy in essay of the book, a world saturated with glossy, superficial, quick-fixes, a world plagued by a short attention span. My Highschool Life? Nevertheless it is possible to essay book of mice and men create a long-term professional development program that focuses on the progressive improvement of instruction and learning. (See Elder)

But this can only happen when those designing professional development have a substantive concept of critical thinking. Only then will they be able to guide faculty toward a long-term approach. Only then will they be able to essay about my highschool life provide convincing examples in each of the disciplines. Only then will they see the Channel Framework connection between thinking and learning, between understanding content and thinking it through, between intellectual discipline and education. Only then will the “learning college” become what it aims, all along, to be.

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an argumental essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. Essay My Highschool! I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an essay clash argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the essay about perfect way to turn your blank document into a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is fill in the blanks!

In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to essay create an argumentative essay outline. At the about my highschool life end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. Thesis Picture! That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. My Highschool! Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument.

It’s made up of a hook, background information, and a thesis statement. Reality Tv Effect On Society Essay! 1. Hook. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of essay my highschool a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an harrison bergeron argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects. My hook could be, “For those interested in improving their diets and the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and essay about, caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to Write Good Hook Sentences.

2. Background information. The next part of your intro is essay and men dedicated to offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the following questions: What is the essay about my highschool life issue at Channel Design, hand? Who cares? Where is this issue prevalent? Why is it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. Essay Life! The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on the topic and essay clash, give a reason for your stance.

For example, “A diet of essay about my highschool life insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and essay and men, climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on essay life, a variety of insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of protein and nutrition.” Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the conflict resolved three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. About Life! Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument. Design! Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and essay about my highschool, outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence.

Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to make, or four. The exact number of claims you choose to include doesn’t matter (unless, of course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is a statement you make to support your argument.

For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.” Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into play. Channel Design! 2. What is my highschool life evidence? For each claim you make, you need to Design Framework provide supporting evidence. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is essay my highschool life not personal knowledge or anecdotal.

For example, “Researchers at essay on culture, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients. Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to essay life back it. Once again, the clash exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to add the next important element of essay my highschool your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments. In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the Beef Council of harrison America say that it is too difficult and about life, time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is essay on culture clash large and contains a lot of meat for about many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. Essay Book! (By the way—I just made that up.

The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to essay set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and book of mice and men, Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to about my highschool catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the research paper building construction infrastructure to farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Essay My Highschool Life! Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to and men sail to the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to essay about my highschool accomplish two important tasks. 1. Restate the importance of your issue.

Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the essay of mice sustainability and nutrition of the American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the world if your argument is (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of my highschool your argument. What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Design! Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to about my highschool life live healthy lifestyles, and our planet would be relieved of the burden of an unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to essay of the book of mice be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay.

If you’re interested in learning more about essay about my highschool life, argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge? Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for Design Framework some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. Essay About My Highschool Life! When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. Reality Tv Effect On Society! 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over essay my highschool life 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is harrison a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. About! wow this was really help full.

Super! I#8217;m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to reality tv effect do on essay life, the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don#8217;t know where to harrison begin. Is this the same as doing an argument. Essay About! This sounds more like an expository essay.

An expository essay (or presentation in essay on culture clash your case) has the life goal of informing the audience on a specific topic. Usually you don#8217;t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on tv effect, an argument . My Highschool Life! The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for essay of the book of mice and men the internet: #8220;The internet is essay life a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR you could focus on essay book and men, arguing against the internet: #8220;The internet is an about annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.#8221; OR, and this is the construction best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the essay about my highschool life internet: #8220;The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by Framework, evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on essay about life, web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.#8221; Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that!

Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Research Paper Building Construction! Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn#8217;t worked). What about people who lose their licenses for essay life other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side.

Find some evidence to thesis picture support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the topic of the Crusades. What do they have in common? What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for essay about my highschool this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an building argumentative essay on essay about life, freedom of speech rights and the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn#8217;t harm other people and I have some cases where the supreme court are avoiding the thesis picture laws stated in the amendment but I#8217;m on the court#8217;s side of restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out essay about my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument.

Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it#8217;s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot #8230;#8230; great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578;

HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to of mice increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from. Hisome of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Essay! Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is of the and men social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from there. Essay About My Highschool! Hi Rosie you might find inspiration on how to on society essay get started by reviewing some of essay about my highschool life these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in research building the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for about my highschool life the reader to continue to think about after reading or is it unnecessary?

Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. Reality Tv Effect On Society Essay! I recommend you check out this post on the topic of essay life conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down.

I have a question though. Tv Effect On Society! Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don#8217;t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent#8217;s argument! You can learn more about my highschool life, writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to research paper construction help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in essay about my highschool use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that. That#8217;s a really great idea#8230; and harrison conflict resolved, one that I intend to implement in upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don#8217;t readily have access to a knock out example. Essay Life! Naomi. HELP.

I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I#8217;m getting so frustrated and thesis picture, I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You#8217;re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. Essay About! You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You#8217;re welcome!

Wow that#8217;s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for paper an eight grader test. Essay About My Highschool! Yasss#8230;This blog is reliable#8230;Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I#8217;m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to construction make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in my highschool life so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the essay career of about my choice, which is sports marketing. I#8217;m not sure what type of arguments I need to Framework make.

Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it#8217;s importance in the world? It#8217;s just something I am interested in my highschool so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi thereI#8217;d double check your assignment for research building clues on essay about my highschool life, how to book and men approach this. If there really aren#8217;t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in essay about my highschool life particular?

A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the Channel Design perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Essay About Life! Then use the rest of your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks! That#8217;s helpful.

Here#8217;s what the assignment says: #8220;In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and thesis picture, realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for about life personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and clash, its significance to you. About My Highschool Life! The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.#8221; Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? YesI do. You#8217;ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to thesis picture support your claims.

For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to essay about my highschool get your degree and on culture clash, weigh that against your potential income. You#8217;ll want to essay about my highschool life start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the country shouldn#8217;t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and harrison bergeron, reason 3. Orif you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to essay about accept Syrian refugees because of thesis picture reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of essay about life using a cell phone. Please help.

I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is clash pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. About! Fill in reality on society A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, #8216;Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of essay my highschool J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this.

I have written Unable to take the thesis picture correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end. To be able to my highschool make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of J. Of The Book And Men! Alfred. Essay About My Highschool Life! Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. Thesis Picture! I think you have the life right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about on society, this edit?

Being unable to make the right decision at about, the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Channel! Alfred. Essay About Life! Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now. On Culture Clash! You#8217;re welcome, Rachel! First you#8217;ll need to come up with a thesis statement. Essay! For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks.

Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for building construction your comment. About! Thanks but I#8217;m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is Channel Design Framework strong and worthy to be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn#8217;t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. Essay My Highschool! I have to essay write an argumentative essay on Poverty and about, Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. Channel Design Framework! But I don#8217;t know how to about break down my citations. Could you help me please? I#8217;m not sure whether you need to reality tv effect essay write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is essay life how I need to clash write it.

Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng. Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww #8230;I am so grateful to about reach up on paper construction, it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I#8217;m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. Thank you so much. I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That#8217;s the essay my highschool limit our teacher gave us. Design Framework! he wants to essay about my highschool see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funnyis that a common assignment this month?

You#8217;re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. Of The Book! A topic that large is going to essay about my highschool life be very difficult to explore in a single pagebut hey, it#8217;s a good exercise in concision. In any caseat the risk of sounding sales-ythe Kibin editing team is really good at Channel Design Framework, meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don#8217;t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent#8217;s argument and about my highschool, rip it to reality tv effect shreds.

So for example, say your opponent#8217;s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for essay about U.S. Tv Effect On Society! president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. Essay About! hello again. I don#8217;t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. I was able to conflict do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for.

Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for about the great comment.

You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and paper, contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the essay life two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to thesis picture get it back. Thank you.

Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. To have an my highschool life essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Thesis Picture! Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on my highschool, word count). I#8217;m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I#8217;m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don#8217;t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD#8217;VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life.

Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm#8230; if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I#8217;m in tv effect essay 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Essay About Life! Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!).

I never understood the of the of mice and men way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. Essay! It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Thanks. Essay! You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to essay my highschool life hear feedback like this. Essay! Thanks for essay about my highschool life reading!

Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You#8217;re super welcome! Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. Thesis Picture! THANKS xx.

Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. About My Highschool Life! I#8217;m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Your topic is a bit over my head, but you may be able to get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to reality essay do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is#8230;#8230;..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on about, the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and research paper building construction, places where abortion is illegal.

If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Essay My Highschool! Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful.

Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I#8217;m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of secondhand smoke to essay clash non-smokers.

Here is a good source to essay about my highschool life get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is resolved really good. I have been reading about essay life, academic reading and thesis picture, writing every day for life 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read. Well done and harrison bergeron conflict, thanks. Heaps.

Fantastic! Happy to help. Essay About! I have to write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and tv effect, the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren#8217;t they people too? I#8217;m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for about life each of your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent#8217;s view on each of essay and men your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal.

Or, if you follow the essay life outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in Framework the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I#8217;m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi thereyes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I#8217;m having a difficult time trying to find and essay my highschool, discern what will be helpful in my paper.

My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction? You might need to also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed.

Usually your hook sentence is separate from your thesis statement. The hook is the resolved first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is essay my highschool life typically the thesis picture last sentence in essay my highschool life this paragraph. Design! Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is essay about life Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here#8217;s a revision of harrison bergeron your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. About Life! We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn#8217;t affect our lives in conflict resolved the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls outgirls should be able to ask boys out too. this is very useful#8230; but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to people ) can you help me , please.

Racism in essay my highschool life America is Channel a huge problem and a huge topic. I think your first step is to essay narrow your research focus. Design! First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city?

Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is essay about life another post specifically about reality tv effect on society essay, writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to essay about use #8220;eating insects#8221; example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I#8217;m so sorry to have ruined your supper. On Culture Clash! #128578; I think I was inspired to about write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work#8230; nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for thesis picture reading! This is absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and about life, accomplishment!

I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to on culture speak with you about essay my highschool life, possibly including some of the Design Framework information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi AlishaThanks for your kind comment. I#8217;m totally in favor of you using the content from about this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of essay of the book and men luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected] You#8217;re going to have to essay about take a stance for thesis picture or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to my highschool life support your stance. I#8217;d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I#8217;m currently writing one for thesis picture college with the topic of about my highschool legalizing lane splitting for Channel Design motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic!

Happy to help. About Life! this is amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much! Best of luck with your exam. #128578; it#8217;s very useful. Essay! thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for commenting. I#8217;ll be thankfull to you #128578; You just made my time. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for essay my highschool the comment. #128578; Thank you very much for making this easy to understand, this helped me ace my English final exam. You are the best #128578; So happy to book and men hear it! Thanks for the comment. Essay! Hi ?. Thanks for this wonderful guidelines. Your article really makes my day more easier.

Wish me luck. Inny. Channel Design! Sweet! Good luck on your project! What a great tips. Essay About My Highschool! Thank you #128578; Happy you think so!

Thanks for harrison conflict the comment. Essay My Highschool! woooow this blog had helped me lotssssssss , thanks for essay on culture clash your efforts. Happy to help! Thanks for essay life the comment. This seems to be very helpful! I have an essay on culture clash English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is giving us four random articles and we have to create an argumentative essay on a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I#8217;m really bad at writing and reading. Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared!

As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over soon and you#8217;ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on the blog. About! I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for tackling an in-class essay. Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the good woooork. Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. Tv Effect On Society! #128578; This blog is awesome and so helpful! Thank you thank you thank you. Thanks for the sweet comment!

Happy to help. #128578; may u send me your project on my highschool life, my email [emailprotected] thank you so muuch #128512; Thanks for reading! Glad we could help. Soo good it helped me a lot! Great! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the clear outline, was very confused about how to start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don#8217;t know how I started and research building construction, didn#8217;t know I had ended just went off like a flash. About Life! very very useful. I#8217;m so glad you found it useful, Ram.

Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for tv effect the outline!! I used it all morning to help start my essay for college English over Big Box vs Small Businesses! Fantastic! Happy to hear it. #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for essay my highschool life #8220;being competent in English Language is necessary for successful academic achievement#8221; cloud you plx give me a best introduction for this essay #8230; An interesting fact or statistic that shows the correlation between learning English and academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from a reputable source. On Society Essay! Or, if you could start with a story about yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of knowing how to speak English.

Can anyone give me a good hook for same sex marriage . I#8217;m writing an argumentative paper for my adv. comp class. Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking. For example, if you are arguing in favor of about my highschool same sex marriage you could start with an interesting statistic that shines a light on the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome! Glad you liked it. Thanks for on culture the comment. Essay About! #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for #8220;Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms#8221; I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro #8212; including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for thesis picture this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for the comment. #128578;

I really appreciate your help. didnt help at all sorry. Sorry that it wasn#8217;t more helpful, Trent. Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I#8217;m going to write about essay about my highschool life, how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the topic is on society essay too hard and my highschool life, broad for a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and harrison conflict resolved, suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don#8217;t think it#8217;s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to my highschool back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you#8217;ll want to include those reasons in your thesis and defend them throughout your paper. So the first question to answer as you write your thesis is #8220;Why do I believe this?#8221; Hi, there.

I saw your question asking for advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on immortality. I have a few views on that myself but of the opposite point. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on the matter. So perhaps you would be inclined to tv effect essay email me your assignment once it#8217;s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome! We#8217;re happy you think so and thanks for the comment. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed. Sweet! Love to hear that it helped.

Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is it too broad? I want to about my highschool life include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD.

You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here! That#8217;s a pretty big statement and you#8217;ll definitely need to book back it up. I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. 3. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi#8230; Thanks for reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. Essay About My Highschool Life! P.S. loved your sense of humour. Aww, shucks.

Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to Framework hear it. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the helpful outline. This is by far one of the most detailed and useful outline I have used. Keep up the good work. Thanks for essay life your kind comment! Happy the outline helped you. Hehe love this comment. Thanks for your kind words and happy to help. Of Mice And Men! #128578; You#8217;re super welcome! Thanks for the kind comment!

A history paper isn#8217;t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. About My Highschool! Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to me. Essay Of The And Men! thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet!

Happy to hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay! Happy you think so. #128578; i love this blog #8230; you are an awesome teacher #8230; Aww, shucks. Thanks so much for reading. #128578; Hehe I#8217;m 100% positive you could be as smart as me. Happy this helped and about life, thanks for the kind comment! #128578; I#8217;m not the best at writing essays, especially argumentative ones#8230; This is a huge help! Thank you so very much!! #128578; Sweet! Happy to help out. Essay! #128578; Thank you so so so so so so so so much Naomi!! I was having trouble writing an argumentative essay from avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to you* You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. have you made any more of these?

Haha, thanks for the super kind comment. I really appreciate it! Yes, I#8217;ve written quite a few other posts for about this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay! Final complete! Congrats and happy this helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; I was stumped in essay book of mice and men class by about, the prompt for a six paragraph essay.

This article is great. Harrison! THANK YOU! Noiiice! Happy this helped you. Thanks for the comment. About My Highschool Life! Congratulations on your upcoming graduation! So happy that this post helped you get to the finish line. Thanks for the kind comment #128578; Naomi. omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3. Thesis Picture! What if you are writing at essay my highschool life, school and they don#8217;t allow you to use your computer to reality on society essay look up information for the text. In that case you#8217;ll want to prepare in life advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the type of essay you#8217;ll be writing and the type of thesis picture material you need to know for the essay. Essay! You might check out essay of the book of mice this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ if you reply to me ill be so happy.

You#8217;re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi. Life! Thanks so much for the comment! #128578; Wow i love this. Thanks Naomi for the educative piece. That#8217;s great! Thanks for the kind comment. Bergeron Conflict! I#8217;m in love with this phenomenal blogger.*SIGHS* Aww! Your comment totally made my day. xoxo! Muah! #128578; Happy to help. Hi Naomi, this is an amazing article, yet I have some questions I hope you can answer.

I#8217;m about to sit for the FCE in two days, and it#8217;s mandatory that I write an essay. I don#8217;t know the type of essay nor the topic of it. Essay About! How would you recommend me to essay of the book study for it? Thanks in advance #128578; Ooh! You must be feeling the pressure. I#8217;m sure you#8217;ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for advice. It#8217;s about my highschool life, writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to other types of timed essay tests too. Point #5 is especially important: #8220;If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Set a timer for tv effect on society the same amount of time you’ll have during the actual test, and work on writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an my highschool important topic.#8221; I#8217;d also research the different types of essay prompts that they#8217;ve given in the past to use for your practice writing session. Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/ I wish you the best on your FCE!

Thanks for thesis picture the comment. #128578; So glad you think it#8217;s helpful! Thanks for essay my highschool reading! xoxo. i really like the explanation bcoz it#8217;s clear and it#8217;s not explained in a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great! That#8217;s exactly what I was going for. Thesis Picture! So happy it helped you. Thanks for the comment! #128578; You#8217;re awesome! Thanks for reading.

Very helpful article! Thank you so much! Great! Happy to help. Hi, it is really a clear and detailed graph. Could I cite it in my assignment?

Sure, you#8217;re welcome to cite it #128578; Thanks for reading. OK I need help I have two argumentative essays due Wednesday and I looked at your website and it helped me a ton i never could have done it without you. thx so much. now i just need to make one#8230; You#8217;ve totally got this!! THANK YOU SO MUCH. I am already almost done and it is mostly because of this page! Thanks for the words of encouragement! U guys are the best. So glad it was helpful!

Thanks for reading #128578; Ma#8217;am you are such a saviour. #128536;#128536;#128536; Thank you for reading! Loved the explanation! Thanks a lot for being that graphic. So glad you liked it! Thanks for the comment #128578; Hey there, Michael #128578; Thanks for stopping by! thanks for saving my life :-):-) Woot! Glad we could help. saving time and getting ultra information#8230; We#8217;re all about saving you time! #128578; Thanks for reading. Life! I have Exams tomorrow and this really helped me alot#8230;Thanks Naomi #128578; Glad you found it useful #128578; Thank you for reading! Oh thank goodness!

I always have trouble on the thesis and hook, thank you so much, you saved meee! Awesome! So glad we could help #128578; Amazing. Helped me like hell. So glad you found it useful, Dana! Thanks for essay reading. Thank you this saved my butt.

Sweet! So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing?

In 2014 a research from Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the world. die every year out of essay about my highschool life loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom. Animals are living organisms as humans and plants and need a lot of harrison bergeron rights that we should put them in consideration.

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My Highschool Life Essay

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The Effects of Immigration Has on People. immigrate to Australia because of the war in Afghanistan and as they did it illegally they were put in thesis picture a detention centre in Western Australia. In this journal entry I will be focusing on immigration and the reasons why people immigrate and the effects it has on about my highschool life, people . Illegal immigration occurs when. ‘People should never go to war’, discuss. ?‘ People should never go to war ’, discuss. ‘ People shouldn’t go to war ’ this statement is research paper building construction, important as it is a contradicting point in the bible and is a question asked by many people as it addresses several moral issues for Christians. Christians who think that we should never go to war and agree. There are many reasons to why Australian’s went to war in the 1914; everyone had different reasons for life applying for this life- threatening job. Some went for the thrill, to get a job, to get away from the research paper construction drought and some people even had war fever. On the about my highschool other hand, some people went because they felt like.

Is Iraq a Just War ? With the book always looming possibility that the draft may be started again someday in the near we must begin to think what we will do if this possibility becomes a reality. My Highschool! The Just- War theory is a very good guideline available to us and may be used to assist in our own decision making. Was Slavery the on culture clash Cause of the Civil War. to being the leading cause for my highschool life the American Civil War . Slavery was a major political issue during the 19th century ultimately ripping the United States of America into three sects. Research Building! People who believed that slavery was just and supported the idea, people who believed that slavery was wrong and about life, inhumane. and helpless neighbor. Kuwait -- a member of the Arab League and a member of the United Nations -- was crushed; its people , brutalized. Essay Of The Book And Men! Five months ago, Saddam Hussein started this cruel war against Kuwait.

Tonight, the battle has been joined. This military action, taken in accord with United Nations resolutions. ? Why did war break out in essay life 1914 The War of 1914-18 began in August 1914. There are various reasons as to Design Framework, why the essay my highschool life war started, and paper, everyone has been debating what the main cause was for years. 3 fuses – empire, an arms race, allies Spark- assassination of archduke Franz Many countries had signed treaties. ? Civil War 10 Day Unit Plan Stephanie Smith Grand Canyon University: SED 444 September 28, 2014 Professor Ritchie Unit Rationale This unit will focus on the Civil War and essay about my highschool life, the different lessons that pertain to the history of the war . We will explore the essay on culture clash different battles. 30, 2009 Why Nations go to War Review Why do notions go to war ? What is the reasoning behind their actions? John G. Stoessinger analyzes these questions in essay about my highschool life his book, Why Nations go to conflict resolved, War . Stoessinger believes that to understand the essay war , you must understand the thesis picture leaders of the war . When you understand. Iraq War : War or Occupation? The Iraq War , also known as the Second Gulf War or the life Occupation of Iraq, is an military campagin which began on March 20, 2003 with the research paper Invasion of Iraq, now led by about my highschool, troops from the united states and United Kingdom.

The main question people ask is bergeron, how and. Should the Colonists Have Gone to War with Britain? the Right Choice? Should the colonists have gone to war with Britain? Wounded, having just been shot in the stomach, the soldier lay on the ground, as he was slowly drained of his blood. Essay About Life! This is what it was like during the Revolutionary War . American soldiers lay on the ground, slowly dying. They. Australia first joined World War I in 1. joined World War I in 1914.

Although it was a war focused in Europe, the Australian government at on culture, the time decided that it should help and defend the about my highschool ‘Mother Country’, Britain. This was Australia’s main reason for involvement in World War I. Although many Australians objected to joining the war , majority. War in Iraq The war in Iraq was one of the worst things the American people have undertaken in bergeron resolved a long time. They had no reason to invade Iraq except for the idea that the essay about my highschool life Iraqis had nuclear weapons of thesis picture mass destruction. At least that was their stated motivation for going into Iraq. First of all. Why Do Those Who Are Stronger Have a Natural Right to Dominate Those Who Are Weaker.

Why do those who are stronger have a natural right to dominate those who are weaker? Imagine a world, where you have to listen to the strong and listen to the weak. Only the strong can stop you from what your hearts desire. Essay Life! The world would be catastrophic because of how the government and the president. hy people go to war ? People go to war for the following reasons: - economic reasons - natural resources - more land - expand its power on clash, territory control - dragged into about life, war due to alliance There are so many reason's why countries go to war the worst part about it is that known are good. America And Unilateralism In Iraqi War. America And Unilateralism In Iraqi War Unilateralism in bergeron this case means America’s decision to go into about life, the war with or without the book UN support. Such concern follows decisions and acts which indicate a “ go -it-alone” attitude and the question of the United States’ participation in multilateral treaties. ?Reflection Paper 1: Just War Many people ponder to the question: when is war just? We also ponder if war is necessary and when is it necessary and if there are other ways to essay life, settle the thesis picture discrepancy. Throughout time war has brought on a lot of pain, pressure and essay about my highschool life, countless number of building construction casualties.

And. Why Did the Ancient Greeks Go West. Why did the Greeks go west? • Around 1200 BCE, the ancestors of the life Greeks, the Mycenaeans discovered what we now know as Italy and Sicily • They traded with the nomadic people who lived there, until a dark age set upon their civilization • All memories of reality Italy were transformed. Holy War Essay Holy war . How can the word holy be put together with the word war ? In the Old Testament though, holy war is presented in essay about such a good light. You were going to war for Yahweh’s command. Holy war was only engaged when Yahweh summons Israel to war . Thesis Picture! Holy war was initiated when something. The Mexican War wasn't about the nation’s defense from the Mexican people as President Polk made it out to about my highschool life, be, but it was more about expansion of the United States manifest destiny. President Polk deceived the people in believing that the Mexicans had invaded the territory and shed blood on the American. Why did civil war break out history ess.

? Why did civil war break out in 1642? Why did civil war break out? Well for about 17 years parliament and king Charles 1 hadn’t been getting on well and it didn’t help that parliament hadn’t really got on with Charles’ dad James 1 or Charles’ close advisors. They mainly got on each other’s nerves. War Tourism The text deals with a brand new kind of essay of mice and men Tourism – War Tourism. Our society has changed and some people want another kind of Holliday than the generally popular and common charter-Holliday. These people are not youngsters but frequently adult which apparently want some other experiences. in the Middle East was a intercrural but one of the essay my highschool life war that lead up to the Afghanistan and the second Iraq war in the Middle east. Reality Tv Effect! The first war that fueled the conflict was operation Desert Storm Desert Shield.The Desert Storm Desert Shield war started when saddam hussein Invaded the essay about my highschool small country.

History of Racism: Before Black People Were Free. freedoms, rights, and equality for everyone no matter who they are. This country is plagued by Channel, a few things though, one of them being racism. Racist people are everywhere, from schools to offices, from the streets to grocery stores. Racism is not a good thing and is the reason I am writing this report. stable nation. There are many people in this nation that believe war has caused too many deaths and has brought too much pain to families.

War can only about, cause death and destruction right? How are we supposed to of mice, trust a government that solves conflicts with violence? War seems to have this never ending. Consequences of the essay my highschool Vietnam War Loss Of innocence In ‘Born on essay, the fourth of July’ we meet Kovic, who before the war , believes in God and the government. He believes the words spoken by essay life, President John F. Kennedy: “ Ask Not what your country can do for bergeron conflict resolved you – ask what you can do for your country. The Vietnam War: America's Lost War. Summer Seminars for my highschool schoolteachers and college professors six times. The Vietnam War is one of America’s most significant historical events. Many people today don’t realize the impact that the Vietnam War had on the world then and on our world today.

Charles E. Neu realized the importance of.

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Essay: K .MANIA (PVT) Limited Company. Contents of marketing plan. Part: 1 Executive Summery. Part: 2 Purposes and Mission. Part: 3 Situational Analyses. ‘ Product Market Analysis. Part: 4 Strategy and objective. Part: 5 Technical programmed.

Part: 6 Budget performance analysis implementation. ‘ Budget and analysis. Part: 7 Additional considerations. The report explain the marketing plan for launching a fresh juice named Pep up This product has been made by the K.MANIA (PVT) Limited Company is essay about, improved from the ministry of health. In the beginning of the report we have explained the mission and essay of the of mice and men, vision of the K.MANIA (PVT) Limited Company. About. And then we have future carried out our. It will be introduce in the market with the help of various promotional display advertisements and conflict, distribution of fee samples to the general public and financial institution. This report examine that this product is initially launching in Lahore’s domestic market the study included both primary and secondary research. The primary study focused on essay about life, a survey of the competitors and reality tv effect on society, the liking and disliking of the people.

Through this strategy company can penetrate more into the market and can attract the bulk customers. For the purpose we have contracted SWOT analysis of the company to essay life see company’s strength, weakness opportunities and threats. Then we have explained the purpose benefits and objectives of the product. Then we have made a marketing mix strategy for our product. Clash. We have divided market into different segment and decided to target customers of essay about my highschool all ages. We have also paid special attention to packaging color and price of the thesis picture product. We have decided to place the product in all the markets of my highschool Punjab specially canteen of on culture college and universities. We will promote our product through various means of advertisement.

We shall also conduct market survey in near future to know the opinion of the public about our product and developed our product accordingly. The Mania (Pvt) Company. ‘Be the essay life global leader in customer value’ ‘To set world class standard in juice industry through providing a diverse range of high quality products that are prepared in according with Islamic principals serving to satisfy customers tasting and need and serving the society’ The K.Mania in harrison conflict, Lahore.

The Mania will commence its operation in about my highschool life, Lahore from Framework February 2011. The factory facility has been founded on 25 canal area of land in the industrial area ferozepur Road Lahore. The factory is my highschool life, expected to match the demand of our product. Essay On Culture Clash. We have ensure the essay installation of modern sophisticated and harrison bergeron, efficient equipment confirming to the very latest standard of ‘Good Manufacturing Practices’ Introduction To ‘Pep up’ People started too perished under the scorching the heat of summer in our country they need of energy drink to refresh themselves Pep up is my highschool, a fresh juice product. Bergeron Resolved. It provide energy and keep fresh when feel weak and tired after doing lot of work in whole day. It contains vitamin and proteins which is essay about my highschool, useful energy sources. Vitamins gives freshness and proteins are the thesis picture energy cells that are recharge the human body so they work at their maximum. The students employee and essay about my highschool life, workers all field of humans become tired due to the work burden and sunlight which make them feel lose. They need an energy drink that make them energize so they may be able to perform better again and feel fresh.

‘ Mango apple pine apple banana grapes mix. ‘ To increase market shares. ‘ To increase the length of product line. ‘ To increase profit. ‘ To satisfy customer. ‘ To face the strong competitors. Current Market Situations.

‘Pep up’ is fresh juice product that is going introduce in essay on culture, Lahore domestic market. We are focusing to all levels are generation. The price of essay Pep up is paper building, moderate because it is for all. The consumer of ‘Pep up’ consists of the my highschool life followings: ‘ A zone (Gull berg, MM Alam road, Defense) ‘ B zone (Garden town, Model town, Wahdat road ) ‘ C zone (Moon market, Multan road, Allama Iqbal town) ‘ D zone (Upper mall, Railway station, Dharma Pura. The Pep up is thesis picture, currently facing very competitive environment. Because already in market following compotators are: The PEP UP is essay my highschool, available in 250ml size and in tv effect essay, different flavors.

PEP UP Competitors. The competitors of PEP UP are more than ten. Shezan and nestle are leading market right now and other companies are also have a great image in my highschool life, market. Essay Of Mice And Men. Shezan and essay my highschool life, nestle have loyal customer in all over thesis picture the Pakistan because both are from so many years in market. Our aim to compete our all competitors in short period of tome. Our main competitors are and. ‘ Good distributions channel. ‘ Standard and attractive packing. ‘ Large production and market coverage. ‘ Availability in various weights packing. Minimum price of juice is 15 R.s.

Shezan has a large market share in Pakistan. (Year ending Jan 2010) 2728709000. They promote this product through. a. Electric media. d. Essay Life. Wall chalking. Nestle beverages is product by nestle international. Qualities of nestle. a. large promotion and market coverage.

b. large range of flavors. c. high availability. Nestle has a large market share in Pakistan. Change vs. June 2008. Sales Reported Jan-June 2009 Organic growth Reported Constant currencies. Group 52267 +3.5% -1.5% +2.8% Food #038; beverages 48313 +3.4% -2.0% +2.7% Group 14.1% _ +30 bps +30 bps. Food #038; beverages 12.4% _ +10bps +20 bps. Earning per Framework, share.

Underlying CHF 1.46 _ +3.5% +8.5% All calculations based on non-rounded figures. ‘ Creating share value global forum. ‘ By offering different flavors. SWOT Analysis of K. Mania.

‘ Updated technology plant. ‘ Specialist available for life, specialize task jobs. ‘ Hire experience staff. ‘ Medical income of employee. ‘ Targeted to essay of mice low and middle class people.

‘ Expiry date above six months. ‘ New in essay about, juice industry. ‘ Small distribution network. ‘ Limited experience of harrison conflict resolved customers. ‘ Increase the distribution network. ‘ Acquiring the about my highschool life new technology. ‘ Market is very big and attractive. ‘ Take over the distributor.

‘ Increase demand of high quality of product due to Lahore being a develop city. ‘ New entrance of on culture exiting competitors. ‘ So many competitors. ‘ Increase of my highschool general sales tax. ‘ Development of plant.

Marketing Strategy and on society essay, Objectives. The marketing strategy is based on positioning of product in the mind of consumers. ‘ Providing high quality juice to the customers. ‘ We will distribute our product on mass level so that we can maximize the profitability. 1. Positioning strategies. We want to about my highschool life put our image an on in the consumers mind as compare to competitor’s product. Paper Construction. We want to target the essay about life high school’ collage and graduate students and on society, government sector that have to work hard and need to ‘Refresh’ them an instant, We made the market segmentation on essay, following basses. ‘ Rural and of the of mice, semi urban areas.

‘ Socioeconomic classification (SEC) ‘ Attitude towards the product. We will target the following customers. 1. Product strategy. ‘ Develop the long term relationship with customers. ‘ Give values to the customers to my highschool delighting them. ‘ Do whatever it task not satisfy the customers but retain our customers. In order to accomplish this objective, the company has established sales, marketing and support teams. Our product would be available in following flavors. The name of our product is ‘PEP UP’ High quality assurance would be our first priority.

This would be ensured by. ‘ Implementing high quality standards. ‘ Total quality management. ‘ Acquisition of high quality raw materials. Pep up is the essay clash sweet, Pep up juice with an eye catching tetra pack. Here are some features of our product.

‘ Fresh original fruit juice. ‘ Provide proteins and minerals. ‘ Beneficial for kidney. ‘ Excellent in essay about, taste. ‘ Tetra pack protection packing. High quality assurance would be our first priority-high performance would be: ‘ Implementing high quality standards. ‘ Total quality management. ‘ Acquisition of high quality raw mate.

Product units are packed in 6-layered Tetra Brick Aseptic. Our product is tv effect essay, available in 250 ml pack. Our price includes custom services and other expenses. My Highschool. Passage through its life cycle changes its price strategy. Thesis Picture. To attain large market share prices should be at moderate level to seek attraction of large number of consumer. Pricing in Pakistan Rupees.

Fruits cost Rs 3/- Factory over head Rs 5/- Miscellaneous Rs 2/- Retailer margin Rs 2/- Total price Rs15/-

According to our above pricing plan we have decided to offer the product to customers at Rs.14.The price is very much competitive and offer is essay life, feasible enough to catch a large percentage of market shares. PRICE AND QUALITY GRID: This grid shows what pricing strategy a firm is perusing; HIGH PRESENTATION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. According to the above grid we are offering high quality with low rate. Actually promotion is the first step when we are launching a product. But we make its strategy in last because we want our good image in the mind of our customers. Criteria for reality tv effect on society, promotion: Our main objective to provide:

Core sources of promotion: CHENNEL TIME DURATION TOTAL. GEO Prime time #038; Post prime time 1 min 1215000. DUNIYA NEWS Prime time #038; Early day 1 min 180000. AJJ NEWES Early day #038; Prime time 1 min 175000. SAMAA NEWS Early day #038; Prime time 1 min 280000. NEWS PAPER PAGR COLOR OR.

BLACK #038; WHITE SIZE DAILY BASIS WEEKLY BASIS CHARGES. JANG FRONT COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 18600. EXPRESS MID COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 5000. DIN FRONT COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 15000. THE DAILY TIMES BACK COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 17500. NAWA-E-WAQAT BACK COLORED STANDARD SIZE DAILY 15000. AKHBAR-E-JAHAN BACK COLORED FULL WEEKLY 600000. LOCATION SIZE DURATION TOTAL COST. DEFFENCE 20”60 1 MONTH 250000.

MALL ROAD 20”60 1 MONTH 215000. FEROZPUR ROAD 20”60 1 MONTH 70000. IQBAL TOWN 20”60 1 MONTH 115000. GULBERG 20”60 1 MONTH 150000. LOCATION SIZE DURATION TOTAL COST. DEFFENCE 30”90 1 MONTH 1200000. MALL ROAD 30”90 1 MONTH 1000000. IQBAL TOWN 30”90 1 MONTH 1000000.

GULBERG 30”90 1 MONTH 200000. LOCATION TIME COST. GULBERG 6:00pm to my highschool life 10:00pm 30000. MULTAN ROAD 10000. Scheme Mor 25000. Wapda Town 20000. Following are the additional benefits which are offering to the customers to give them values: ‘ Give five rappers and get one juice pack. ‘ Purchase ten pack #038; get one free juice. ‘ If you purchase one crate of juice then you would able to participate in essay on culture, lucky draw for following: To assure the essay about my highschool availability of its product * PEP UP * juice has established affective dealer network.

The main target of these juices is on culture, Lahore. The end consumer would then purchase ‘fresh ‘from the retailer. My Highschool Life. The distributors are the most reliable distributor in essay book of mice, the region. S. No Description Amount. 1 Cost of about my highschool land 25000000. 2 Raw material 5000000. 3 Stationary 50000.

4 Office expenses 100000. 5 Furniture 500000. 6 Staff salaries 50000. 7 Freight inward charges 60000. 8 Repair #038; maintenance 150000. 9 Research #038; development 90000. 10 Technology 1000000. 11 Marketing #038; media expenses 6648630. This is the main and on culture, last element of the about my highschool marketing planning by using this we can check the standard of our product for the purpose of Channel correcting any error if occurs.

There are three main functions are performed under this element of planning: We can check marketing condition through meaning in which different type of essay about task may be performed like. Survey for Channel Design, the future: In order to essay about my highschool learn weather people would like to buy our product, we have decided to conduct a market survey in future so that we can assure that people like our product or not. In controlling process we compare our product with our standards. If any problem occurs then correcting process will take place in witch we found that from building construction where the problem will arises. 1. Marketing organization: Pep up’s chief marketing officer, hold overall responsibility for all the company’s marketing activities so. There are other subordinates with him to help the sales campaigns, trade and about my highschool, consumer sales promotion, and public relation efforts.

2. Bergeron Resolved. Action programs: The ‘PEP UP’ will be introduced in May .following are summaries of the programs we will use during this summer session to achieve our stated objectives. May we will initiate 80,00,000 rupees trade sales promotion campaign to educate dealers and generate excitement for the product launch , and essay about life, provide sample crates to our selected product reviewers, opinion leader and celebrities as part of of the book of mice our public relation strategy. June we will start with integrate print /television campaign. The campaign will show how many features the about life ‘Pep up’ have for users to reenergize them. July as the juice advertisement continues, we will add consumer sales promotion by including them to our message.

We will also support or retailer to increase our sales. August we plan to thesis picture roll out a new advertisement having new views of customer through survey who have used our drink which ill help to promote our juice. NAEEM MANSOR FROM MARKETING DEPARTMENT. A.R.AWAN (MARKETING MANAGER) AL-QARNI GROUP OF COMPANIES. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Marketing essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of about my highschool life expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Marketing work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Marketing essay was submitted to paper us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: K .MANIA (PVT) Limited Company . About Life. Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/marketing/essay-k-mania-pvt-limited-company/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to clash request removal: 22-08-17 - Design in marketing - Describe how marketing techniques are used to market products in two organisations - Marketing mix and essay, performance evaluation 11-08-17 - NATURE AND ROLE OF MARKETING SECTOR 21-05-17 - Tunku Abdul Rahman University College – Marketing Mix 20-04-17 - In scented environments, can consumers demonstrate higher recall of conflict brands? 02-04-17 - Marketing – national branding 18-02-17 - CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF BEVERAGE INDUSTRY – A CASE OF STARBUCKS CORPORATION 21-12-16 - Packaging and essay my highschool life, its characteristics 06-11-16 - Business to business (B2B)

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