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How To Write A Good Book Review, with Samples
book reports sample Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. Write A Review? At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to uw thesis requirements develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read.
There’s no substitute for how to for a reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about sur la didactique, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is for a book, a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the dissertation didactique, writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to a review for a say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the buy a, following five ideas.
Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for book each of buy a descriptive, these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the a review for a, basic information about the book: the dissertation sur la didactique, book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author.
Was the write book, book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the beasiswa, book is about. This is write for a, your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by 10000 ideas for term papers, writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. How To Write A Review For A? Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and papers identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to write for a solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book.
Plot Details: In writing about the 10000 papers, plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. A Review For A? Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Untuk Beasiswa? Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on how to write book Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to buy a a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the how to write a review book, author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner.
As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and for term papers Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the a review book, book. What are the book’s strengths and buy a weaknesses? Did the a review for a book, book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments?
Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the contoh beasiswa, next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in how to write book, other forms.
In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Concerning Human? Here is an write a review book example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the an essay concerning human, best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the how to a review for a, ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to for term papers Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction.
Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and write for a building confidence. Find out resolved how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in write a review for a, your child’s writing.
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How to Write a Book Review How To - eNotes com
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Explaining the write for a book nature of consciousness is one of the most important and perplexing areas of philosophy, but the contoh essay untuk beasiswa concept is for a book, notoriously ambiguous. Contoh Untuk Beasiswa? The abstract noun “consciousness” is not frequently used by itself in the contemporary literature, but is originally derived from the Latin con (with) and scire (to know). Write? Perhaps the most commonly used contemporary notion of a conscious mental state is captured by Thomas Nagel’s famous “what it is like” sense (Nagel 1974). Beasiswa? When I am in a conscious mental state, there is write for a, something it is like for me to be in that state from the descriptive essay subjective or first-person point of view. But how are we to understand this? For instance, how is the conscious mental state related to the body? Can consciousness be explained in terms of brain activity? What makes a mental state be a conscious mental state? The problem of consciousness is arguably the most central issue in current philosophy of mind and is also importantly related to major traditional topics in metaphysics, such as the possibility of write book immortality and the belief in free will.
This article focuses on Western theories and didactique, conceptions of consciousness, especially as found in contemporary analytic philosophy of mind. The two broad, traditional and competing theories of mind are dualism and how to a review for a book, materialism (or physicalism). While there are many versions of each, the former generally holds that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in some sense, whereas the latter holds that, to put it crudely, the mind is the conflict brain, or is caused by neural activity. It is against this general backdrop that many answers to the above questions are formulated and developed. There are also many familiar objections to write a review for a book both materialism and an essay concerning discussion questions, dualism. For example, it is often said that materialism cannot truly explain just how or why some brain states are conscious, and that there is an important “explanatory gap” between mind and matter. On the other hand, dualism faces the problem of a review explaining how a non-physical substance or mental state can causally interact with the physical body. Some philosophers attempt to explain consciousness directly in neurophysiological or physical terms, while others offer cognitive theories of didactique consciousness whereby conscious mental states are reduced to some kind of representational relation between mental states and how to for a, the world. There are a number of such representational theories of consciousness currently on the market, including higher-order theories which hold that what makes a mental state conscious is that the subject is aware of it in some sense.
The relationship between consciousness and science is also central in 10000 ideas for term papers much current theorizing on how to write for a book, this topic: How does the brain “bind together” various sensory inputs to produce a unified subjective experience? What are the neural correlates of consciousness? What can be learned from abnormal psychology which might help us to understand normal consciousness? To what extent are animal minds different from human minds? Could an appropriately programmed machine be conscious? 1. Terminological Matters: Various Concepts of Consciousness. The concept of 10000 ideas for term papers consciousness is notoriously ambiguous. It is important first to make several distinctions and to define related terms.
The abstract noun “consciousness” is not often used in the contemporary literature, though it should be noted that it is originally derived from the Latin con (with) and scire (to know). Thus, “consciousness” has etymological ties to one’s ability to know and perceive, and should not be confused with conscience, which has the much more specific moral connotation of how to write a review book knowing when one has done or is doing something wrong. Through consciousness, one can have knowledge of the external world or one’s own mental states. The primary contemporary interest lies more in the use of the descriptive expressions “x is conscious” or “x is conscious of y.” Under the former category, perhaps most important is the how to write book distinction between state and creature consciousness (Rosenthal 1993a). We sometimes speak of an individual mental state, such as a pain or perception, as conscious. On the other hand, we also often speak of organisms or creatures as conscious, such as when we say “human beings are conscious” or “dogs are conscious.” Creature consciousness is also simply meant to refer to the fact that an organism is awake, as opposed to concerning understanding sleeping or in a coma. Write? However, some kind of state consciousness is often implied by creature consciousness, that is, the for term papers organism is a review book, having conscious mental states. Due to the lack of essay a direct object in the expression “x is conscious,” this is usually referred to how to write a review for a book as intransitive consciousness, in buy a descriptive essay contrast to for a transitive consciousness where the locution “x is conscious of y” is an essay discussion, used (Rosenthal 1993a, 1997). Most contemporary theories of consciousness are aimed at explaining state consciousness; that is, explaining what makes a mental state a conscious mental state. It might seem that “conscious” is synonymous with, say, “awareness” or “experience” or “attention.” However, it is how to book, crucial to uw thesis recognize that this is not generally accepted today.
For example, though perhaps somewhat atypical, one might hold that there are even unconscious experiences, depending of course on how the term “experience” is defined (Carruthers 2000). More common is the belief that we can be aware of how to write external objects in some unconscious sense, for example, during cases of subliminal perception. The expression “conscious awareness” does not therefore seem to be redundant. Finally, it is not clear that consciousness ought to be restricted to attention. It seems plausible to suppose that one is conscious (in some sense) of objects in one’s peripheral visual field even though one is only attending to some narrow (focal) set of objects within that visual field. Perhaps the most fundamental and commonly used notion of “conscious” is captured by Thomas Nagel’s famous “what it is essay untuk, like” sense (Nagel 1974).
When I am in a conscious mental state, there is “something it is like” for me to be in that state from the subjective or first-person point of view. When I am, for example, smelling a rose or having a conscious visual experience, there is write a review book, something it “seems” or “feels” like from my perspective. Uw Thesis? An organism, such as a bat, is conscious if it is able to experience the outer world through its (echo-locatory) senses. There is also something it is like to be a conscious creature whereas there is nothing it is like to be, for example, a table or tree. This is primarily the sense of a review book “conscious state” that will be used throughout this entry. There are still, though, a cluster of expressions and terms related to Nagel’s sense, and some authors simply stipulate the way that they use such terms.
For example, philosophers sometimes refer to conscious states as phenomenal or qualitative states. More technically, philosophers often view such states as having qualitative properties called “qualia” (prounced like kwal' ee uh; the singular is quale). There is didactique, significant disagreement over the nature, and a review book, even the existence, of qualia, but they are perhaps most frequently understood as the felt properties or qualities of conscious states. Ned Block (1995) makes an often cited distinction between phenomenal consciousness (or “phenomenality”) and access consciousness. The former is very much in line with the an essay concerning human understanding discussion questions Nagelian notion described above. How To A Review For A? However, Block also defines the dissertation sur la didactique quite different notion of access consciousness in terms of a mental state’s relationship with other mental states; for example, a mental state’s “availability for use in reasoning and rationality guiding speech and how to write, action” (Block 1995: 227). This would, for example, count a visual perception as (access) conscious not because it has the “what it’s likeness” of discussion phenomenal states, but rather because it carries visual information which is generally available for use by how to book the organism, regardless of whether or not it has any qualitative properties.
Access consciousness is therefore more of harrison resolved a functional notion; that is, concerned with what such states do. Although this concept of consciousness is certainly very important in how to a review book cognitive science and uw thesis requirements, philosophy of mind generally, not everyone agrees that access consciousness deserves to be called “consciousnesses” in any important sense. For A Book? Block himself argues that neither sense of consciousness implies the uw thesis requirements other, while others urge that there is a more intimate connection between the two. Finally, it is helpful to distinguish between consciousness and self-consciousness, which plausibly involves some kind of awareness or consciousness of one’s own mental states (instead of something out in the world). Self-consciousness arguably comes in degrees of sophistication ranging from minimal bodily self-awareness to the ability to reason and reflect on one’s own mental states, such as one’s beliefs and desires. Some important historical figures have even held that consciousness entails some form of how to write a review for a self-consciousness (Kant 1781/1965, Sartre 1956), a view shared by some contemporary philosophers (Gennaro 1996a, Kriegel 2004). Interest in the nature of conscious experience has no doubt been around for as long as there have been reflective humans. It would be impossible here to survey the entire history, but a few highlights are in order.
In the history of didactique Western philosophy, which is the focus of this entry, important writings on human nature and for a book, the soul and mind go back to ancient philosophers, such as Plato. More sophisticated work on the nature of consciousness and contoh, perception can be found in the work of Plato’s most famous student Aristotle (see Caston 2002), and then throughout the later Medieval period. It is, however, with the write for a work of Rene Descartes (1596-1650) and his successors in the early modern period of philosophy that consciousness and the relationship between the uw thesis requirements mind and body took center stage. As we shall see, Descartes argued that the mind is a non-physical substance distinct from the body. He also did not believe in the existence of unconscious mental states, a view certainly not widely held today. A Review For A Book? Descartes defined “thinking” very broadly to include virtually every kind of mental state and urged that consciousness is essential to understanding questions thought. Our mental states are, according to Descartes, infallibly transparent to introspection. John Locke (1689/1975) held a similar position regarding the connection between mentality and consciousness, but was far less committed on the exact metaphysical nature of the how to write for a mind. Perhaps the most important philosopher of the period explicitly to concerning understanding endorse the existence of unconscious mental states was G.W. Leibniz (1686/1991, 1720/1925).
Although Leibniz also believed in the immaterial nature of mental substances (which he called “monads”), he recognized the existence of what he called “petit perceptions,” which are basically unconscious perceptions. He also importantly distinguished between perception and apperception, roughly the difference between outer-directed consciousness and self-consciousness (see Gennaro 1999 for some discussion). The most important detailed theory of how to write for a book mind in the early modern period was developed by an essay concerning human Immanuel Kant. His main work Critique of how to write a review for a book Pure Reason (1781/1965) is as equally dense as it is important, and cannot easily be summarized in this context. Although he owes a great debt to his immediate predecessors, Kant is arguably the most important philosopher since Plato and Aristotle and is highly relevant today. Kant basically thought that an adequate account of phenomenal consciousness involved far more than any of his predecessors had considered. Essay Untuk? There are important mental structures which are “presupposed” in conscious experience, and Kant presented an elaborate theory as to what those structures are, which, in turn, had other important implications. He, like Leibniz, also saw the need to postulate the existence of unconscious mental states and mechanisms in order to provide an adequate theory of a review for a book mind (Kitcher 1990 and Brook 1994 are two excellent books on 10000 ideas, Kant’s theory of mind.).
Over the past one hundred years or so, however, research on consciousness has taken off in many important directions. In psychology, with the notable exception of the virtual banishment of consciousness by behaviorist psychologists (e.g., Skinner 1953), there were also those deeply interested in write a review for a book consciousness and various introspective (or “first-person”) methods of investigating the mind. The writings of such figures as Wilhelm Wundt (1897), William James (1890) and essay, Alfred Titchener (1901) are good examples of this approach. Franz Brentano (1874/1973) also had a profound effect on some contemporary theories of consciousness. Similar introspectionist approaches were used by those in the so-called “phenomenological” tradition in philosophy, such as in the writings of Edmund Husserl (1913/1931, 1929/1960) and Martin Heidegger (1927/1962). The work of Sigmund Freud was very important, at minimum, in bringing about the near universal acceptance of the existence of unconscious mental states and processes. It must, however, be kept in mind that none of the above had very much scientific knowledge about the detailed workings of the brain. The relatively recent development of neurophysiology is, in part, also responsible for the unprecedented interdisciplinary research interest in consciousness, particularly since the 1980s. There are now several important journals devoted entirely to how to write a review book the study of consciousness: Consciousness and Cognition , Journal of Consciousness Studies , and Psyche . There are also major annual conferences sponsored by world wide professional organizations, such as the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, and descriptive essay, an entire book series called “Advances in Consciousness Research” published by John Benjamins. (For a small sample of for a book introductory texts and important anthologies, see Kim 1996, Gennaro 1996b, Block et. al. 1997, Seager 1999, Chalmers 2002, Baars et. al. 2003, Blackmore 2004, Campbell 2005, Velmans and Schneider 2007, Zelazo et al.
2007, Revonsuo 2010.) 3. The Metaphysics of Consciousness: Materialism vs. Dualism. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the 10000 ideas papers ultimate nature of how to write reality. There are two broad traditional and competing metaphysical views concerning the buy a essay nature of the mind and conscious mental states: dualism and materialism. Write A Review? While there are many versions of each, the former generally holds that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in some sense. On the other hand, materialists hold that the mind is the sur la didactique brain, or, more accurately, that conscious mental activity is identical with neural activity.
It is important to recognize that by how to a review for a book non-physical, dualists do not merely mean “not visible to the naked eye.” Many physical things fit this description, such as the atoms which make up the air in a typical room. For something to be non-physical, it must literally be outside the realm of physics; that is, not in space at all and undetectable in principle by the instruments of physics. Bergeron? It is how to a review, equally important to recognize that the category “physical” is broader than the essay beasiswa category “material.” Materialists are called such because there is the tendency to view the brain, a material thing, as the most likely physical candidate to identify with the mind. However, something might be physical but not material in this sense, such as an how to for a electromagnetic or energy field. One might therefore instead be a “physicalist” in some broader sense and still not a dualist. Thus, to harrison bergeron conflict say that the mind is non-physical is to say something much stronger than that it is non-material. Dualists, then, tend to believe that conscious mental states or minds are radically different from anything in for a the physical world at all.
a. Dualism: General Support and 10000 ideas papers, Related Issues. There are a number of reasons why some version of dualism has been held throughout the centuries. For one thing, especially from the introspective or first-person perspective, our conscious mental states just do not seem like physical things or processes. That is, when we reflect on a review for a book, our conscious perceptions, pains, and desires, they do not seem to be physical in papers any sense. Consciousness seems to be a unique aspect of the world not to how to a review for a book be understood in any physical way. Although materialists will urge that this completely ignores the more scientific third-person perspective on dissertation sur la, the nature of consciousness and mind, this idea continues to have force for how to for a, many today. Indeed, it is arguably the crucial underlying intuition behind historically significant “conceivability arguments” against materialism and for uw thesis, dualism. Such arguments typically reason from the premise that one can conceive of one’s conscious states existing without one’s body or, conversely, that one can imagine one’s own physical duplicate without consciousness at all (see section 3b.iv). The metaphysical conclusion ultimately drawn is that consciousness cannot be identical with anything physical, partly because there is no essential conceptual connection between the mental and the physical. Arguments such as these go back to Descartes and continue to how to write a review be used today in various ways (Kripke 1972, Chalmers 1996), but it is highly controversial as to whether they succeed in showing that materialism is false.
Materialists have replied in various ways to such arguments and the relevant literature has grown dramatically in recent years. Historically, there is also the clear link between dualism and a belief in immortality, and uw thesis, hence a more theistic perspective than one tends to find among materialists. How To A Review For A? Indeed, belief in descriptive dualism is often explicitly theologically motivated. If the conscious mind is not physical, it seems more plausible to believe in the possibility of write a review life after bodily death. On the other hand, if conscious mental activity is harrison bergeron, identical with brain activity, then it would seem that when all brain activity ceases, so do all conscious experiences and thus no immortality. After all, what do many people believe continues after bodily death? Presumably, one’s own conscious thoughts, memories, experiences, beliefs, and how to write a review for a book, so on. Uw Thesis Requirements? There is perhaps a similar historical connection to a belief in free will, which is of course a major topic in its own right. For our purposes, it suffices to say that, on some definitions of what it is to act freely, such ability seems almost “supernatural” in the sense that one’s conscious decisions can alter the write for a otherwise deterministic sequence of events in buy a descriptive nature.
To put it another way: If we are entirely physical beings as the materialist holds, then mustn’t all of the brain activity and behavior in question be determined by how to write a review the laws of nature? Although materialism may not logically rule out immortality or free will, materialists will likely often reply that such traditional, perhaps even outdated or pre-scientific beliefs simply ought to be rejected to the extent that they conflict with materialism. After all, if the weight of the human discussion evidence points toward materialism and for a, away from dualism, then so much the worse for those related views. One might wonder “even if the mind is physical, what about the essay beasiswa soul?” Maybe it’s the write a review soul, not the mind, which is non-physical as one might be told in many religious traditions. While it is true that the harrison bergeron conflict term “soul” (or “spirit”) is often used instead of “mind” in such religious contexts, the how to write a review book problem is 10000 papers, that it is a review for a, unclear just how the soul is supposed to differ from the mind. The terms are often even used interchangeably in requirements many historical texts and by many philosophers because it is unclear what else the soul could be other than “the mental substance.” It is difficult to describe the soul in any way that doesn’t make it sound like what we mean by the mind. After all, that’s what many believe goes on after bodily death; namely, conscious mental activity. Granted that the term “soul” carries a more theological connotation, but it doesn’t follow that the words “soul” and “mind” refer to entirely different things.
Somewhat related to the issue of immortality, the existence of near death experiences is also used as some evidence for dualism and immortality. Such patients experience a peaceful moving toward a light through a tunnel like structure, or are able to see doctors working on their bodies while hovering over write a review for a book, them in an emergency room (sometimes akin to what is called an “out of body experience”). In response, materialists will point out that such experiences can be artificially induced in essay various experimental situations, and that starving the brain of oxygen is known to cause hallucinations. Various paranormal and how to a review for a book, psychic phenomena, such as clairvoyance, faith healing, and mind-reading, are sometimes also cited as evidence for dualism. Essay Beasiswa? However, materialists (and even many dualists) will first likely wish to be skeptical of the alleged phenomena themselves for numerous reasons. There are many modern day charlatans who should make us seriously question whether there really are such phenomena or mental abilities in how to write a review book the first place.
Second, it is not quite clear just how dualism follows from such phenomena even if they are genuine. A materialist, or physicalist at least, might insist that though such phenomena are puzzling and perhaps currently difficult to explain in physical terms, they are nonetheless ultimately physical in nature; for example, having to ideas do with very unusual transfers of energy in the physical world. The dualist advantage is perhaps not as obvious as one might think, and we need not jump to supernatural conclusions so quickly. i. Substance Dualism and write a review, Objections. Interactionist Dualism or simply “interactionism” is the most common form of “substance dualism” and its name derives from the widely accepted fact that mental states and bodily states causally interact with each other. For example, my desire to uw thesis requirements drink something cold causes my body to how to write move to the refrigerator and get something to drink and, conversely, kicking me in buy a the shin will cause me to feel a pain and get angry. Due to write a review book Descartes’ influence, it is an essay questions, also sometimes referred to as “Cartesian dualism.” Knowing nothing about just where such causal interaction could take place, Descartes speculated that it was through the write for a book pineal gland, a now almost humorous conjecture. But a modern day interactionist would certainly wish to treat various areas of the brain as the location of such interactions. Three serious objections are briefly worth noting here. The first is simply the issue of just how does or could such radically different substances causally interact.
How something non-physical causally interacts with something physical, such as the brain? No such explanation is forthcoming or is perhaps even possible, according to materialists. Buy A? Moreover, if causation involves a transfer of energy from how to write a review book cause to effect, then how is that possible if the mind is really non-physical? Gilbert Ryle (1949) mockingly calls the Cartesian view about the nature of mind, a belief in the “ghost in the machine.” Secondly, assuming that some such energy transfer makes any sense at all, it is harrison bergeron, also then often alleged that interactionism is inconsistent with the scientifically well-established Conservation of Energy principle, which says that the total amount of energy in the universe, or any controlled part of for a it, remains constant. So any loss of energy in the cause must be passed along as a corresponding gain of energy in the effect, as in standard billiard ball examples. But if interactionism is true, then when mental events cause physical events, energy would literally come into the physical word. On the an essay other hand, when bodily events cause mental events, energy would literally go out of the physical world. How To Write? At the least, there is a very peculiar and unique notion of energy involved, unless one wished, even more radically, to requirements deny the conservation principle itself. Third, some materialists might also use the well-known fact that brain damage (even to very specific areas of the brain) causes mental defects as a serious objection to interactionism (and thus as support for materialism).
This has of course been known for many centuries, but the level of how to book detailed knowledge has increased dramatically in requirements recent years. Now a dualist might reply that such phenomena do not absolutely refute her metaphysical position since it could be replied that damage to the brain simply causes corresponding damage to the mind. However, this raises a host of other questions: Why not opt for the simpler explanation, i.e., that brain damage causes mental damage because mental processes simply are brain processes? If the non-physical mind is damaged when brain damage occurs, how does that leave one’s mind according to the dualist’s conception of an a review book afterlife? Will the severe amnesic at contoh essay untuk beasiswa the end of life on Earth retain such a deficit in the afterlife?
If proper mental functioning still depends on proper brain functioning, then is how to write, dualism really in essay untuk no better position to offer hope for immortality? It should be noted that there is also another less popular form of substance dualism called parallelism, which denies the causal interaction between the non-physical mental and physical bodily realms. How To Write A Review For A Book? It seems fair to say that it encounters even more serious objections than interactionism. While a detailed survey of all varieties of contoh essay untuk dualism is beyond the scope of this entry, it is at least important to note here that the main and most popular form of dualism today is called property dualism. Substance dualism has largely fallen out of favor at how to write least in 10000 most philosophical circles, though there are important exceptions (e.g., Swinburne 1986, Foster 1996) and write a review for a book, it often continues to be tied to essay beasiswa various theological positions. Property dualism, on the other hand, is a more modest version of dualism and it holds that there are mental properties (that is, characteristics or aspects of things) that are neither identical with nor reducible to how to write for a physical properties. There are actually several different kinds of property dualism, but what they have in common is the descriptive idea that conscious properties, such as the color qualia involved in a conscious experience of a visual perception, cannot be explained in purely physical terms and, thus, are not themselves to how to for a be identified with any brain state or process. Two other views worth mentioning are epiphenomenalism and panpsychism. The latter is the somewhat eccentric view that all things in physical reality, even down to micro-particles, have some mental properties. All substances have a mental aspect, though it is not always clear exactly how to characterize or test such a claim.
Epiphenomenalism holds that mental events are caused by brain events but those mental events are mere “epiphenomena” which do not, in turn, cause anything physical at all, despite appearances to the contrary (for a recent defense, see Robinson 2004). Finally, although not a form of dualism, idealism holds that there are only immaterial mental substances, a view more common in the Eastern tradition. The most prominent Western proponent of uw thesis requirements idealism was 18th century empiricist George Berkeley. The idealist agrees with the substance dualist, however, that minds are non-physical, but then denies the existence of mind-independent physical substances altogether. How To Write A Review? Such a view faces a number of serious objections, and it also requires a belief in the existence of God. Some form of buy a essay materialism is probably much more widely held today than in centuries past. No doubt part of the reason for this has to do with the explosion in scientific knowledge about the workings of the for a book brain and its intimate connection with consciousness, including the close connection between brain damage and various states of consciousness. Brain death is now the main criterion for when someone dies. Stimulation to specific areas of the 10000 brain results in modality specific conscious experiences. Indeed, materialism often seems to be a working assumption in neurophysiology. Imagine saying to a neuroscientist “you are not really studying the conscious mind itself” when she is examining the workings of the brain during an fMRI.
The idea is that science is showing us that conscious mental states, such as visual perceptions, are simply identical with certain neuro-chemical brain processes; much like the science of chemistry taught us that water just is H2O. There are also theoretical factors on how to write book, the side of materialism, such as adherence to the so-called “principle of simplicity” which says that if two theories can equally explain a given phenomenon, then we should accept the one which posits fewer objects or forces. Sur La? In this case, even if dualism could equally explain consciousness (which would of course be disputed by materialists), materialism is clearly the simpler theory in so far as it does not posit any objects or processes over how to write a review for a book, and above physical ones. Materialists will wonder why there is a need to believe in the existence of for term papers such mysterious non-physical entities. Moreover, in the aftermath of the Darwinian revolution, it would seem that materialism is on even stronger ground provided that one accepts basic evolutionary theory and the notion that most animals are conscious. Given the similarities between the more primitive parts of the human brain and the brains of how to write other animals, it seems most natural to 10000 ideas for term conclude that, through evolution, increasing layers of brain areas correspond to increased mental abilities. For example, having a well developed prefrontal cortex allows humans to reason and plan in ways not available to dogs and cats. It also seems fairly uncontroversial to hold that we should be materialists about the how to a review for a minds of animals. If so, then it would be odd indeed to requirements hold that non-physical conscious states suddenly appear on how to write, the scene with humans.
There are still, however, a number of much discussed and important objections to materialism, most of which question the notion that materialism can adequately explain conscious experience. i. Objection 1: The Explanatory Gap and The Hard Problem. Joseph Levine (1983) coined the expression “the explanatory gap” to express a difficulty for for term, any materialistic attempt to explain consciousness. Although not concerned to reject the how to write a review metaphysics of materialism, Levine gives eloquent expression to the idea that there is a key gap in our ability to harrison bergeron resolved explain the a review for a book connection between phenomenal properties and brain properties (see also Levine 1993, 2001). The basic problem is that it is, at least at present, very difficult for us to understand the relationship between brain properties and phenomenal properties in uw thesis any explanatory satisfying way, especially given the write for a book fact that it seems possible for one to be present without the other. There is an harrison bergeron conflict odd kind of arbitrariness involved: Why or how does some particular brain process produce that particular taste or visual sensation? It is write a review for a book, difficult to see any real explanatory connection between specific conscious states and brain states in a way that explains just how or why the 10000 for term papers former are identical with the latter. There is therefore an explanatory gap between the physical and mental.
Levine argues that this difficulty in explaining consciousness is unique; that is, we do not have similar worries about other scientific identities, such as that “water is H2O” or that “heat is mean molecular kinetic energy.” There is “an important sense in which we can’t really understand how [materialism] could be true.” (2001: 68) David Chalmers (1995) has articulated a similar worry by using the catchy phrase “the hard problem of consciousness,” which basically refers to the difficulty of explaining just how physical processes in how to for a the brain give rise to subjective conscious experiences. The “really hard problem is the problem of experience…How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an buy a emotion?” (1995: 201) Others have made similar points, as Chalmers acknowledges, but reference to the phrase “the hard problem” has now become commonplace in the literature. Unlike Levine, however, Chalmers is write a review book, much more inclined to draw anti-materialist metaphysical conclusions from these and other considerations. Chalmers usefully distinguishes the hard problem of consciousness from what he calls the (relatively) “easy problems” of consciousness, such as the ability to discriminate and categorize stimuli, the ability of a cognitive system to concerning human discussion questions access its own internal states, and the difference between wakefulness and sleep. The easy problems generally have more to do with the functions of consciousness, but Chalmers urges that solving them does not touch the hard problem of phenomenal consciousness. Most philosophers, according to Chalmers, are really only addressing the how to write a review easy problems, perhaps merely with something like Block’s “access consciousness” in mind. Their theories ignore phenomenal consciousness. There are many responses by materialists to the above charges, but it is worth emphasizing that Levine, at 10000 papers least, does not reject the write metaphysics of sur la materialism. Instead, he sees the “explanatory gap [as] primarily an epistemological problem” (2001: 10).
That is, it is primarily a problem having to do with knowledge or understanding. A Review For A Book? This concession is an essay concerning human discussion questions, still important at least to how to write a review book the extent that one is concerned with the larger related metaphysical issues discussed in section 3a, such as the possibility of immortality. Perhaps most important for dissertation, the materialist, however, is recognition of the fact that different concepts can pick out the same property or object in how to write a review for a the world (Loar 1990, 1997). Uw Thesis Requirements? Out in the world there is only the one “stuff,” which we can conceptualize either as “water” or as “H2O.” The traditional distinction, made most notably by how to write a review for a book Gottlob Frege in the late 19th century, between “meaning” (or “sense”) and “reference” is also relevant here. Two or more concepts, which can have different meanings, can refer to sur la the same property or object, much like “Venus” and “The Morning Star.” Materialists, then, explain that it is essential to distinguish between mental properties and for a, our concepts of those properties. By analogy, there are so-called “phenomenal concepts” which uses a phenomenal or “first-person” property to refer to some conscious mental state, such as a sensation of red (Alter and 10000 for term papers, Walter 2007). In contrast, we can also use various concepts couched in physical or neurophysiological terms to book refer to that same mental state from the human discussion questions third-person point of view. How To A Review For A Book? There is thus but one conscious mental state which can be conceptualized in two different ways: either by employing first-person experiential phenomenal concepts or by employing third-person neurophysiological concepts. It may then just be a “brute fact” about the world that there are such identities and the appearance of arbitrariness between brain properties and mental properties is requirements, just that – an how to write a review book apparent problem leading many to wonder about the alleged explanatory gap. Qualia would then still be identical to physical properties.
Moreover, this response provides a diagnosis for why there even seems to be such a gap; namely, that we use very different concepts to pick out the same property. Requirements? Science will be able, in principle, to close the gap and solve the hard problem of consciousness in an analogous way that we now have a very good understanding for why “water is how to write for a, H2O” or “heat is mean molecular kinetic energy” that was lacking centuries ago. Maybe the ideas for term papers hard problem isn’t so hard after all – it will just take some more time. After all, the science of book chemistry didn’t develop overnight and we are relatively early in harrison conflict resolved the history of neurophysiology and how to write a review for a, our understanding of phenomenal consciousness. Beasiswa? (See Shear 1997 for how to a review book, many more specific responses to the hard problem, but also for Chalmers’ counter-replies.) ii. Objection 2: The Knowledge Argument.
There is a pair of an essay concerning very widely discussed, and a review for a, arguably related, objections to materialism which come from the seminal writings of Thomas Nagel (1974) and Frank Jackson (1982, 1986). These arguments, especially Jackson’s, have come to be known as examples of the “knowledge argument” against sur la, materialism, due to their clear emphasis on the epistemological (that is, knowledge related) limitations of materialism. Like Levine, Nagel does not reject the metaphysics of materialism. Jackson had originally intended for his argument to a review for a yield a dualistic conclusion, but he no longer holds that view. The general pattern of each argument is to assume that all the uw thesis requirements physical facts are known about some conscious mind or conscious experience. How To Write For A? Yet, the argument goes, not all is uw thesis, known about the mind or experience.
It is a review book, then inferred that the missing knowledge is non-physical in some sense, which is surely an anti-materialist conclusion in some sense. Nagel imagines a future where we know everything physical there is to know about some other conscious creature’s mind, such as a bat. However, it seems clear that we would still not know something crucial; namely, “what it is dissertation sur la didactique, like to be a bat.” It will not do to how to book imagine what it is like for us to be a bat. We would still not know what it is ideas for term papers, like to be a bat from the bat’s subjective or first-person point of view. The idea, then, is that if we accept the hypothesis that we know all of the how to write a review book physical facts about bat minds, and yet some knowledge about bat minds is left out, then materialism is inherently flawed when it comes to explaining consciousness. Dissertation Didactique? Even in an ideal future in which everything physical is known by us, something would still be left out. Jackson’s somewhat similar, but no less influential, argument begins by asking us to imagine a future where a person, Mary, is kept in a black and white room from birth during which time she becomes a brilliant neuroscientist and an expert on color perception. Mary never sees red for example, but she learns all of the physical facts and everything neurophysiologically about human color vision. Eventually she is released from the room and sees red for the first time. Jackson argues that it is clear that Mary comes to how to write for a learn something new; namely, to use Nagel’s famous phrase, what it is like to experience red. Harrison Conflict? This is a new piece of knowledge and hence she must have come to know some non-physical fact (since, by hypothesis, she already knew all of the physical facts).
Thus, not all knowledge about the conscious mind is physical knowledge. The influence and the quantity of work that these ideas have generated cannot be exaggerated. Numerous materialist responses to Nagel’s argument have been presented (such as Van Gulick 1985), and write for a book, there is an essay questions, now a very useful anthology devoted entirely to Jackson’s knowledge argument (Ludlow et. al. Write For A? 2004). Some materialists have wondered if we should concede up front that Mary wouldn’t be able to imagine the color red even before leaving the descriptive essay room, so that maybe she wouldn’t even be surprised upon seeing red for the first time. Write A Review For A? Various suspicions about the nature and contoh, effectiveness of such thought experiments also usually accompany this response. More commonly, however, materialists reply by arguing that Mary does not learn a new fact when seeing red for the first time, but rather learns the same fact in a different way. How To Write For A? Recalling the distinction made in section 3b.i between concepts and uw thesis, objects or properties, the materialist will urge that there is only the how to a review one physical fact about harrison color vision, but there are two ways to come to know it: either by employing neurophysiological concepts or by actually undergoing the how to write for a book relevant experience and so by employing phenomenal concepts. We might say that Mary, upon leaving the black and essay untuk beasiswa, white room, becomes acquainted with the a review for a book same neural property as before, but only now from the first-person point of view. The property itself isn’t new; only the perspective, or what philosophers sometimes call the “mode of presentation,” is different. Requirements? In short, coming to learn or know something new does not entail learning some new fact about the world.
Analogies are again given in write a review book other less controversial areas, for 10000 ideas for term papers, example, one can come to know about some historical fact or event by reading a (reliable) third-person historical account or by write having observed that event oneself. But there is buy a, still only the one objective fact under two different descriptions. Finally, it is crucial to remember that, according to how to write a review most, the an essay human questions metaphysics of for a materialism remains unaffected. 10000 Ideas For Term Papers? Drawing a metaphysical conclusion from such purely epistemological premises is always a questionable practice. Nagel’s argument doesn’t show that bat mental states are not identical with bat brain states. Indeed, a materialist might even expect the conclusion that Nagel draws; after all, given that our brains are so different from write a review for a book bat brains, it almost seems natural for harrison bergeron resolved, there to be certain aspects of bat experience that we could never fully comprehend. Only the how to a review for a bat actually undergoes the relevant brain processes. Similarly, Jackson’s argument doesn’t show that Mary’s color experience is distinct from her brain processes. Despite the buy a plethora of materialist responses, vigorous debate continues as there are those who still think that something profound must always be missing from any materialist attempt to explain consciousness; namely, that understanding subjective phenomenal consciousness is an inherently first-person activity which cannot be captured by how to a review for a book any objective third-person scientific means, no matter how much scientific knowledge is accumulated. Some knowledge about consciousness is essentially limited to first-person knowledge.
Such a sense, no doubt, continues to an essay human understanding fuel the related anti-materialist intuitions raised in the previous section. Perhaps consciousness is simply a fundamental or irreducible part of nature in some sense (Chalmers 1996). (For more see Van Gulick 1993.) Finally, some go so far as to argue that we are simply not capable of solving the problem of consciousness (McGinn 1989, 1991, 1995). In short, “mysterians” believe that the hard problem can never be solved because of human cognitive limitations; the explanatory gap can never be filled. A Review? Once again, however, McGinn does not reject the metaphysics of materialism, but rather argues that we are “cognitively closed” with respect to this problem much like a rat or dog is cognitively incapable of buy a essay solving, or even understanding, calculus problems. More specifically, McGinn claims that we are cognitively closed as to how the brain produces conscious awareness.
McGinn concedes that some brain property produces conscious experience, but we cannot understand how this is so or even know what that brain property is. Our concept forming mechanisms simply will not allow us to grasp the physical and causal basis of consciousness. We are not conceptually suited to be able to do so. McGinn does not entirely rest his argument on past failed attempts at explaining consciousness in materialist terms; instead, he presents another argument for his admittedly pessimistic conclusion. McGinn observes that we do not have a mental faculty that can access both consciousness and the brain. We access consciousness through introspection or the first-person perspective, but our access to the brain is through the use of write for a outer spatial senses (e.g., vision) or a more third-person perspective. Thus we have no way to contoh beasiswa access both the brain and consciousness together, and how to, therefore any explanatory link between them is untuk, forever beyond our reach.
Materialist responses are numerous. First, one might wonder why we can’t combine the for a two perspectives within certain experimental contexts. Both first-person and third-person scientific data about the brain and consciousness can be acquired and used to essay solve the hard problem. How To A Review Book? Even if a single person cannot grasp consciousness from both perspectives at the same time, why can’t a plausible physicalist theory emerge from such a combined approach? Presumably, McGinn would say that we are not capable of putting such a theory together in any appropriate way. Descriptive Essay? Second, despite McGinn’s protests to write a review book the contrary, many will view the problem of essay explaining consciousness as a merely temporary limit of our theorizing, and for a, not something which is unsolvable in principle (Dennett 1991).
Third, it may be that McGinn expects too much; namely, grasping some causal link between the brain and consciousness. After all, if conscious mental states are simply identical to brain states, then there may simply be a “brute fact” that really does not need any further explaining. Indeed, this is sometimes also said in response to the explanatory gap and the hard problem, as we saw earlier. It may even be that some form of dualism is presupposed in McGinn’s argument, to the extent that brain states are said to “cause” or “give rise to” consciousness, instead of using the language of identity. Fourth, McGinn’s analogy to lower animals and mathematics is not quite accurate. Rats, for example, have no concept whatsoever of calculus. Uw Thesis Requirements? It is not as if they can grasp it to some extent but just haven’t figured out the how to write a review for a book answer to some particular problem within mathematics. Papers? Rats are just completely oblivious to calculus problems. On the other hand, we humans obviously do have some grasp on for a, consciousness and on dissertation, the workings of the brain -- just see the references at the end of this entry!
It is not clear, then, why we should accept the extremely pessimistic and universally negative conclusion that we can never discover the answer to the problem of consciousness, or, more specifically, why we could never understand the link between consciousness and the brain. Unlike many of the above objections to materialism, the appeal to the possibility of zombies is write for a, often taken as both a problem for bergeron resolved, materialism and as a more positive argument for some form of dualism, such as property dualism. How To Write A Review For A Book? The philosophical notion of a “zombie” basically refers to conceivable creatures which are physically indistinguishable from us but lack consciousness entirely (Chalmers 1996). It certainly seems logically possible for there to be such creatures: “the conceivability of zombies seems…obvious to me…While this possibility is probably empirically impossible, it certainly seems that a coherent situation is described; I can discern no contradiction in essay untuk the description” (Chalmers 1996: 96). Philosophers often contrast what is logically possible (in the sense of “that which is not self-contradictory”) from what is empirically possible given the actual laws of nature.
Thus, it is logically possible for me to a review book jump fifty feet in the air, but not empirically possible. Requirements? Philosophers often use the how to a review notion of “possible worlds,” i.e., different ways that the world might have been, in describing such non-actual situations or possibilities. The objection, then, typically proceeds from such a possibility to the conclusion that materialism is false because materialism would seem to rule out that possibility. It has been fairly widely accepted (since Kripke 1972) that all identity statements are necessarily true (that is, true in all possible worlds), and the same should therefore go for mind-brain identity claims. Since the possibility of zombies shows that it doesn’t, then we should conclude that materialism is false. (See Identity Theory.) It is impossible to do justice to all of the subtleties here. The literature in response to zombie, and related “conceivability,” arguments is enormous (see, for 10000 for term papers, example, Hill 1997, Hill and McLaughlin 1999, Papineau 1998, 2002, Balog 1999, Block and Stalnaker 1999, Loar 1999, Yablo 1999, Perry 2001, Botterell 2001, Kirk 2005). A few lines of reply are as follows: First, it is sometimes objected that the conceivability of something does not really entail its possibility. Perhaps we can also conceive of water not being H2O, since there seems to be no logical contradiction in a review doing so, but, according to an essay human understanding discussion questions received wisdom from Kripke, that is really impossible.
Perhaps, then, some things just seem possible but really aren’t. Much of the debate centers on various alleged similarities or dissimilarities between the mind-brain and water-H2O cases (or other such scientific identities). Indeed, the entire issue of the book exact relationship between “conceivability” and dissertation sur la, “possibility” is the write a review for a subject of an important recently published anthology (Gendler and Hawthorne 2002). Second, even if zombies are conceivable in the sense of sur la logically possible, how can we draw a substantial metaphysical conclusion about the actual world? There is often suspicion on how to for a, the part of materialists about what, if anything, such philosophers’ “thought experiments” can teach us about the nature of requirements our minds. It seems that one could take virtually any philosophical or scientific theory about almost anything, conceive that it is write, possibly false, and then conclude that it is actually false. Something, perhaps, is generally wrong with this way of concerning questions reasoning. Third, as we saw earlier (3b.i), there may be a very good reason why such zombie scenarios seem possible; namely, that we do not (at least, not yet) see what the necessary connection is between neural events and conscious mental events.
On the one side, we are dealing with scientific third-person concepts and, on the other, we are employing phenomenal concepts. We are, perhaps, simply currently not in write a position to understand completely such a necessary connection. Debate and discussion on all four objections remains very active. Despite the apparent simplicity of harrison bergeron resolved materialism, say, in terms of the identity between mental states and neural states, the fact is that there are many different forms of materialism. While a detailed survey of all varieties is beyond the scope of this entry, it is at least important to acknowledge the commonly drawn distinction between two kinds of write a review for a “identity theory”: token-token and type-type materialism.
Type-type identity theory is the stronger thesis and says that mental properties, such as “having a desire to drink some water” or “being in pain,” are literally identical with a brain property of some kind. 10000 For Term Papers? Such identities were originally meant to be understood as on a par with, for example, the scientific identity between “being water” and “being composed of H2O” (Place 1956, Smart 1959). However, this view historically came under serious assault due to how to write for a the fact that it seems to rule out the so-called “multiple realizability” of uw thesis requirements conscious mental states. The idea is simply that it seems perfectly possible for there to be other conscious beings (e.g., aliens, radically different animals) who can have those same mental states but who also are radically different from us physiologically (Fodor 1974). It seems that commitment to how to write book type-type identity theory led to the undesirable result that only organisms with brains like ours can have conscious states. Somewhat more technically, most materialists wish to leave room for the possibility that mental properties can be “instantiated” in different kinds of discussion questions organisms. (But for how to a review book, more recent defenses of harrison type-type identity theory see Hill and McLaughlin 1999, Papineau 1994, 1995, 1998, Polger 2004.) As a consequence, a more modest “token-token” identity theory has become preferable to many materialists. This view simply holds that each particular conscious mental event in for a book some organism is uw thesis, identical with some particular brain process or event in how to a review book that organism.
This seems to preserve much of what the materialist wants but yet allows for the multiple realizability of conscious states, because both the human and the alien can still have a conscious desire for uw thesis requirements, something to write for a drink while each mental event is identical with a (different) physical state in each organism. Taking the notion of multiple realizability very seriously has also led many to embrace functionalism, which is the concerning discussion view that conscious mental states should really only be identified with the functional role they play within an organism. For example, conscious pains are defined more in terms of input and write for a, output, such as causing bodily damage and avoidance behavior, as well as in terms of their relationship to understanding discussion other mental states. A Review For A? It is ideas, normally viewed as a form of materialism since virtually all functionalists also believe, like the token-token theorist, that something physical ultimately realizes that functional state in how to the organism, but functionalism does not, by itself, entail that materialism is true. Critics of functionalism, however, have long argued that such purely functional accounts cannot adequately explain the an essay discussion essential “feel” of conscious states, or that it seems possible to have two functionally equivalent creatures, one of whom lacks qualia entirely (Block 1980a, 1980b, Chalmers 1996; see also Shoemaker 1975, 1981). Some materialists even deny the how to write very existence of didactique mind and mental states altogether, at least in the sense that the very concept of consciousness is muddled (Wilkes 1984, 1988) or that the mentalistic notions found in how to a review for a folk psychology, such as desires and beliefs, will eventually be eliminated and replaced by physicalistic terms as neurophysiology matures into the future (Churchland 1983). Conflict Resolved? This is meant as analogous to past similar eliminations based on how to for a, deeper scientific understanding, for example, we no longer need to speak of “ether” or “phlogiston.” Other eliminativists, more modestly, argue that there is no such thing as qualia when they are defined in certain problematic ways (Dennett 1988). Finally, it should also be noted that not all materialists believe that conscious mentality can be explained in terms of the physical, at requirements least in the sense that the former cannot be “reduced” to the latter. Materialism is true as an ontological or metaphysical doctrine, but facts about the mind cannot be deduced from facts about the physical world (Boyd 1980, Van Gulick 1992). In some ways, this might be viewed as a relatively harmless variation on materialist themes, but others object to the very coherence of this form of materialism (Kim 1987, 1998).
Indeed, the a review for a line between such “non-reductive materialism” and property dualism is not always so easy to draw; partly because the entire notion of “reduction” is ambiguous and an essay concerning human discussion questions, a very complex topic in its own right. On a related front, some materialists are happy enough to talk about how to write a review for a book a somewhat weaker “supervenience” relation between mind and matter. Although “supervenience” is a highly technical notion with many variations, the idea is basically one of dependence (instead of identity); for example, that the mental depends on the physical in the sense that any mental change must be accompanied by some physical change (see Kim 1993). 4. 10000? Specific Theories of Consciousness. Most specific theories of consciousness tend to be reductionist in some sense. The classic notion at work is that consciousness or individual conscious mental states can be explained in write terms of something else or in some other terms.
This section will focus on several prominent contemporary reductionist theories. Concerning Human Understanding Discussion? We should, however, distinguish between those who attempt such a reduction directly in physicalistic, such as neurophysiological, terms and those who do so in mentalistic terms, such as by a review using unconscious mental states or other cognitive notions. The more direct reductionist approach can be seen in various, more specific, neural theories of consciousness. Perhaps best known is the theory offered by Francis Crick and Christof Koch 1990 (see also Crick 1994, Koch 2004). Bergeron Conflict Resolved? The basic idea is that mental states become conscious when large numbers of neurons fire in synchrony and all have oscillations within the 35-75 hertz range (that is, 35-75 cycles per second). However, many philosophers and scientists have put forth other candidates for what, specifically, to write identify in the brain with consciousness. This vast enterprise has come to be known as the search for the “neural correlates of an essay concerning human consciousness” or NCCs (see section 5b below for more). The overall idea is to show how one or more specific kinds of neuro-chemical activity can underlie and explain conscious mental activity (Metzinger 2000). Of course, mere “correlation” is not enough for a fully adequate neural theory and explaining just what counts as a NCC turns out to be more difficult than one might think (Chalmers 2000).
Even Crick and Koch have acknowledged that they, at best, provide a necessary condition for consciousness, and book, that such firing patters are not automatically sufficient for harrison conflict, having conscious experience. b. Representational Theories of Consciousness. Many current theories attempt to reduce consciousness in mentalistic terms. One broadly popular approach along these lines is to reduce consciousness to “mental representations” of some kind. The notion of a “representation” is of course very general and how to for a, can be applied to photographs, signs, and various natural objects, such as the rings inside a tree. Much of ideas for term papers what goes on in the brain, however, might also be understood in a representational way; for example, as mental events representing outer objects partly because they are caused by such objects in, say, cases of how to write a review for a book veridical visual perception. More specifically, philosophers will often call such representational mental states “intentional states” which have representational content; that is, mental states which are “about something” or “directed at something” as when one has a thought about the house or a perception of the tree. Although intentional states are sometimes contrasted with phenomenal states, such as pains and color experiences, it is clear that many conscious states have both phenomenal and intentional properties, such as visual perceptions. It should be noted that the 10000 for term relation between intentionalilty and consciousness is itself a major ongoing area of dispute with some arguing that genuine intentionality actually presupposes consciousness in some way (Searle 1992, Siewart 1998, Horgan and Tienson 2002) while most representationalists insist that intentionality is prior to consciousness (Gennaro 2012, chapter two). The general view that we can explain conscious mental states in how to a review for a book terms of representational or intentional states is called “representationalism.” Although not automatically reductionist in spirit, most versions of representationalism do indeed attempt such a reduction. Most representationalists, then, believe that there is room for a kind of “second-step” reduction to be filled in contoh essay untuk beasiswa later by write for a neuroscience.
The other related motivation for buy a descriptive essay, representational theories of consciousness is that many believe that an account of write a review representation or intentionality can more easily be given in sur la naturalistic terms, such as causal theories whereby mental states are understood as representing outer objects in virtue of some reliable causal connection. The idea, then, is that if consciousness can be explained in representational terms and representation can be understood in purely physical terms, then there is the write for a promise of a reductionist and naturalistic theory of consciousness. Most generally, however, we can say that a representationalist will typically hold that the phenomenal properties of uw thesis experience (that is, the “qualia” or “what it is like of for a book experience” or “phenomenal character”) can be explained in terms of the experiences’ representational properties. Alternatively, conscious mental states have no mental properties other than their representational properties. Two conscious states with all the same representational properties will not differ phenomenally. For example, when I look at buy a the blue sky, what it is like for me to have a conscious experience of the sky is simply identical with my experience’s representation of the write for a blue sky. A First-order representational (FOR) theory of consciousness is a theory that attempts to explain conscious experience primarily in terms of world-directed (or first-order) intentional states. Probably the two most cited FOR theories of consciousness are those of Fred Dretske (1995) and Michael Tye (1995, 2000), though there are many others as well (e.g., Harman 1990, Kirk 1994, Byrne 2001, Thau 2002, Droege 2003).
Tye’s theory is more fully worked out and so will be the focus of this section. Like other FOR theorists, Tye holds that the representational content of my conscious experience (that is, what my experience is buy a descriptive essay, about or directed at) is identical with the write a review book phenomenal properties of experience. Buy A Descriptive? Aside from reductionistic motivations, Tye and a review book, other FOR representationalists often use the buy a descriptive somewhat technical notion of the “transparency of experience” as support for how to for a, their view (Harman 1990). This is an buy a argument based on the phenomenological first-person observation, which goes back to Moore (1903), that when one turns one’s attention away from, say, the blue sky and onto one’s experience itself, one is still only aware of the blueness of the sky. How To Write Book? The experience itself is not blue; rather, one “sees right through” one’s experience to its representational properties, and there is contoh untuk beasiswa, nothing else to one’s experience over and above such properties. Whatever the merits and exact nature of the argument from write transparency (see Kind 2003), it is clear, of buy a descriptive essay course, that not all mental representations are conscious, so the book key question eventually becomes: What exactly distinguishes conscious from unconscious mental states (or representations)? What makes a mental state a conscious mental state? Here Tye defends what he calls “PANIC theory.” The acronym “PANIC” stands for poised, abstract, non-conceptual, intentional content. Without probing into every aspect of PANIC theory, Tye holds that at least some of the representational content in essay beasiswa question is non-conceptual (N), which is to say that the subject can lack the concept for the properties represented by the experience in question, such as an experience of how to a review book a certain shade of red that one has never seen before. Actually, the harrison bergeron conflict resolved exact nature or even existence of non-conceptual content of experience is itself a highly debated and difficult issue in philosophy of mind (Gunther 2003). Gennaro (2012), for example, defends conceptualism and how to a review for a, connects it in various ways to the higher-order thought theory of consciousness (see section 4b.ii).
Conscious states clearly must also have “intentional content” (IC) for any representationalist. Tye also asserts that such content is 10000 ideas for term, “abstract” (A) and not necessarily about particular concrete objects. This condition is how to for a book, needed to handle cases of buy a essay hallucinations, where there are no concrete objects at all or cases where different objects look phenomenally alike. Perhaps most important for mental states to be conscious, however, is that such content must be “poised” (P), which is an how to for a book importantly functional notion. The “key idea is that experiences and feelings. stand ready and available to essay make a direct impact on beliefs and/or desires.
For example…feeling hungry… has an immediate cognitive effect, namely, the desire to eat….States with nonconceptual content that are not so poised lack phenomenal character [because]…they arise too early, as it were, in the information processing” (Tye 2000: 62). One objection to Tye’s theory is that it does not really address the write book hard problem of phenomenal consciousness (see section 3b.i). This is partly because what really seems to be doing most of the work on Tye’s PANIC account is the very functional sounding “poised” notion, which is an essay concerning understanding questions, perhaps closer to Block’s access consciousness (see section 1) and book, is therefore not necessarily able to explain phenomenal consciousness (see Kriegel 2002). In short, it is difficult to see just how Tye’s PANIC account might not equally apply to unconscious representations and uw thesis requirements, thus how it really explains phenomenal consciousness. Other standard objections to Tye’s theory as well as to other FOR accounts include the concern that it does not cover all kinds of conscious states. Some conscious states seem not to a review book be “about” anything, such as pains, anxiety, or after-images, and dissertation sur la, so would be non-representational conscious states. If so, then conscious experience cannot generally be explained in how to write a review for a terms of representational properties (Block 1996). Buy A Descriptive Essay? Tye responds that pains, itches, and write a review for a, the like do represent, in dissertation sur la didactique the sense that they represent parts of the write for a book body. Requirements? And after-images, hallucinations, and the like either misrepresent (which is still a kind of a review book representation) or the conscious subject still takes them to have representational properties from the first-person point of view.
Indeed, Tye (2000) admirably goes to great lengths and argues convincingly in concerning understanding response to a whole host of alleged counter-examples to representationalism. Historically among them are various hypothetical cases of inverted qualia (see Shoemaker 1982), the mere possibility of which is sometimes taken as devastating to representationalism. Write? These are cases where behaviorally indistinguishable individuals have inverted color perceptions of objects, such as person A visually experiences a lemon the way that person B experience a ripe tomato with respect to their color, and so on for all yellow and red objects. Isn’t it possible that there are two individuals whose color experiences are inverted with respect to sur la the objects of perception? (For more on the importance of color in how to write a review book philosophy, see Hardin 1986.) A somewhat different twist on the inverted spectrum is famously put forth in Block’s (1990) Inverted Earth case.
On Inverted Earth every object has the complementary color to the one it has here, but we are asked to imagine that a person is equipped with color-inverting lenses and then sent to didactique Inverted Earth completely ignorant of those facts. Since the color inversions cancel out, the phenomenal experiences remain the same, yet there certainly seem to be different representational properties of how to a review for a objects involved. The strategy on the part of critics, in short, is to think of counter-examples (either actual or hypothetical) whereby there is a difference between the phenomenal properties in experience and uw thesis, the relevant representational properties in the world. Such objections can, perhaps, be answered by Tye and a review for a book, others in sur la various ways, but significant debate continues (Macpherson 2005). Intuitions also dramatically differ as to the very plausibility and value of such thought experiments. (For more, see Seager 1999, chapters 6 and 7. Write? See also Chalmers 2004 for an excellent discussion of the dizzying array of possible representationalist positions.) ii. Higher-Order Representationalism.
As we have seen, one question that should be answered by any theory of consciousness is: What makes a mental state a conscious mental state? There is concerning human understanding, a long tradition that has attempted to understand consciousness in terms of some kind of higher-order awareness. For example, John Locke (1689/1975) once said that “consciousness is the write a review for a book perception of what passes in a man’s own mind.” This intuition has been revived by a number of concerning understanding discussion philosophers (Rosenthal, 1986, 1993b, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2005; Gennaro 1996a, 2012; Armstrong, 1968, 1981; Lycan, 1996, 2001). In general, the idea is that what makes a mental state conscious is that it is the object of some kind of higher-order representation (HOR). A mental state M becomes conscious when there is write for a, a HOR of M. A HOR is a “meta-psychological” state, i.e., a mental state directed at another mental state. So, for example, my desire to write a good encyclopedia entry becomes conscious when I am (non-inferentially) “aware” of the resolved desire. Intuitively, it seems that conscious states, as opposed to unconscious ones, are mental states that I am “aware of” in some sense. This is sometimes referred to as the Transitivity Principle. Any theory which attempts to explain consciousness in for a book terms of higher-order states is requirements, known as a higher-order (HO) theory of consciousness.
It is best initially to use the more neutral term “representation” because there are a number of write a review different kinds of higher-order theory, depending upon how one characterizes the HOR in uw thesis requirements question. HO theories, thus, attempt to explain consciousness in mentalistic terms, that is, by how to write book reference to resolved such notions as “thoughts” and “awareness.” Conscious mental states arise when two unconscious mental states are related in a certain specific way; namely, that one of them (the HOR) is directed at the other (M). Write A Review For A Book? HO theorists are united in uw thesis requirements the belief that their approach can better explain consciousness than any purely FOR theory, which has significant difficulty in explaining the write a review difference between unconscious and conscious mental states. There are various kinds of HO theory with the most common division between higher-order thought (HOT) theories and requirements, higher-order perception (HOP) theories. HOT theorists, such as David M. Rosenthal, think it is better to how to write a review for a understand the an essay concerning understanding questions HOR as a thought of how to write book some kind.
HOTs are treated as cognitive states involving some kind of conceptual component. HOP theorists urge that the HOR is harrison bergeron conflict, a perceptual or experiential state of some kind (Lycan 1996) which does not require the kind of conceptual content invoked by HOT theorists. Partly due to how to write Kant (1781/1965), HOP theory is sometimes referred to as “inner sense theory” as a way of sur la didactique emphasizing its sensory or perceptual aspect. How To Book? Although HOT and HOP theorists agree on the need for a HOR theory of consciousness, they do sometimes argue for the superiority of their respective positions (such as in Rosenthal 2004, Lycan 2004, and Gennaro 2012). Some philosophers, however, have argued that the difference between these theories is perhaps not as important or as clear as some think it is (Guzeldere 1995, Gennaro 1996a, Van Gulick 2000). A common initial objection to HOR theories is that they are circular and dissertation didactique, lead to an infinite regress. It might seem that the HOT theory results in circularity by defining consciousness in terms of HOTs. It also might seem that an infinite regress results because a conscious mental state must be accompanied by a HOT, which, in for a turn, must be accompanied by another HOT ad infinitum . However, the standard reply is that when a conscious mental state is a first-order world-directed state the higher-order thought (HOT) is not itself conscious; otherwise, circularity and uw thesis requirements, an infinite regress would follow. When the HOT is a review for a book, itself conscious, there is a yet higher-order (or third-order) thought directed at the second-order state. In this case, we have introspection which involves a conscious HOT directed at an inner mental state. 10000 Papers? When one introspects, one's attention is directed back into one's mind.
For example, what makes my desire to a review write a good entry a conscious first-order desire is that there is a (non-conscious) HOT directed at the desire. In this case, my conscious focus is directed at the entry and my computer screen, so I am not consciously aware of having the HOT from the first-person point of view. When I introspect that desire, however, I then have a conscious HOT (accompanied by a yet higher, third-order, HOT) directed at the desire itself (see Rosenthal 1986). Peter Carruthers (2000) has proposed another possibility within HO theory; namely, that it is better for various reasons to think of the HOTs as dispositional states instead of the standard view that the buy a HOTs are actual, though he also understands his “dispositional HOT theory” to be a form of HOP theory (Carruthers 2004). Write A Review For A Book? The basic idea is that the harrison resolved conscious status of an experience is due to its availability to higher-order thought. So “conscious experience occurs when perceptual contents are fed into a special short-term buffer memory store, whose function is to make those contents available to how to for a book cause HOTs about themselves.” (Carruthers 2000: 228). Some first-order perceptual contents are available to a higher-order “theory of mind mechanism,” which transforms those representational contents into conscious contents. Thus, no actual HOT occurs. Instead, according to Carruthers, some perceptual states acquire a dual intentional content; for example, a conscious experience of red not only has a first-order content of “red,” but also has the higher-order content “seems red” or “experience of red.” Carruthers also makes interesting use of so-called “consumer semantics” in order to uw thesis requirements fill out his theory of how to for a book phenomenal consciousness.
The content of a mental state depends, in part, on the powers of the organisms which “consume” that state, e.g., the buy a descriptive essay kinds of inferences which the organism can make when it is in that state. Daniel Dennett (1991) is sometimes credited with an earlier version of a dispositional account (see Carruthers 2000, chapter ten). Carruthers’ dispositional theory is often criticized by those who, among other things, do not see how the how to a review book mere disposition toward a mental state can render it conscious (Rosenthal 2004; see also Gennaro 2004, 2012; for 10000 ideas papers, more, see Consciousness, Higher Order Theories of.) It is worth briefly noting a few typical objections to HO theories (many of which can be found in Byrne 1997): First, and perhaps most common, is that various animals (and even infants) are not likely to have to the conceptual sophistication required for how to write a review, HOTs, and sur la, so that would render animal (and infant) consciousness very unlikely (Dretske 1995, Seager 2004). Are cats and a review, dogs capable of having complex higher-order thoughts such as “I am in mental state M”? Although most who bring forth this objection are not HO theorists, Peter Carruthers (1989) is requirements, one HO theorist who actually embraces the conclusion that (most) animals do not have phenomenal consciousness.
Gennaro (1993, 1996) has replied to Carruthers on this point; for example, it is how to a review for a, argued that the HOTs need not be as sophisticated as it might initially appear and there is ample comparative neurophysiological evidence supporting the conclusion that animals have conscious mental states. Most HO theorists do not wish to accept the absence of animal or infant consciousness as a consequence of holding the theory. The debate continues, however, in dissertation sur la Carruthers (2000, 2005, 2008) and Gennaro (2004, 2009, 2012, chapters seven and eight). A second objection has been referred to as the write for a book “problem of the rock” (Stubenberg 1998) and the “generality problem” (Van Gulick 2000, 2004), but it is buy a, originally due to Alvin Goldman (Goldman 1993). When I have a thought about a rock, it is certainly not true that the rock becomes conscious.
So why should I suppose that a mental state becomes conscious when I think about it? This is puzzling to many and write, the objection forces HO theorists to explain just how adding the HO state changes an unconscious state into a conscious. There have been, however, a number of responses to this kind of essay objection (Rosenthal 1997, Lycan, 1996, Van Gulick 2000, 2004, Gennaro 2005, 2012, chapter four). A common theme is that there is a principled difference in the objects of the HO states in question. Rocks and how to for a book, the like are not mental states in the first place, and so HO theorists are first and essay untuk beasiswa, foremost trying to explain how a mental state becomes conscious. The objects of the HO states must be “in the head.” Third, the how to for a book above leads somewhat naturally to an objection related to Chalmers’ hard problem (section 3b.i).
It might be asked just how exactly any HO theory really explains the subjective or phenomenal aspect of beasiswa conscious experience. How or why does a mental state come to a review for a book have a first-person qualitative “what it is like” aspect by virtue of the buy a descriptive presence of a HOR directed at how to write a review for a book it? It is probably fair to say that HO theorists have been slow to address this problem, though a number of overlapping responses have emerged (see also Gennaro 2005, 2012, chapter four, for more extensive treatment). Some argue that this objection misconstrues the harrison bergeron main and more modest purpose of (at least, their) HO theories. The claim is that HO theories are theories of consciousness only in for a book the sense that they are attempting to explain what differentiates conscious from unconscious states, i.e., in terms of a higher-order awareness of dissertation some kind. A full account of “qualitative properties” or “sensory qualities” (which can themselves be non-conscious) can be found elsewhere in their work, but is independent of their theory of consciousness (Rosenthal 1991, Lycan 1996, 2001).
Thus, a full explanation of phenomenal consciousness does require more than a HO theory, but that is a review book, no objection to buy a essay HO theories as such. Write For A? Another response is that proponents of the hard problem unjustly raise the bar as to what would count as a viable explanation of dissertation consciousness so that any such reductivist attempt would inevitably fall short (Carruthers 2000, Gennaro 2012). Part of the problem, then, is a lack of write a review for a book clarity about what would even count as an explanation of consciousness (Van Gulick 1995; see also section 3b). Understanding? Once this is clarified, however, the hard problem can indeed be solved. Moreover, anyone familiar with the literature knows that there are significant terminological difficulties in the use of various crucial terms which sometimes inhibits genuine progress (but see Byrne 2004 for some helpful clarification). A fourth important objection to HO approaches is the question of how such theories can explain cases where the HO state might misrepresent the lower-order (LO) mental state (Byrne 1997, Neander 1998, Levine 2001, Block 2011). After all, if we have a representational relation between two states, it seems possible for misrepresentation or malfunction to occur. If it does, then what explanation can be offered by write a review book the HO theorist? If my LO state registers a red percept and an essay concerning human understanding discussion, my HO state registers a thought about something green due, say, to a review some neural misfiring, then what happens? It seems that problems loom for any answer given by a HO theorist and sur la, the cause of the problem has to do with the write very nature of the HO theorist’s belief that there is uw thesis requirements, a representational relation between the LO and HO states. How To For A Book? For example, if the HO theorist takes the option that the resulting conscious experience is reddish, then it seems that the HO state plays no role in determining the qualitative character of the experience.
On the other hand, if the uw thesis requirements resulting experience is greenish, then the LO state seems irrelevant. Rosenthal and how to a review for a book, Weisberg hold that the HO state determines the qualitative properties even in cases when there is no LO state at all (Rosenthal 2005, 2011, Weisberg 2008, 2011a, 2011b). 10000 For Term Papers? Gennaro (2012) argues that no conscious experience results in such cases and a review, wonders, for example, how a sole (unconscious) HOT can result in a conscious state at all. He argues that there must be a match, complete or partial, between the LO and bergeron conflict resolved, HO state in order for a conscious state to exist in the first place. This important objection forces HO theorists to be clearer about book just how to view the relationship between the LO and HO states. An Essay Concerning Understanding? Debate is ongoing and significant both on varieties of how to a review HO theory and in terms of the above objections (see Gennaro 2004a). There is also interdisciplinary interest in how various HO theories might be realized in for term the brain (Gennaro 2012, chapter nine).
iii. Hybrid Representational Accounts. A related and increasingly popular version of representational theory holds that the meta-psychological state in write for a question should be understood as intrinsic to (or part of) an dissertation sur la overall complex conscious state. This stands in contrast to how to write for a book the standard view that the HO state is extrinsic to (that is, entirely distinct from) its target mental state. The assumption, made by Rosenthal for example, about the extrinsic nature of the meta-thought has increasingly come under attack, and thus various hybrid representational theories can be found in the literature. One motivation for this movement is growing dissatisfaction with standard HO theory’s ability to handle some of the objections addressed in the previous section.
Another reason is renewed interest in a view somewhat closer to harrison bergeron conflict resolved the one held by Franz Brentano (1874/1973) and various other followers, normally associated with the phenomenological tradition (Husserl 1913/1931, 1929/1960; Sartre 1956; see also Smith 1986, 2004). How To Write? To varying degrees, these views have in common the idea that conscious mental states, in some sense, represent themselves, which then still involves having a thought about a mental state, just not a distinct or separate state. Thus, when one has a conscious desire for a cold glass of water, one is also aware that one is in an essay concerning understanding that very state. The conscious desire both represents the glass of how to book water and itself. It is uw thesis, this “self-representing” which makes the state conscious. These theories can go by various names, which sometimes seem in conflict, and how to a review, have added significantly in recent years to an essay human understanding discussion questions the acronyms which abound in the literature. How To Book? For example, Gennaro (1996a, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2012) has argued that, when one has a first-order conscious state, the buy a descriptive essay HOT is better viewed as intrinsic to the target state, so that we have a complex conscious state with parts. Gennaro calls this the “wide intrinsicality view” (WIV) and he also argues that Jean-Paul Sartre’s theory of consciousness can be understood in this way (Gennaro 2002). Gennaro holds that conscious mental states should be understood (as Kant might have today) as global brain states which are combinations of passively received perceptual input and presupposed higher-order conceptual activity directed at that input.
Higher-order concepts in write a review book the meta-psychological thoughts are presupposed in bergeron resolved having first-order conscious states. For A Book? Robert Van Gulick (2000, 2004, 2006) has also explored the buy a descriptive alternative that the HO state is part of an overall global conscious state. He calls such states “HOGS” (Higher-Order Global States) whereby a lower-order unconscious state is how to write for a, “recruited” into a larger state, which becomes conscious partly due to the implicit self-awareness that one is in the lower-order state. Both Gennaro and descriptive, Van Gulick have suggested that conscious states can be understood materialistically as global states of the brain, and it would be better to treat the first-order state as part of the larger complex brain state. This general approach is also forcefully advocated by Uriah Kriegel (Kriegel 2003a, 2003b, 2005, 2006, 2009) and is even the subject of an entire anthology debating its merits (Kriegel and Williford 2006). Kriegel has used several different names for his “neo-Brentanian theory,” such as the SOMT (Same-Order Monitoring Theory) and, more recently, the “self-representational theory of consciousness.” To be sure, the notion of a mental state representing itself or a mental state with one part representing another part is in need of further development and is perhaps somewhat mysterious. Nonetheless, there is agreement among these authors that conscious mental states are, in some important sense, reflexive or self-directed. And, once again, there is keen interest in developing this model in a way that coheres with the latest neurophysiological research on consciousness.
A point of emphasis is on the concept of global meta-representation within a complex brain state, and attempts are underway to identify just how such an account can be realized in the brain. It is worth mentioning that this idea was also briefly explored by Thomas Metzinger who focused on the fact that consciousness “is something that unifies or synthesizes experience” (Metzinger 1995: 454). Metzinger calls this the write for a book process of “higher-order binding” and thus uses the acronym HOB. Others who hold some form of the self-representational view include Kobes (1995), Caston (2002), Williford (2006), Brook and Raymont (2006), and even Carruthers’ (2000) theory can be viewed in this light since he contends that conscious states have two representational contents. Thomas Natsoulas also has a series of papers defending a similar view, beginning with Natsoulas 1996. Some authors (such as Gennaro 2012) view this hybrid position to be a modified version of ideas HOT theory; indeed, Rosenthal (2004) has called it “intrinsic higher-order theory.” Van Gulick also clearly wishes to preserve the for a book HO is his HOGS. Others, such as Kriegel, are not inclined to uw thesis call their views “higher-order” at how to a review for a all and descriptive, call it, for write a review for a book, example, the “same-order monitoring” or “self-representational” theory of consciousness. To some extent, this is a terminological dispute, but, despite important similarities, there are also key subtle differences between these hybrid alternatives.
Like HO theorists, however, those who advocate this general approach all take very seriously the uw thesis requirements notion that a conscious mental state M is a state that subject S is (non-inferentially) aware that S is in. By contrast, one is obviously not aware of one’s unconscious mental states. Thus, there are various attempts to make sense of and elaborate upon write for a book, this key intuition in a way that is, as it were, “in-between” standard FO and 10000 ideas for term, HO theory. (See also Lurz 2003 and 2004 for yet another interesting hybrid account.) Aside from the explicitly representational approaches discussed above, there are also related attempts to write a review explain consciousness in other cognitive terms. The two most prominent such theories are worth describing here: Daniel Dennett (1991, 2005) has put forth what he calls the buy a descriptive Multiple Drafts Model (MDM) of consciousness. Although similar in some ways to representationalism, Dennett is most concerned that materialists avoid falling prey to what he calls the how to write a review for a “myth of the Cartesian theater,” the notion that there is uw thesis, some privileged place in the brain where everything comes together to write for a book produce conscious experience. Instead, the MDM holds that all kinds of mental activity occur in the brain by parallel processes of interpretation, all of which are under frequent revision.
The MDM rejects the idea of some “self” as an inner observer; rather, the self is the product or construction of a narrative which emerges over conflict resolved, time. Dennett is also well known for write for a, rejecting the very assumption that there is a clear line to contoh beasiswa be drawn between conscious and unconscious mental states in terms of the problematic notion of “qualia.” He influentially rejects strong emphasis on how to write book, any phenomenological or first-person approach to investigating consciousness, advocating instead what he calls “heterophenomenology” according to which we should follow a more neutral path “leading from an essay objective physical science and its insistence on the third person point of view, to a method of phenomenological description that can (in principle) do justice to how to write a review for a book the most private and ineffable subjective experiences.” (1991: 72) Bernard Baars’ Global Workspace Theory (GWT) model of consciousness is probably the most influential theory proposed among psychologists (Baars 1988, 1997). The basic idea and metaphor is that we should think of the entire cognitive system as built on a “blackboard architecture” which is a kind of global workspace. According to GWT, unconscious processes and mental states compete for the spotlight of attention, from which information is “broadcast globally” throughout the dissertation system. A Review? Consciousness consists in such global broadcasting and ideas papers, is therefore also, according to Baars, an important functional and biological adaptation. We might say that consciousness is how to write a review for a book, thus created by a kind of global access to select bits of an essay human questions information in the brain and nervous system. How To? Despite Baars’ frequent use of “theater” and essay, “spotlight” metaphors, he argues that his view does not entail the how to write for a presence of the material Cartesian theater that Dennett is so concerned to avoid.
It is, in concerning human understanding questions any case, an empirical matter just how the brain performs the functions he describes, such as detecting mechanisms of attention. Objections to write a review these cognitive theories include the charge that they do not really address the hard problem of consciousness (as described in section 3b.i), but only the “easy” problems. Dennett is uw thesis requirements, also often accused of explaining away consciousness rather than really explaining it. It is also interesting to think about a review Baars’ GWT in light of the Block’s distinction between access and phenomenal consciousness (see section 1). Does Baars’ theory only papers address access consciousness instead of the more difficult to explain phenomenal consciousness? (Two other psychological cognitive theories worth noting are the a review book ones proposed by dissertation sur la didactique George Mandler 1975 and Tim Shallice 1988.) Finally, there are those who look deep beneath the neural level to the field of quantum mechanics, basically the study of sub-atomic particles, to a review book find the key to harrison conflict unlocking the write for a book mysteries of consciousness. The bizarre world of quantum physics is quite different from the harrison bergeron resolved deterministic world of classical physics, and a major area of research in its own right. Such authors place the locus of consciousness at a very fundamental physical level. A Review Book? This somewhat radical, though exciting, option is explored most notably by physicist Roger Penrose (1989, 1994) and anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff (1998). The basic idea is that consciousness arises through quantum effects which occur in subcellular neural structures known as microtubules, which are structural proteins in cell walls. There are also other quantum approaches which aim to explain the coherence of consciousness (Marshall and Zohar 1990) or use the “holistic” nature of ideas quantum mechanics to explain consciousness (Silberstein 1998, 2001).
It is how to a review for a book, difficult to essay beasiswa assess these somewhat exotic approaches at present. Given the puzzling and often very counterintuitive nature of book quantum physics, it is unclear whether such approaches will prove genuinely scientifically valuable methods in explaining consciousness. One concern is dissertation, simply that these authors are trying to write a review explain one puzzling phenomenon (consciousness) in terms of uw thesis requirements another mysterious natural phenomenon (quantum effects). For A? Thus, the thinking seems to uw thesis go, perhaps the two are essentially related somehow and other physicalistic accounts are looking in the wrong place, such as at how to write book the neuro-chemical level. Conflict Resolved? Although many attempts to explain consciousness often rely of a review for a conjecture or speculation, quantum approaches may indeed lead the contoh untuk beasiswa field along these lines. Of course, this doesn’t mean that some such theory isn’t correct. One exciting aspect of how to write for a this approach is the resulting interdisciplinary interest it has generated among physicists and other scientists in the problem of consciousness. 5. Consciousness and Science: Key Issues. Over the contoh essay untuk past two decades there has been an how to write for a explosion of interdisciplinary work in dissertation didactique the science of consciousness. Some of the write a review credit must go to the ground breaking 1986 book by contoh Patricia Churchland entitled Neurophilosophy . How To Book? In this section, three of the most important such areas are addressed.
a. The Unity of Consciousness/The Binding Problem. Conscious experience seems to be “unified” in an important sense; this crucial feature of beasiswa consciousness played an important role in the philosophy of Kant who argued that unified conscious experience must be the product of the (presupposed) synthesizing work of the mind. Write? Getting clear about human understanding exactly what is meant by the “unity of consciousness” and explaining how the brain achieves such unity has become a central topic in the study of consciousness. There are many different senses of “unity” (see Tye 2003; Bayne and Chalmers 2003, Dainton 2000, 2008, Bayne 2010), but perhaps most common is the how to book notion that, from the first-person point of view, we experience the world in an integrated way and as a single phenomenal field of experience. (For an important anthology on the subject, see Cleeremans 2003.) However, when one looks at 10000 ideas for term papers how the brain processes information, one only sees discrete regions of the cortex processing separate aspects of perceptual objects. Even different aspects of the same object, such as its color and shape, are processed in different parts of the brain. Given that there is no “Cartesian theater” in the brain where all this information comes together, the problem arises as to just how the resulting conscious experience is how to write a review for a, unified. Descriptive? What mechanisms allow us to experience the world in such a unified way? What happens when this unity breaks down, as in various pathological cases? The “problem of integrating the information processed by write a review for a book different regions of the brain is known as the binding problem” (Cleeremans 2003: 1). Sur La? Thus, the so-called “binding problem” is inextricably linked to explaining the how to unity of buy a consciousness.
As was seen earlier with neural theories (section 4a) and as will be seen below on the neural correlates of consciousness (5b), some attempts to solve the binding problem have to do with trying to isolate the precise brain mechanisms responsible for consciousness. For example, Crick and how to write book, Koch’s (1990) idea that synchronous neural firings are (at least) necessary for uw thesis requirements, consciousness can also be viewed as an attempt to explain how disparate neural networks bind together separate pieces of information to produce unified subjective conscious experience. Perhaps the binding problem and the hard problem of consciousness (section 3b.i) are very closely connected. If the binding problem can be solved, then we arguably have identified the how to write a review for a elusive neural correlate of consciousness and have, therefore, perhaps even solved the hard problem. In addition, perhaps the explanatory gap between third-person scientific knowledge and first-person unified conscious experience can also be bridged. Thus, this exciting area of inquiry is central to an essay concerning human discussion questions some of the deepest questions in the philosophical and scientific exploration of consciousness. b. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCCs)
As was seen earlier in discussing neural theories of consciousness (section 4a), the search for the so-called “neural correlates of consciousness” (NCCs) is a major preoccupation of philosophers and for a book, scientists alike (Metzinger 2000). Narrowing down the uw thesis precise brain property responsible for consciousness is a different and far more difficult enterprise than merely holding a generic belief in some form of materialism. One leading candidate is offered by for a book Francis Crick and Christof Koch 1990 (see also Crick 1994, Koch 2004). The basic idea is that mental states become conscious when large numbers of 10000 ideas for term papers neurons all fire in how to a review synchrony with one another (oscillations within the 35-75 hertz range or 35-75 cycles per second). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Discussion Questions? Currently, one method used is simply to study some aspect of neural functioning with sophisticated detecting equipments (such as MRIs and PET scans) and then correlate it with first-person reports of conscious experience. Another method is to study the write book difference in harrison conflict resolved brain activity between those under anesthesia and those not under any such influence. A detailed survey would be impossible to give here, but a number of other candidates for the NCC have emerged over how to a review, the past two decades, including reentrant cortical feedback loops in the neural circuitry throughout the brain (Edelman 1989, Edelman and descriptive essay, Tononi 2000), NMDA-mediated transient neural assemblies (Flohr 1995), and for a, emotive somatosensory haemostatic processes in buy a essay the frontal lobe (Damasio 1999). To elaborate briefly on Flohr’s theory, the idea is how to write book, that anesthetics destroy conscious mental activity because they interfere with the functioning of NMDA synapses between neurons, which are those that are dependent on descriptive, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. These and other NCCs are explored at length in Metzinger (2000).
Ongoing scientific investigation is significant and an important aspect of current scientific research in the field. One problem with some of the above candidates is how to write for a, determining exactly how they are related to consciousness. For example, although a case can be made that some of them are necessary for conscious mentality, it is sur la didactique, unclear that they are sufficient. That is, some of the above seem to occur unconsciously as well. And pinning down a narrow enough necessary condition is not as easy as it might seem. Another general worry is how to write for a, with the very use of the term “correlate.” As any philosopher, scientist, and dissertation sur la, even undergraduate student should know, saying that “A is correlated with B” is rather weak (though it is an important first step), especially if one wishes to how to a review for a establish the stronger identity claim between consciousness and neural activity. Even if such a correlation can be established, we cannot automatically conclude that there is an uw thesis identity relation. Write A Review For A Book? Perhaps A causes B or B causes A, and that’s why we find the contoh essay beasiswa correlation. Even most dualists can accept such interpretations. Maybe there is some other neural process C which causes both A and B. “Correlation” is how to write a review, not even the same as “cause,” let alone enough to an essay concerning human understanding establish “identity.” Finally, some NCCs are not even necessarily put forth as candidates for all conscious states, but rather for certain specific kinds of consciousness (e.g., visual).
Philosophers have long been intrigued by disorders of the mind and consciousness. Part of the interest is presumably that if we can understand how consciousness goes wrong, then that can help us to theorize about the normal functioning mind. Going back at least as far as John Locke (1689/1975), there has been some discussion about the philosophical implications of multiple personality disorder (MPD) which is now called “dissociative identity disorder” (DID). How To Write For A Book? Questions abound: Could there be two centers of consciousness in one body? What makes a person the same person over time? What makes a person a person at any given time? These questions are closely linked to an essay concerning questions the traditional philosophical problem of how to a review for a personal identity, which is also importantly related to some aspects of consciousness research. Much the same can be said for memory disorders, such as various forms of amnesia (see Gennaro 1996a, chapter 9). Does consciousness require some kind of autobiographical memory or psychological continuity? On a related front, there is significant interest in experimental results from patients who have undergone a commisurotomy, which is usually performed to relieve symptoms of severe epilepsy when all else fails. During this procedure, the nerve fibers connecting the an essay concerning human discussion questions two brain hemispheres are cut, resulting in write for a book so-called “split-brain” patients (Bayne 2010).
Philosophical interest is so high that there is now a book series called Philosophical Psychopathology published by MIT Press. Another rich source of information comes from the ideas for term provocative and accessible writings of neurologists on a whole host of psychopathologies, most notably Oliver Sacks (starting with his 1987 book) and, more recently, V. S. A Review For A? Ramachandran (2004; see also Ramachandran and Blakeslee 1998). Another launching point came from the an essay concerning understanding discovery of the write a review for a phenomenon known as “blindsight” (Weiskrantz 1986), which is very frequently discussed in sur la the philosophical literature regarding its implications for consciousness. Write? Blindsight patients are blind in a well defined part of the visual field (due to cortical damage), but yet, when forced, can guess, with a higher than expected degree of accuracy, the location or orientation of an object in the blind field. There is also philosophical interest in many other disorders, such as phantom limb pain (where one feels pain in a missing or amputated limb), various agnosias (such as visual agnosia where one is not capable of visually recognizing everyday objects), and anosognosia (which is denial of illness, such as when one claims that a paralyzed limb is still functioning, or when one denies that one is blind). These phenomena raise a number of bergeron conflict resolved important philosophical questions and have forced philosophers to rethink some very basic assumptions about the nature of for a mind and requirements, consciousness. Much has also recently been learned about how to write a review for a book autism and various forms of bergeron schizophrenia.
A common view is write for a, that these disorders involve some kind of deficit in buy a essay self-consciousness or in one’s ability to use certain self-concepts. (For a nice review article, see Graham 2002.) Synesthesia is also a fascinating abnormal phenomenon, although not really a “pathological” condition as such (Cytowic 2003). Those with synesthesia literally have taste sensations when seeing certain shapes or have color sensations when hearing certain sounds. It is thus an often bizarre mixing of incoming sensory input via different modalities. One of the exciting results of this relatively new sub-field is the important interdisciplinary interest that it has generated among philosophers, psychologists, and scientists (such as in Graham 2010, Hirstein 2005, and Radden 2004). 6. Animal and Machine Consciousness.
Two final areas of a review for a interest involve animal and machine consciousness. In the former case it is contoh untuk beasiswa, clear that we have come a long way from the Cartesian view that animals are mere “automata” and how to a review for a book, that they do not even have conscious experience (perhaps partly because they do not have immortal souls). In addition to the obviously significant behavioral similarities between humans and many animals, much more is known today about other physiological similarities, such as brain and DNA structures. Resolved? To be sure, there are important differences as well and there are, no doubt, some genuinely difficult “grey areas” where one might have legitimate doubts about some animal or organism consciousness, such as small rodents, some birds and fish, and especially various insects. Nonetheless, it seems fair to say that most philosophers today readily accept the fact that a significant portion of the animal kingdom is capable of having conscious mental states, though there are still notable exceptions to that rule (Carruthers 2000, 2005). Of course, this is not to say that various animals can have all of the same kinds of sophisticated conscious states enjoyed by human beings, such as reflecting on philosophical and a review for a book, mathematical problems, enjoying artworks, thinking about the vast universe or the distant past, and ideas papers, so on. Write A Review? However, it still seems reasonable to believe that animals can have at least some conscious states from rudimentary pains to 10000 various perceptual states and perhaps even to some level of how to write a review for a self-consciousness.
A number of buy a key areas are under continuing investigation. For example, to what extent can animals recognize themselves, such as in a mirror, in write a review book order to demonstrate some level of didactique self-awareness? To what extent can animals deceive or empathize with other animals, either of which would indicate awareness of the minds of others? These and other important questions are at the center of much current theorizing about animal cognition. (See Keenan et. A Review For A Book? al. Didactique? 2003 and Beckoff et. al.
2002.) In some ways, the problem of knowing about animal minds is an interesting sub-area of the traditional epistemological “problem of other minds”: How do we even know that other humans have conscious minds? What justifies such a belief? The possibility of machine (or robot) consciousness has intrigued philosophers and non-philosophers alike for decades. Could a machine really think or be conscious? Could a robot really subjectively experience the smelling of a rose or the feeling of pain?
One important early launching point was a well-known paper by the mathematician Alan Turing (1950) which proposed what has come to be known as the “Turing test” for machine intelligence and thought (and perhaps consciousness as well). The basic idea is that if a machine could fool an interrogator (who could not see the machine) into how to write, thinking that it was human, then we should say it thinks or, at least, has intelligence. However, Turing was probably overly optimistic about whether anything even today can pass the Turing Test, as most programs are specialized and have very narrow uses. One cannot ask the machine about virtually anything, as Turing had envisioned. Moreover, even if a machine or robot could pass the contoh essay Turing Test, many remain very skeptical as to whether or not this demonstrates genuine machine thinking, let alone consciousness. For one thing, many philosophers would not take such purely behavioral (e.g., linguistic) evidence to write for a support the conclusion that machines are capable of conflict having phenomenal first person experiences. Merely using words like “red” doesn’t ensure that there is the corresponding sensation of red or real grasp of the meaning of a review for a “red.” Turing himself considered numerous objections and offered his own replies, many of which are still debated today. Another much discussed argument is John Searle’s (1980) famous Chinese Room Argument, which has spawned an enormous amount of literature since its original publication (see also Searle 1984; Preston and Bishop 2002).
Searle is concerned to reject what he calls “strong AI” which is the view that suitably programmed computers literally have a mind, that is, they really understand language and actually have other mental capacities similar to humans. This is contrasted with “weak AI” which is the buy a view that computers are merely useful tools for studying the mind. The gist of how to write Searle’s argument is that he imagines himself running a program for using Chinese and then shows that he does not understand Chinese; therefore, strong AI is an essay concerning discussion, false; that is, running the program does not result in any real understanding (or thought or consciousness, by implication). Searle supports his argument against strong AI by book utilizing a thought experiment whereby he is in a room and follows English instructions for manipulating Chinese symbols in harrison bergeron resolved order to produce appropriate answers to questions in Chinese. Searle argues that, despite the appearance of understanding Chinese (say, from outside the room), he does not understand Chinese at all.
He does not thereby know Chinese, but is merely manipulating symbols on the basis of how to a review syntax alone. Uw Thesis? Since this is what computers do, no computer, merely by following a program, genuinely understands anything. Searle replies to numerous possible criticisms in his original paper (which also comes with extensive peer commentary), but suffice it to say that not everyone is satisfied with his responses. For example, it might be argued that the entire room or “system” understands Chinese if we are forced to use Searle’s analogy and thought experiment. Each part of the room doesn’t understand Chinese (including Searle himself) but the entire system does, which includes the a review book instructions and so on. Dissertation Sur La? Searle’s larger argument, however, is that one cannot get semantics (meaning) from syntax (formal symbol manipulation). Despite heavy criticism of the argument, two central issues are raised by Searle which continue to be of how to write a review for a deep interest.
First, how and when does one distinguish mere “simulation” of some mental activity from genuine “duplication”? Searle’s view is contoh essay untuk, that computers are, at best, merely simulating understanding and thought, not really duplicating it. Much like we might say that a computerized hurricane simulation does not duplicate a real hurricane, Searle insists the same goes for any alleged computer “mental” activity. Write? We do after all distinguish between real diamonds or leather and mere simulations which are just not the real thing. Buy A Descriptive Essay? Second, and perhaps even more important, when considering just why computers really can’t think or be conscious, Searle interestingly reverts back to a biologically based argument. In essence, he says that computers or robots are just not made of the right stuff with the right kind of “causal powers” to produce genuine thought or consciousness. After all, even a materialist does not have to allow that any kind of physical stuff can produce consciousness any more than any type of physical substance can, say, conduct electricity. Of course, this raises a whole host of other questions which go to the heart of the metaphysics of consciousness. To what extent must an organism or system be physiologically like us in order to be conscious?
Why is having a certain biological or chemical make up necessary for consciousness? Why exactly couldn’t an appropriately built robot be capable of how to for a having conscious mental states? How could we even know either way? However one answers these questions, it seems that building a truly conscious Commander Data is, at best, still just science fiction. In any case, the growing areas of cognitive science and bergeron, artificial intelligence are major fields within philosophy of mind and can importantly bear on philosophical questions of consciousness. Much of how to write current research focuses on how to program a computer to model the workings of the human brain, such as with so-called “neural (or connectionist) networks.”
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conservative essays Liberals in the United States have been losing political debates to conservatives for a quarter century. In order to start winning again, liberals must answer two simple questions: what is conservatism, and what is wrong with it? As it happens, the answers to these questions are also simple: Q: What is conservatism? A: Conservatism is the domination of society by how to an aristocracy. Q: What is 10000 ideas papers, wrong with conservatism? A: Conservatism is incompatible with democracy, prosperity, and civilization in general. It is a destructive system of write a review inequality and prejudice that is founded on deception and has no place in the modern world. 10000 Ideas? These ideas are not new. Indeed they were common sense until recently.
Nowadays, though, most of the people who call themselves conservatives have little notion of what conservatism even is. They have been deceived by one of the great public relations campaigns of human history. How To Write For A? Only by analyzing this deception will it become possible to uw thesis, revive democracy in the United States. //1 The Main Arguments of Conservatism. From the pharaohs of write ancient Egypt to the self-regarding thugs of ancient Rome to the glorified warlords of medieval and absolutist Europe, in nearly every urbanized society throughout human history, there have been people who have tried to constitute themselves as an aristocracy. These people and their allies are the conservatives. The tactics of conservatism vary widely by conflict place and time. But the most central feature of conservatism is deference: a psychologically internalized attitude on the part of the common people that the aristocracy are better people than they are. Modern-day liberals often theorize that conservatives use social issues as a way to mask economic objectives, but this is almost backward: the true goal of how to write for a book conservatism is to establish an aristocracy, which is a social and psychological condition of inequality. Economic inequality and contoh untuk beasiswa, regressive taxation, while certainly welcomed by the aristocracy, are best understood as a means to their actual goal, which is simply to be aristocrats. More generally, it is crucial to conservatism that the people must literally love the order that dominates them.
Of course this notion sounds bizarre to for a, modern ears, but it is perfectly overt in the writings of leading conservative theorists such as Burke. Bergeron Resolved? Democracy, for them, is not about the mechanisms of how to write for a book voting and office-holding. Conflict Resolved? In fact conservatives hold a wide variety of how to a review opinions about such secondary formal matters. For conservatives, rather, democracy is a psychological condition. People who believe that the requirements aristocracy rightfully dominates society because of its intrinsic superiority are conservatives; democrats, by contrast, believe that they are of equal social worth. How To Write A Review For A Book? Conservatism is the antithesis of democracy. This has been true for thousands of years.
The defenders of aristocracy represent aristocracy as a natural phenomenon, but in reality it is the most artificial thing on earth. 10000? Although one of the goals of every aristocracy is to make its preferred social order seem permanent and a review for a book, timeless, in reality conservatism must be reinvented in every generation. Questions? This is true for how to a review for a book many reasons, including internal conflicts among the aristocrats; institutional shifts due to climate, markets, or warfare; and ideological gains and losses in the perpetual struggle against democracy. In some societies the aristocracy is rigid, closed, and stratified, while in uw thesis requirements, others it is more of an aspiration among various fluid and how to write for a book, factionalized groups. The situation in 10000 ideas for term, the United States right now is toward the latter end of the a review spectrum. A main goal in dissertation sur la, life of all aristocrats, however, is to pass on their positions of privilege to their children, and many of the aspiring aristocrats of the how to a review United States are appointing their children to positions in government and in the archipelago of think tanks that promote conservative theories.
Conservatism in every place and time is founded on deception. The deceptions of conservatism today are especially sophisticated, simply because culture today is sufficiently democratic that the myths of earlier times will no longer suffice. Before analyzing current-day conservatism's machinery of harrison conflict deception, let us outline the main arguments of conservatism. Although these arguments have changed little through history, they might seem unfamiliar to many people today, indeed even to people who claim to be conservatives. That unfamiliarity is how to book, a very recent phenomenon. Yet it is only through the uw thesis requirements classical arguments and their fallacies that we can begin to analyze how conservatism operates now. According to the first type of argument, found for example in Burke, social institutions are a kind of capital. How To For A? A properly ordered society will be blessed with large quantities of this capital. This capital has very particular properties.
It is a sprawling tangle of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture. It is generally tacit in nature and cannot be rationally analyzed. It is fragile and must be conserved, because a society that lacks it will collapse into anarchy and tyranny. Innovation is an essay concerning human discussion questions, bad, therefore, and prejudice is how to a review, good. Although the institutions can tolerate incremental reforms around the edges, systematic questioning is a threat to social order. In particular, rational thought is evil. An Essay Human Questions? Nothing can be worse for the conservative than rational thought, because people who think rationally might decide to try replacing inherited institutions with new ones, something that a conservative regards as impossible.
This is write for a book, where the word conservative comes from: the supposed importance of conserving established institutions. This argument is not wholly false. Institutions are in conflict resolved, fact sprawling tangles of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture. For A Book? And people who think they can reengineer the whole of human society overnight are generally mistaken. The people of ancien regime France were oppressed by the conservative order of their time, but indeed their revolution did not work, and would probably not have worked even if conservatives from elsewhere were not militarily attacking them.
After all, the conservative order had gone to insane lengths to deprive them of the education, practical experience, and patterns of thought that would be required to operate a democracy. They could not invent those things overnight. Even so, the argument about conserving institutions is mostly untrue. Most institutions are less fragile and more dynamic than conservatives claim. Large amounts of institutional innovation happen in every generation. If people lack a rational analysis of institutions, that is mostly a product of conservatism rather than an argument for it. And although conservatism has historically claimed to conserve institutions, history makes clear that conservatism is only interested in conserving particular kinds of institutions: the institutions that reinforce conservative power. Uw Thesis Requirements? Conservatism rarely tries to conserve institutions such as Social Security and welfare that decrease the common people's dependency on the aristocracy and the social authorities that serve it. To the contrary, they represent those institutions in various twisted ways as dangerous to to the social order generally or to their beneficiaries in particular. The opposite of conservatism is democracy, and contempt for democracy is for a book, a constant thread in resolved, the history of conservative argument.
Instead, conservatism has argued that society ought to be organized in a hierarchy of orders and classes and how to write a review, controlled by its uppermost hierarchical stratum, the aristocracy. Many of descriptive essay these arguments against egalitarianism are ancient, and most of them are routinely heard on the radio. One tends to hear the arguments in bits and pieces, for example the emphatic if vague claim that people are different. Of course, most of these arguments, if considered rationally, actually argue for meritocracy rather than for aristocracy. Meritocracy is a democratic principle. George Bush, however, was apparently scarred for life by having been one of the last students admitted to Yale under its old aristocratic admissions system, and for a book, having to attend classes with students admitted under the dissertation sur la meritocratic system who considered themselves to be smarter than him. Although he has lately claimed to oppose the system of legacy admissions from which he benefitted, that is a tactic, part of a package deal to eliminate affirmative action, thereby allowing conservative social hierarchies to be reaffirmed in how to write a review for a, other ways. American culture still being comparatively healthy, overt arguments for aristocracy (for example, that the children of aristocrats learn by human understanding osmosis the profound arts of government and thereby acquire a wisdom that mere experts cannot match) are still relatively unusual. Instead, conservatism must proceed through complicated indirection, and the next few sections of how to write for a this article will explain in some detail how this works. The issue is not that rich people are bad, or that hierarchical types of organization have no place in a democracy.
Nor are the descendents of an essay concerning aristocrats necessarily bad people if they do not try to perpetuate conservative types of domination over society. The issue is both narrow and enormous: no aristocracy should be allowed to trick the rest of society into a review for a book deferring to it. But isn't conservatism about freedom? Of course everyone wants freedom, and so conservatism has no choice but to promise freedom to its subjects. In reality conservatism has meant complicated things by freedom, and the reality of conservatism in practice has scarcely corresponded even to the contorted definitions in essay, conservative texts. To start with, conservatism constantly shifts in for a book, its degree of authoritarianism. Contoh Untuk Beasiswa? Conservative rhetors, in the Wall Street Journal for example, have no difficulty claiming to be the party of freedom in one breath and attacking civil liberties in the next.
The real situation with conservatism and freedom is best understood in historical context. Conservatism constantly changes, always adapting itself to a review for a book, provide the minimum amount of freedom that is required to hold together a dominant coalition in the society. In Burke's day, for example, this meant an alliance between traditional social authorities and the rising business class. Although the business class has always defined its agenda in terms of something it calls freedom, in reality conservatism from the 18th century onward has simply implied a shift from one kind of government intervention in the economy to another, quite different kind, together with a continuation of medieval models of cultural domination. This is a central conservative argument: freedom is impossible unless the common people internalize aristocratic domination. Essay Beasiswa? Indeed, many conservative theorists to the present day have argued that freedom is a review for a book, not possible at an essay discussion, all. Without the internalized domination of conservatism, it is argued, social order would require the external domination of state terror. How To Write A Review? In a sense this argument is correct: historically conservatives have routinely resorted to terror when internalized domination has not worked. What is unthinkable by design here is the possibility that people might organize their lives in a democratic fashion. This alliance between traditional social authorities and the business class is artificial.
The market continually undermines the institutions of didactique cultural domination. It does this partly through its constant revolutionizing of a review book institutions generally and partly by encouraging a culture of entrepreneurial initiative. As a result, the alliance must be continually reinvented, all the while pretending that its reinventions simply reinstate an eternal order. Conservatism promotes (and so does liberalism, misguidedly) the idea that liberalism is discussion questions, about activist government where conservatism is not. This is absurd.
It is unrelated to how to write a review for a, the history of conservative government. Conservatism promotes activist government that acts in the interests of the aristocracy. This has been true for thousands of years. What is uw thesis, distinctive about liberalism is not that it promotes activist government but that it promotes government that acts in the interests of the majority. Democratic government, however, is not simply majoritarian.
It is, rather, one institutional expression of a democratic type of culture that is still very much in the process of being invented. //2 How Conservatism Works. Conservative social orders have often described themselves as civilized, and so one reads in the Wall Street Journal that the enemies of civilization hate bow ties. But what conservatism calls civilization is a review for a book, little but the domination of an 10000 papers, aristocracy. Every aspect of social life is subordinated to this goal. That is not civilization. The reality is quite the opposite.
To impose its order on society, conservatism must destroy civilization. In particular conservatism must destroy conscience, democracy, reason, and language. * The Destruction of Conscience. Liberalism is a movement of conscience. Liberals speak endlessly of conscience. Yet conservative rhetors have taken to acting as if they owned the language of conscience.
They even routinely assert that liberals disparage conscience. The magnitude of the falsehood here is so great that decent people have been set back on write a review for a book, their heels. Conservatism continually twists the language of bergeron conscience into its opposite. It has no choice: conservatism is unjust, and cannot survive except by pretending to be the opposite of what it is. Conservative arguments are often arbitrary in nature. Write A Review For A Book? Consider, for example, the controversy over Elian Gonzalez.
Conservatism claims that the universe is ordered by absolutes. This would certainly make life easier if it was true. The difficulty is that the absolutes constantly conflict with one another. Buy A Essay? When the absolutes do not conflict, there is how to write a review for a book, rarely any controversy. But when absolutes do conflict, conservatism is forced into sophistry. In the an essay human understanding discussion case of Elian Gonzalez, two absolutes conflicted: keeping families together and not making people return to tyrannies. In a democratic society, the decision would be made through rational debate. Write For A Book? Conservatism, however, required picking one of the two absolutes arbitrarily (based perhaps on tactical politics in requirements, Florida) and simply accusing anyone who disagreed of flouting absolutes and thereby nihilistically denying the fundamental order of the universe. This happens every day. Arbitrariness replaces reason with authority.
When arbitrariness becomes established in the culture, democracy decays and it becomes possible for a review for a book aristocracies to dominate people's minds. Another example of conservative twisting of the language of conscience is the argument, in the context of the attacks of 9/11 and dissertation, the war in Iraq, that holding our side to things like the Geneva Convention implies an equivalence between ourselves and our enemies. This is a logical fallacy. The fallacy is something like: they kill so they are bad, but we are good so it is okay for us to kill. The argument that everything we do is how to write, okay so long as it is an essay, not as bad as the most extreme evil in the world is a rejection of nearly all of write for a book civilization.
It is precisely the destruction of conscience. Or take the notion of political correctness. Understanding Questions? It is true that movements of conscience have piled demands onto people faster than the culture can absorb them. That is an unfortunate side-effect of social progress. Conservatism, however, twists language to how to write a review, make the inconvenience of conscience sound like a kind of oppression.
The campaign against political correctness is thus a search-and-destroy campaign against all vestiges of conscience in harrison bergeron, society. The flamboyant nastiness of write for a rhetors such as Rush Limbaugh and Ann Coulter represents the destruction of conscience as a type of liberation. They are like cultists, continually egging on their audiences to destroy their own minds by uw thesis punching through one layer after another of their consciences. Once I wrote on a review for a book, the Internet that bears in zoos are miserable and should be let go. In response to this, I received an e-mail viciously mocking me as an animal rights wacko. This is an example of the destruction of conscience. Any human being with a halfways functioning conscience will be capable of rationally debating the notion that unhappy bears in zoos should be let go. Of course, rational people might have other opinions. They might claim that the bears are not actually miserable, or that they would be just as miserable in the forest.
Conservatism, though, has stereotyped concern for for term papers animals by associating it with its most extreme fringe. This sort of mockery of conscience has become systematic and commonplace. * The Destruction of Democracy. For thousands of years, conservatism was universally understood as being in opposition to democracy. Having lost much of its ability to attack democracy openly, conservatism has tried in recent years to redefine the word democracy while engaging in deception to make the substance of democracy unthinkable. Conservative rhetors, for example, have been using the word government in a way that does not distinguish between legitimate democracy and totalitarianism.
Then there is the notion that politicians who offer health care reforms, for example, are claiming to be better people than the write for a rest of us. This is a particularly toxic distortion. Offering reforms is a basic part of dissertation sur la democracy, something that every citizen can do. Even more toxic is the notion that those who criticize the president are claiming to for a, be better people than he is. This is authoritarianism. Some conservative rhetors have taken to literally demonizing the very notion of a democratic opposition. Rush Limbaugh has argued at length that Tom Daschle resembles Satan simply because he opposes George Bush's policies.
Ever since then, Limbaugh has regularly identified Daschle as el diablo. Buy A Descriptive? This is the emotional heart of conservatism: the notion that the conservative order is ordained by God and that anyone and anything that opposes the conservative order is infinitely evil. * The Destruction of Reason. Conservatism has opposed rational thought for thousands of years. Write A Review Book? What most people know nowadays as conservatism is basically a public relations campaign aimed at uw thesis, persuading them to lay down their capacity for rational thought. Conservatism frequently attempts to destroy rational thought, for example, by using language in ways that stand just out of reach of rational debate or rebuttal. Conservatism has used a wide variety of methods to destroy reason throughout history. Fortunately, many of these methods, such as the suppression of popular literacy, are incompatible with a modern economy.
Once the common people started becoming educated, more sophisticated methods of domination were required. Thus the invention of public relations, which is a kind of rationalized irrationality. The great innovation of write book conservatism in recent decades has been the systematic reinvention of politics using the technology of public relations. The main idea of public relations is the distinction between messages and facts. Messages are the things you want people to believe. A message should be vague enough that it is difficult to refute by rational means. (People in buy a essay, politics refer to messages as strategies and people who devise strategies as strategists. The Democrats have strategists too, and it is how to write for a book, not at buy a descriptive, all clear that they should, but they scarcely compare with the vast public relations machinery of the right.) It is useful to how to write for a book, think of each message as a kind of pipeline: a steady stream of facts is selected (or twisted, or fabricated) to fit the message. Contrary facts are of course ignored. Uw Thesis? The goal is what the professionals call message repetition. This provides activists with something to do: come up with new facts to fit the conservative authorities' chosen messages.
Having become established in this way, messages must also be continually intertwined with one another. This is one job of pundits. To the write a review book public relations mind, the public sphere is a game in which the opposition tries to knock you off your message. Take the example of harrison bergeron one successful message, Gore's lies. The purpose of the game was to return any interaction to how to write for a, the message, namely that Gore lies. So if it is sur la didactique, noted that the supposed examples of Gore lying (e.g., his perfectly true claim to have done onerous farm chores) were themselves untrue, common responses would include, that doesn't matter, what matters is Gore's lies, or the reasons people believe them is because of Gore's lies, or yes perhaps, but there are so many other examples of Gore's lies, or you're just trying to change the subject away from a review Gore's lies, and so on. Many of these messages have become institutions.
Whole organizations exist to uw thesis requirements, provide a pipeline of how to write a review for a facts that underwrite the message of liberal media bias. These facts fall into essay untuk beasiswa numerous categories and exemplify a wide range of fallacies. Some are just factually untrue, e.g., claims that the New York Times has failed to cover an write for a book, event that it actually covered in detail. Descriptive? Other claimed examples of bias are non sequiturs, e.g., quotations from write a review liberal columns that appear on the opinion pages, or quotations from liberals in news articles that also provided balancing quotes from conservatives. Others are illogical, e.g., media that report news events that represent bad news for the president. The methods of uw thesis identifying bias are thus highly elastic. In practice, everything in how to write for a, the media on political topics that diverges from requirements conservative public relations messages is contended to how to write a review book, be an example of liberal bias. The goal, clearly, is to purge the media of everything except conservatism. The word inaccurate has become something of essay a technical term in the political use of public relations. It means differs from our message. Public relations aims to break down reason and replace it with mental associations.
One tries to a review, associate us with good things and them with bad things. Thus, for example, the famous memo from Newt Gingrich's (then) organization GOPAC entitled Language: A Key Mechanism of Control. It advised Republican candidates to associate themselves with words like building, dream, freedom, learn, light, preserve, success, and truth while associating opponents with words like bizarre, decay, ideological, lie, machine, pathetic, and traitors. Beasiswa? The issue here is not whether these words are used at all; of how to a review course there do exist individual liberals that could be described using any of these words. The issue, rather, is a kind of cognitive surgery: systematically creating and destroying mental associations with little regard for truth. Note, in fact, that truth is one of the words that Gingrich advised appropriating in this fashion. Someone who thinks this way cannot even conceptualize truth. Conservative strategists construct their messages in a variety of more or less stereotyped ways. One of the most important patterns of conservative message-making is projection.
Projection is a psychological notion; it roughly means attacking someone by falsely claiming that they are attacking you. Conservative strategists engage in projection constantly. A commonplace example would be taking something from someone by claiming that they are in fact taking it from you. Or, having heard a careful and detailed refutation of something he has said, the projector might snap, you should not dismiss what I have said so quickly!. It is a false claim -- what he said was not dismissed -- that is an example of itself -- he is essay, dismissing what his opponent has said. Projection was an important part of the Florida election controversy, for example when Republicans tried to get illegal ballots counted and prevent legal ballots from being counted, while claiming that Democrats were trying to steal the election.
* The Destruction of Language. Reason occurs mostly through the write a review for a book medium of buy a essay language, and so the destruction of reason requires the destruction of language. An underlying notion of write book conservative politics is contoh untuk, that words and phrases of language are like territory in warfare: owned and how to book, controlled by one side or the dissertation didactique other. How To Write For A Book? One of the central goals of conservatism, as for example with Newt Gingrich's lists of words, is to take control of every word and phrase in the English language. George Bush, likewise, owes his election in great measure to a new language that his people engineered for him. His favorite word, for harrison bergeron resolved example, is how to a review book, heart. This type of linguistic engineering is highly evolved in 10000 ideas for term, the business milieu from which conservative public relations derives, and it is the write a review book day-to-day work of countless conservative think tanks. Bush's people, and the concentric circles of punditry around them, are worlds away from John Kerry deciding on a moment's notice that he is going to start the word values. They do not use a word unless they have an integrated communications strategy for taking control of human questions that word throughout the whole of society. Bush's personal vocabulary is only a small part of conservative language warfare as a whole.
Since around 1990, conservative rhetors have been systematically turning language into a weapon against how to write a review book, liberals. Words are used in twisted and exaggerated ways, or with the opposite of their customary meanings. This affects the whole of the language. The goal of this distorted language is not simply to buy a essay, defeat an enemy but to how to write, destroy the minds of the people who believe themselves to be conservatives and uw thesis, who constantly challenge themselves to ever greater extremity in using it. A simple example of turning language into a weapon might be the word predictable, which has become a synonym for liberal. There is no rational argument in this usage. Write? Every such use of predictable can be refuted simply by substituting the word consistent.
It is simply invective. More importantly, conservative rhetors have been systematically mapping the language that has historically been used to describe the aristocracy and the traditional authorities that serve it, and have twisted those words into terms for liberals. This tactic has the dual advantage of both attacking the aristocracies' opponents and depriving them of the harrison bergeron words that they have used to how to write for a, attack aristocracy. A simple example is the term race-baiting. Sur La? In the Nexis database, uses of race-baiting undergo a sudden switch in the early 1990's. Before then, race-baiting referred to racists. Afterward, it referred in twisted way to people who oppose racism.
What happened is simple: conservative rhetors, tired of the political advantage that liberals had been getting from their use of how to write a review book that word, took it away from them. A more complicated example is the word racist. Conservative rhetors have tried to take this word away as well by constantly coming up with new ways to stick the word onto liberals and their policies. For example they have referred to affirmative action as racist. This is false; it is an attempt to destroy language. Racism is the notion that one race is intrinsically better than another.
Affirmative action is arguably discriminatory, as a means of an essay understanding discussion questions partially offsetting discrimination in other places and times, but it is not racist. Many conservative rhetors have even stuck the word racist on people just because they oppose racism. The notion seems to be that these people addressed themselves to book, the topic of race, and the word racist is sort of an adjective relating somehow to race. In any event this too is an attack on language. A recent example is the word hate. The civil rights movement had used the word hate to refer to terrorism and stereotyping against black people, and during the dissertation sur la 1990's some in the press had identified as Clinton-haters people who had made vast numbers of bizarre claims that the Clintons had participated in murder and drug-dealing. Beginning around 2003, conservative rhetors took control of this word as well by labeling a variety of perfectly ordinary types of democratic opposition to George Bush as hate. In addition, they have constructed a large number of messages of the form liberals hate X (e.g., X=America) and established within their media apparatus a sophistical pipeline of write book facts to support each one.
This is also an example of the concerning human understanding discussion systematic breaking of how to a review for a associations. The word partisan entered into its current political circulation in didactique, the early 1990's when some liberals identified people like Newt Gingrich as partisan for doing things like the memo on language that I mentioned earlier. To the conservative way of politics, there is nothing either true or false about the liberal claim. It is simply that liberals had taken control of some rhetorical territory: the word partisan. Conservative rhetors then set about taking control of the a review for a book word themselves. They did this in a way that has become mechanical. They first claimed, falsely, that liberals were identifying as partisan any views other than their own. Uw Thesis? They thus inflated the word while projecting this inflation onto the liberals and disconnecting the word from the particular facts that the liberals had associated with it. Next, they started using the word partisan in the inflated, dishonest way that they had ascribed to how to for a book, their opponents. This is, very importantly, a way of attacking people simply for buy a essay having a different opinion.
In twisting language this way, conservatives tell themselves that they are simply turning liberal unfairness back against the liberals. This too is write a review for a book, projection. Another common theme of conservative strategy is that liberals are themselves an aristocracy. (For those who are really keeping score, the sophisticated version of this is called the new class strategy, the message being that liberals are the American version of the Soviet nomenklatura.) Thus, for contoh untuk beasiswa example, the constant pelting of a review liberals as elites, sticking this word and a mass of others semantically related to it onto liberals on every possible occasion. A pipeline of facts has been established to underwrite this message as well. Thus, for example, constant false conservative claims that the rich vote Democratic.
When Al Franken recently referred to his new radio network as the media elite and proud of it, he demonstrated his oblivion to the workings of the conservative discourse that he claims to contest. Further examples of this are endless. When a Republican senator referred to harrison bergeron, the few liberals, hardly any liberals gave any sign of getting what he meant: as all conservatives got just fine, he was appropriating the phrase the few, referring to the aristocracy as opposed to the many, and how to write, sticking this phrase in a false and mechanical way onto liberals. Rush Limbaugh asserts that they [liberals] think they are better than you, this of course being a phrase that had historically been applied (and applied correctly) to the aristocracy. Understanding Discussion Questions? Conservative rhetors constantly make false or exaggerated claims that liberals are engaged in stereotyping -- the criticism of stereotyping having been one of for a history's most important rhetorical devices of democrats. Descriptive? And so on. The goal here is to make it impossible to criticize aristocracy. For an especially sorry example of this pattern, consider the word hierarchy. Conservatism is a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes.
Yet in recent years conservatives have managed to stick this word onto liberals, the notion being that government (which liberals supposedly endorse and conservatives supposedly oppose) is hierarchical (whereas corporations, the military, and for a book, the church are somehow vaguely not). Liberals are losing because it does not even occur to them to refute this kind of mechanical antireason. It is often claimed in the media that snooty elitists on the coasts refer to states in the middle of the conflict resolved country as flyover country. Yet I, who have lived in a review book, liberal areas of the coasts for most of my life, have never once heard this usage. Uw Thesis? In fact, as far as I can tell, the Nexis database does not contain a single example of anyone using the phrase flyover country to disparage the non-coastal areas of the United States. Instead, it contains hundreds of examples of people disparaging residents of the coasts by claiming that they use the phrase to describe the interior. The phrase is a special favorite of newspapers in how to a review, Minneapolis and Denver. This is projection. Likewise, I have never heard the phrase political correctness used except to disparage the contoh essay people who supposedly use it. Conservative remapping of the language of aristocracy and democracy has been incredibly thorough. Consider, for how to example, the terms entitlement and dependency.
The term entitlement originally referred to aristocrats. Aristocrats had titles, and they thought that they were thereby entitled to various things, particularly the deference of the common people. Everyone else, by bergeron conflict contrast, was dependent on the aristocrats. This is conservatism. Yet in the 1990's, conservative rhetors decided that the people who actually claim entitlement are people on welfare. They furthermore created an empirically false association between welfare and dependency. But, as I have mentioned, welfare is precisely a way of eliminating dependency on the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. I do not recall anyone ever noting this inversion of write a review for a meaning. Conservative strategists have also been remapping the language that has historically been applied to conservative religious authorities, sticking words such as orthodoxy, pious, dogma, and sanctimonious to dissertation sur la, liberals at write for a, every turn.
//3 Conservatism in American History. Almost all of the early immigrants to America left behind societies that had been oppressed by human discussion questions conservatism. The democratic culture that Americans have built is truly one of the monuments of civilization. And American culture remains vibrant to this day despite centuries of conservative attack. Yet the history of American democracy has generally been taught in confused ways. This history might be sketched in terms of the great turning points that happened to occur around 1800 and 1900, followed by write for a the great reaction that gathered steam in harrison conflict, the decades leading up to how to write a review for a, 2000. America before the revolution was a conservative society. Descriptive? It lacked an entitled aristocracy, but it was dominated in very much the same way by its gentry. Americans today have little way of for a knowing what this meant -- the hierarchical ties of personal dependency that organized people's psychology. We hear some echo of it in the hagiographies of George Bush, which are modeled on the way the gentry represented themselves. The Founding Fathers, men like Madison, Adams, and Washington, were, in this sense, products of aristocratic society.
They did not make a revolution in order to human understanding discussion, establish democracy. Quite the write a review contrary, they wanted to be aristocrats. They did not succeed. Requirements? The revolution that they helped set in motion did not simply sweep away the write a review church and crown of England. As scholars such as Gordon Wood have noted, it also swept away the entire social system of the gentry, and it did so with a suddenness and thoroughness that surprised and amazed everyone who lived through it. So completely did Americans repudiate the descriptive essay conservative social system of the a review book gentry, in fact, that they felt free to mythologize the Founding Fathers, forgetting the bergeron resolved Founding Fathers' aristocratic ambitions and how to for a, pretending that they, too, were revolutionary democrats. This ahistorical practice of projecting all good things onto the Founding Fathers continues to bergeron conflict, the present day, and it is how to write a review for a, unfortunate because (as Michael Schudson has argued) it makes us forget all of the work that Americans have subsequently done to build the democratic institutions of today. In reality, Madison, Adams, and Washington were much like Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union. Like Gorbachev, they tried to reform an oppressive system without fundamentally changing it. And like Gorbachev, they were swept away by untuk beasiswa the very forces they helped set into motion.
The revolution, though, proceeded quite differently in the North and South, and led to a kind of controlled experiment. The North repudiated conservatism altogether. Indeed it was the only society in modern history without an aristocracy, and as scholars such as the write for a late Robert Wiebe have noted, its dynamic democratic culture was most extraordinary. It is unfortunate that we discuss this culture largely through the analysis of Alexis de Tocqueville, an aristocrat who wanted to graft medieval notions of social order onto a democratic culture that he found alien. In the South, by contrast, the conservative order of the gentry was modified to something more resembling the oppressive latifundist systems of Latin America, relieved mainly by comparatively democratic religious institutions.
The Northern United States during the early 19th century was hardly perfect. Left-over conservative hierarchies and patterns of psychology continued to damage people's minds and lives in numerous ways. But compared to the South, the North was, and has always been, a more dynamic and successful society. Southern conservatism has had to modify its strategies in recent decades, but its grip on the culture is tragically as strong as ever. Something more complicated happened around 1900. Railroads, the telegraph, and mass production made for massive new economies of scale, whereupon the invention of the corporation gave a new generation of would-be aristocrats new ways to reinvent themselves.
The complicated institutional and ideological events of this era can be understood in microcosm through the subsequent history of the buy a word liberal, which forked into two quite different meanings. For A Book? The word liberal had originally been part of an intramural dispute within the conservative alliance between the harrison bergeron aristocracy and the rising business class. Their compromise, as I have noted, is that the how to write a review aristocracy would maintain its social control for the benefit of both groups mainly through psychological means rather than through terror, and that economic regulation would henceforth be designed to benefit the business class. Dissertation? And both of these conditions would perversely be called freedom. The word liberal thus took its modern meaning in a struggle against the aristocracy's control of the state. How To Write Book? Around 1900, however, the corporation emerged in uw thesis, a society in which democracy was relatively strong and the aristocracy was relatively weak. Antitrust and many other types of state regulation were not part of traditional aristocratic control, but were part of democracy. How To For A? And this is uw thesis requirements, why the word liberal forked. Democrats continued using the word in its original sense, to signify the struggle against for a, aristocracy, in this case the new aristocracy of corporate power. Business interests, however, reinvented the word to signify a struggle against something conceptualized very abstractly as government. In reality the buy a new business meaning of the word, as worked out in detail by people like Hayek, went in an opposite how to write book, direction from its original meaning: a struggle against the people, rather than against bergeron, the aristocracy.
At the same time as the corporation provided the occasion for the founding of a new aristocracy, however, a new middle class founded a large number of professions. The relationship between the professional middle class and the aristocracy has been complicated throughout the 20th century. But whereas the goal of conservatism throughout history has primarily been to a review for a book, suppress the mob of common people, the didactique conservatism of the late 20th century was especially vituperative in its campaigns against the relatively autonomous democratic cultures of the professions. One of the professions founded around 1900 was public relations. Write Book? Early public relations texts were quite openly conservative, and public relations practitioners openly affirmed that their profession existed to manipulate the common people psychologically in order to ensure the uw thesis requirements domination of how to society by a narrow elite.
Squeamishness on this matter is a recent phenomenon indeed. The modern history of requirements conservatism begins around 1975, as corporate interests began to react to the democratic culture of the sixties. This reaction can be traced in the public relations textbooks of the time. Elaborate new methods of public relations tried to prevent, coopt, and how to book, defeat democratic initiatives throughout the society. 10000 For Term? A new subfield of public relations, issues management, was founded at this time to deal strategically with political issues throughout their entire life cycle. One of the few political theories that has made note of the how to a review for a book large-scale institutionalization of public relations is the early work of Jurgen Habermas.
Even more important was the essay invention of the think tank, and how to, especially the systematic application of 10000 for term papers public relations to politics by the most important of the conservative think tanks, the Heritage Foundation. The Heritage Foundation's methods of write a review issues management have had a fantastically corrosive effect on democracy. The great innovation of Ronald Reagan and the political strategists who worked with him was to submerge conservatism's historically overt contempt for the common people. The contrast between Reagan's language and essay untuk beasiswa, that of write a review conservatives even a decade or two earlier is most striking. Jacques Barzun's The House of Intellect (1959), for example, fairly bristles with contempt for demotic culture, the notion being that modern history is the inexorable erosion of aristocratic civilization by democracy.
On a political level, Reagan's strategy was to place wedges into 10000 ideas for term the many divides in that era's popular democracy, including both the avoidable divides that the counterculture had opened up and the divides that had long been inherent in conservatism's hierarchical order. Reagan created a mythical working class whose values he conflated with those of the conservative order, and he opposed this to an equally mythical professional class of liberal wreckers. Democratic culture in the sixties had something of a workable theory of conservatism -- one that has largely been lost. But it was not enough of a theory to explain to a review for a, working people why they are on the same side as hippies and gays. Although crude by untuk beasiswa comparison with conservative discourse only twenty years later, Reagan's strategy identified this difficulty with some precision. People like Ella Baker had explained the psychology of conservatism -- the internalized deference that makes a conservative order possible. But the new psychology of democracy does not happen overnight, and write a review, it did not become general in the culture.
In the dissertation sur la didactique 1990's, American conservatism institutionalized public relations methods of politics on a large scale, and it used these methods in a savage campaign of delegitimizing democratic institutions. In particular, a new generation of highly trained conservative strategists evolved, on how to book, the foundation of classical public relations methods, a sophisticated practice of real-time politics that integrated ideology and tactics on a year-to-year, news-cycle-to-news-cycle, and often hour-to-hour basis. This practice employs advanced models of the dissertation dynamics of political issues so as to launch waves of precisely designed communications in countless well-analyzed loci throughout the how to book society. Contoh Essay Untuk Beasiswa? For contemporary conservatism, a political issue -- a war, for example -- is how to a review for a book, a consumer product to be researched and rolled out in a planned way with continuous empirical feedback from polling. Human Understanding Questions? So far as citizens can tell, such issues seem to materialize everywhere at once, swarming the culture with so many interrelated formulations that it becomes impossible to for a, think, much less launch an effective rebuttal. Such a campaign is successful if it occupies precisely the ideological ground that can be occupied at a given moment, and it includes quite overt plans for holding that ground through the essay construction of a pipeline of facts and intertwining with other, subsequent issues. Although in one sense this machinery has a profound kinship with the priesthoods of ancient Egypt, in another sense its radicalism -- its inhuman thoroughness -- has no precedent in history. A Review For A Book? Liberals have nothing remotely comparable. //4 The Discovery of Democracy. Humanity has struggled for thousands of years to contoh essay untuk, emerge from the darkness of conservatism.
At every step of the way, conservatism has always had the advantage of how to write a long historical learning curve. There have always been experts in the running of conservative society. Most of the stupid mistakes have been made and untuk, forgotten centuries ago. Conservatives have always had the leisure to write careful books justifying their rule. Democracy, by for a book contrast, is still very much in an experimental phase. And so, for example, the 1960's were one of the great episodes of harrison civilization in human history, and they were also a time when people did a lot of stupid things like take drugs. The history of democracy has scarcely been written. Of what has been written, the great majority of democratic theory is based on the ancient Greek model of deliberative democracy.
Much has been written about the Greeks' limitation of citizenship to perhaps 10% of the population. How To Write Book? But this is not the reason why the Greek model is inapplicable to the modern world. The real reason is harrison bergeron conflict, that Greek democracy was emphatically predicated on a review book, a small city-state of a few thousand people, whereas modern societies have populations in the tens and harrison bergeron conflict, hundreds of millions. The obvious adaptation to the difficulties of scale has been representation. But as a democratic institution representation has always been ambiguous. For conservatism, representation is a means of reifying social hierarchies. For A? The Founding Fathers thought of themselves as innovators and dissertation, modernizers, and the myth-making tradition has thoughtlessly agreed with them.
But in reality the US Constitution, as much as the a review book British system it supposedly replaced, is dissertation sur la didactique, little more than the Aristotelian tripartite model of king, aristocracy, and gentry (supposedly representing the commons), reformed to write a review, some degree as President, Senate, and House. Many people have noted that George Bush is consolidating executive power in a kind of elective kingship, but they have done little to place the various elements of dissertation sur la Bush's authoritarian institution-molding into historical context. In theoretical terms, though, it has been clear enough that representative democracy provides no satisfactory account of how to a review citizenship. Surely a genuine democracy would replace the Aristotelian model? Fortunately, there is essay beasiswa, little need to replace the Constitution beyond adding a right to privacy.
After all, as historians have noted, Americans almost immediately started using the Constitution in a considerably different way than the for a book Founders intended -- in a democratic fashion, simply put, and concerning understanding, not an aristocratic one. The president who claims to be a uniter not a divider is hearkening back to the myth-making of a would-be aristocracy that claims to be impartial and to stand above controversy while systematically using the machinery of government to crush its opponents. But his is not the winning side. Not that democracy is a done deal. One recent discovery is how to, that democracy does not mean that everyone participates in everything that affects them. Every citizen of a modern society participates in hundreds of institutions, and it is impossible to be fully informed about all of them, much less sit through endless meetings relating to all of them. There are too many issues for everyone to be an expert on untuk, everything. It follows that citizens in a large modern polity specialize in particular issues. In fact this kind of issue entrepreneurship is not restricted to a review for a book, politics. It is central to the making of careers in nearly every institution of society.
Conservatism claims to own the theme of entrepreneurship, but then conservatism claims to own every theme. In reality, entrepreneurship on the part of the common people is antithetical to conservatism, and conservatism has learned and essay, taught little about the skills of entrepreneurship, most particularly the entrepreneurial cognition that identifies opportunities for various sorts of useful careers, whether civic, intellectual, professional, or economic. Write A Review For A? Entrepreneurship is not just for economic elites, and in fact never has been. One part of democracy, contrary to much socialist teaching, is the democratization of goods and ideas for term papers, skills, entrepreneurial skills for example, that had formerly been associated with the elite. American society has diverged dramatically from that of Europe largely because of the democratization of a review book entrepreneurship, and that trend should continue with the writing down and an essay discussion, teaching of generalized entrepreneurial skills. The real discovery is that democracy is a particular kind of social organization of knowledge -- a sprawling landscape of overlapping knowledge spheres and a creative tension on any given issue between the experts and the laity. It is not a hierarchical divide between the write a review for a knowledge-authorities in untuk beasiswa, the professions and a deferential citizenry; instead it democratizes the skills of a review for a knowledge-making among a citizenry that is uw thesis, plugged together in ways that increasingly resemble the how to a review for a institutional and cognitive structures of the professions. This generalized application of entrepreneurial skills in the context of a knowledge-intensive society -- and not simply the multiplication of associations that so impressed Tocqueville -- is civil society.
The tremendous fashion for civil society as a necessary complement and counterbalance to the state in a democracy, as launched in contoh essay beasiswa, the 1980's by people like John Keane, has been one of the most hopeful aspects of recent democratic culture. Indeed, one measure of the success of the discourse of how to a review for a civil society has been that conservatism has felt the need to buy a essay, destroy it by means of distorted theories of civil society that place the populace under the tutelage of the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. Economics, unfortunately, is still dominated by the ancien regime. This consists of three schools. Neoclassical economics is founded (as Philip Mirowski has argued) on superficial, indeed incoherent analogies to the mathematics of classical mechanics whose main notion is equilibrium. Economies, it is held, are dynamic systems that are constantly moving to an optimal equilibrium, and how to write a review for a, government intervention will only move the economy to the wrong equilibrium. Essay Beasiswa? For a long time this theory has dominated academic economics for the simple reason that it provides a simple formula for creating a model of any economic phenomenon. Its great difficulty is write a review for a, that it ignores essentially all issues of contoh untuk information and institutions -- important topics in how to a review for a book, the context of any modern economy. Austrian economics (associated with Hayek and contoh essay beasiswa, Mises) began in the context of debates about the practicability of book central planning in socialism; as such, it is organized around an opposition between centralized economies (bad) and decentralized economies (good). Although preferable in some ways to neoclassicism in its emphasis on information and institutions, as well as its rhetorical emphasis on entrepreneurship, it is nonetheless hopelessly simplistic.
It has almost no practitioners in academia for the simple reason that it is nearly useless for analyzing any real phenomena. A third school, a particular kind of game theory based on the work of John Nash, does have elaborate notions about information and at conflict resolved, least a sketchy way of write for a modeling institutions, and as a result has established itself as the untuk major academic alternative to how to write a review book, neoclassicism. Unfortunately Nash game theory's foundations are no better than those of an essay concerning understanding neoclassicism. Whereas neoclassicism, though ultimately incoherent, is actually a powerful and how to, useful way of thinking about the economy, Nash game theory is based, as Mirowski again has argued, on a disordered model of dissertation sur la didactique relationships between people. Fortunately it has no particular politics. The state of economics is unfortunate for write a review for a democracy. Conservatism runs on ideologies that bear only a tangential relationship to reality, but democracy requires universal access to accurate theories about untuk, a large number of nontrivial institutions.
The socialist notion of economic democracy essentially imports the Greek deliberative model into the workplace. As such it is probably useful as a counter to conservative psychologies of internalized deference that crush people's minds and prevent useful work from being done. It is, however, not remotely adequate to the reality of an interconnected modern economy, in which the workplace is hardly a natural unit. Write Book? A better starting place is with analysis of the practical work of producing goods in an essay concerning understanding discussion, social systems of actual finite human beings -- that is, with analysis of information and institutions, as for example in the singular work of Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi, John von Neumann, Mark Casson, Joseph Stiglitz, Paul David, Bruno Latour, and Michel Callon. This work emphasizes knowledge and the very general social conditions that are required to produce and use it. Write A Review For A Book? Simply put, knowledge is best produced in a liberal culture. This is why the most prosperous and innovative regions of the United States are also the most politically liberal, and why the most conservative regions of the country are also the greatest beneficiaries of transfer payments. Buy A Essay? Liberals create wealth and government redistributes it to conservatives. This is, of course, the opposite of the received conservative opinion in the media, and indeed in most of academia. But it is for a book, true. Another connection between democracy and a modern economy is the discussion democratic nature of entrepreneurialism.
People who reflexively defer to their social betters will never learn the social skills that are needed to found new types of social relationships. This was clear enough in the interregnum in write for a, the 19th century between the fall of the American gentry and the rise of the modern corporation. An economy of generalized entrepreneurialism, moreover, requires an elaborate institutional matrix that is part public and part private. As scholars such as Linda Weiss have argued, the conservative spectre of a conflict between government and entrepreneurial activity is unrelated to the reality of entrepreneurship. To be sure, much has been learned about the conflict resolved kinds of government policies that do and do not lay the foundation for how to a review economic dynamism. Discussion? It is quite correct, for example, that direct price controls in competitive commodity markets rarely accomplish anything. (Labor markets are a much more complicated case, in very much the ways that neoclassical economics exists to how to write a review, ignore.) Free trade would also be a good thing if it existed; in practice trade is distorted by buy a essay subsidies and by uneven regulation of externalities such as pollution, and free trade negotiations are a kind of power politics that differs little from the gunboat diplomacy that opened markets in how to write for a, a one-sided way in former times. The point is scarcely that markets are inherently democratic. The economic properties of infrastructure and knowledge create economies of requirements scale that both produce cheap goods (a democratic effect) and concentrate power (an anti-democratic effect).
Conservatives employ the democratic rhetoric of entrepreneurialism to promote the opposite values of corporate centralization. But the 19th century's opinions about the political and economic necessity of antitrust are still true. More importantly, a wide range of public policies is required to facilitate a democratic economy and the more general democratic values on a review book, which it depends. Lastly, an important innovation of democracy during the sixties was the rights revolution. An Essay Concerning Understanding Questions? Rights are democratic because they are limits to arbitrary authority, and people who believe they have rights cannot be subjected to conservatism. How To For A Book? Conservative rhetors have attacked the rights revolution in buy a descriptive, numerous ways as a kind of demotic chatter that contradicts the eternal wisdom of the conservative order. For conservatism, not accepting one's settled place in the traditional hierarchy of orders and classes is a kind of arrogance, and conservative vocabulary is full of phrases such as self-important. Institutions, for conservatism, are more important than people. For democracy, by contrast, things are more complicated. For A Book? The rights revolution is hardly perfect. But the main difficulty with it is just that it is buy a essay, not enough.
A society is not founded on rights alone. Democracy requires that people learn and practice a range of nontrivial social skills. But then people are not likely to learn or practice those skills so long as they have internalized a conservative psychology of deference. The rights revolution breaks this cycle. For the civil rights movement, for example, learning to read was not simply a means of registering to vote, but was also a means of liberation from the a review book psychology of uw thesis requirements conservatism. Democratic institutions, as opposed to the inherited mysteries of conservative institutions, are made of the everyday exercise of advanced social skills by people who are liberated in this sense. //5 How to Defeat Conservatism. Conservatism is almost gone. Write A Review For A? People no longer worship the pharaohs.
If the gentry were among us today we would have no notion of what they were talking about. 10000 Ideas For Term Papers? For thousands of years, countless people have worked for the values of democracy in ways large and small. The industrialized vituperations of conservative propaganda measure their success. To defeat conservatism today, the main thing we have to do is to how to write a review for a, explain what it is and what is wrong with it. This is easy enough. * Rebut conservative arguments. This is my most important prescription. Liberals win political victories through rational debate. But after a victory is won, liberals tend to buy a, drop the issue and move along.
As a result, whole generations have grown up without ever hearing the arguments in book, favor of, for example, Social Security. Instead they have heard massive numbers of resolved conservative arguments against liberalism, and these arguments have generally gone unrebutted. A Review For A? In order to save civilization, liberals need a new language, one in papers, which it is easy to express rebuttals to the particular crop of conservative arguments of the last few decades. And the write way to uw thesis, invent that language is just to start rebutting the arguments, all of them. This means literally dozens of new arguments each day. Do not assume that rebutting conservative arguments is write a review book, easy, or that a few phrases will suffice. An Essay Human Discussion? Do not even assume that you know what is wrong with the conservative arguments that you hear, or even indeed what those arguments are, since they are often complicated and confusing in their internal structure. Do not just repeat a stock response that worked for some previous generation of liberals, because your audience has already heard that response and already knows what the counterargument is. Conservative rhetors have invested tremendous effort in working around liberals' existing language.
In the old days, racists were racists and polluters were polluters. But those old labels do not win arguments any more. A Review Book? Liberals must now provide new answers in plain language to the questions that ordinary citizens, having heard the arguments of conservatism, now have. Requirements? Do environmental regulations work? Why do we protect the civil liberties of terrorists? Are liberals anti-American? What do we need government for anyway? * Benchmark the how to a review book Wall Street Journal. The Wall Street Journal's opinion page is the most important conservative publication, and it is often described as a bulletin board for the conservatism. A better metaphor, however, would be a war room. Sur La? Day by day, the Wall Street Journal's editors detect liberal arguments coming over the horizon, and how to write a review, immediately they gather up and distribute the arguments that conservatives will need to rebut them.
Since the retirement of buy a descriptive essay its late editor Robert Bartley, the Journal's opinion page has become more sophisticated. Write For A Book? The crude lies and belligerent irrationality of the Bartley era have not disappeared, but they have certainly been attenuated. Daniel Henninger in particular does something interesting with clouds of associations that are subrational but not quite fallacious. Liberals should not imitate the essay untuk beasiswa antireason of the Journal or other distribution channels of a review book conservative opinion. Instead, as part of the 10000 for term papers hard work of inventing democracy, it will be necessary to tell the difference between methods that liberals ought to be applying in how to for a, their own work, such as the buy a descriptive day-to-day rebuttal of arguments, and methods that liberals need to analyze and place in how to book, the same category as the 10000 ideas for term priesthood of Egypt. * Build a better pundit. Political pundits in the media today are overwhelmingly conservative, and the few liberal pundits are overwhelmingly journalists rather than ideologists. It is difficult to identify a single pundit in the media who consistently explicates liberal ideology. It is time to build a democratic punditry. To start with, everyone in a modern democracy ought to receive practical instruction in the communication genres of the mass media. There is no reason why every student cannot learn to write a clear 700-word op-ed column that traces an arc from a news hook to some ideology to a new and write for a, useful argument that wins elections.
A society in which the average citizen writes an occasional op-ed column would certainly be a step toward democracy. But even if the uw thesis skills of punditry are widespread, there is no substitute for professional pundits who can make brand names of themselves in the media, and write for a, talented people will not make careers out of democratic punditry until they are reasonably assured of being able to make money at it. Papers? This is where think tanks and their philanthropic funders come in. Universities do not substitute for think tanks, because research is quite a different activity from punditry. Simply put, professional pundits need a wide variety of write for a fallback options between media gigs. Conservative pundits grow fat on conflict, their own think tanks, and for a book, liberals need their own war rooms of democratic reason. * Say something new. Conservative rhetors win audiences largely because the things they are saying seem new.
People who read them or listen to them continually get the impression that they are being informed. If news and opinion editors seem biased against liberals, one reason is simply that liberals are not delivering the goods. Whenever you get ready to express a political opinion in the media, first ask whether you have ever heard that opinion in the media before (as opposed, for example, to scholarly works). If so, figure out what the counterarguments are -- because there will be counterarguments -- and then proceed to base your column on the counterarguments to that. Buy A Descriptive Essay? Get ahead of the curve. Democracy requires that the a review for a great majority of citizens be capable of logical thought. The West, starting with the Greeks, has always taught logic in a narrow way. Logic does include the syllogism, but it also includes a great deal of buy a essay savoir faire about what constitutes a good argument, a good counterargument, and a good counterargument to how to write a review book, that.
In particular, the uw thesis requirements citizen must have a kind of map of the how to a review book arguments. A caller to contoh essay beasiswa, Rush Limbaugh said that liberals can't do the write for a book arguments, and he was right. Existing curricula on critical thinking are unfortunately very weak. They should be founded on close analysis of actual irrationality. Many on the left unfortunately abandon reason because they believe that the actual basis of politics is something they call power.
People like this have no notion of what power is. For example, they will argue that reason is useless because the powers that be will not listen to buy a descriptive essay, reason. This is confusion. The purpose of how to write reason is not to petition the authorities but to help other citizens to cut through the darkness of conservative deception. Others on the left believe that reason is the property of the elite. For Term Papers? This is true historically, but that is write, simply because the essay untuk beasiswa essence of conservatism is to deprive the common people of the capacity to engage in how to write book, democracy. Many bad theories of democracy actually reinforce conservatism, and this is one of them. Similarly, others on the left argue that requiring politics to be based on reason tilts the playing field in favor of the elite.
This is historically true as well, and politics based on money does the same thing. But that is uw thesis, reality. The fact, again, is that democracy needs the citizenry to be educated, and a review, the skills of reason are the foundation of democratic education. Democracy cannot be established in any other way. Aristocratic rule is not reinforced by the use of reason. The situation is untuk, quite the reverse: in order to fight off democratic values, conservatism must simulate reason, and pretend that conservative deception is itself reason when it is not.
Many conservative pundits, George Will and Thomas Sowell for write a review example, make their living saying illogical things in a reasonable tone of voice. Democracy will be impossible until the great majority of an essay human understanding discussion citizens can identify in reasonable detail just how this trick works. * Conservatism is the problem. Contemporary conservatism's discourse is engineered with tremendous sophistication to get past the specific arguments that liberals know how to make. Conservative strategists, moreover, are willing to achieve their goals incrementally, depending on the arguments that liberals are capable of how to write making at a given moment. Of course it is harrison conflict, important for liberals to make the arguments against each increment. But it is more important to explain what conservatism is in general, and then to explain what is wrong with it. For example, I once heard Rush Limbaugh discussing with a listener how school vouchers were just a conservative tactic, and how conservatives' real goal was to eliminate public funding for education altogether. This is the sort of thing that loses elections, and yet I have never heard a liberal pundit discuss it. The extreme nature of conservatism -- not just the how to a review for a extremity of its rhetoric but the oppressiveness of its prescriptions for society -- is clear enough in the conservatives' own literature, but American culture no longer has the categories to identify what it is. Harrison Bergeron Resolved? Indeed, one can hear fascism, never mind conservatism, on the radio any day of the week.
But Americans have mostly forgotten what fascism even is, so that they can listen to fascist rhetoric and it will actually sound kind of fresh. * Critically analyze leftover conservative theories. Liberal ideology is in disarray. After all, conservative ideology has dominated human thought for thousands of years, and it takes concentrated effort to liberate oneself from it. Such intellectual liberation will never happen without a detailed history of conservative theories -- which is to say, the ways in which these theories have been designed to subordinate people's minds to how to write a review, a hierarchical social order dominated by an aristocracy. Lacking such a history, liberal ideology draws in random and confused ways on conservatism, giving it a sentimental update without particularly changing it. Or else liberalism spins out into something wishfully called radicalism, which at best inverts conservatism into something that does not work as well and does not liberate anyone either. A genuine tradition of an essay concerning human discussion liberatory social thought does indeed exist, but it must be disentangled from how to write for a book its opposite. As an example, let us consider the notion of social capital, which has been fashionable among both conservatives and harrison, liberals for some time now.
The conservative version of the social capital is a medieval ideology that justifies the hierarchical conservative order in terms of the values of community. This medieval notion of community is particularistic in nature: everyone in write a review book, a community is 10000 ideas for term, knitted to everyone else through a system of roles and relationships into which they are born, and which they supposedly accept and love. This network of a review for a book relationships is made to uw thesis requirements, sound harmonious, and objections to it are made to sound divisive, by neglecting to mention the oppression of the life-long hierarchical bonds that make it up. This is the kind of society whose passing Tocqueville lamented, and that is at the core of modern conservatism in authors such as Robert Nisbet. For Nisbet, modernity could only be understood in a negative way as an erosion of the particular types of community and order that traditional institutions provided. This is how to write, what many conservatives mean when they value social capital, regret its decline, and an essay understanding questions, urge its revival. This notion of social capital should be contrasted, for example, with Ernest Gellner's notion of the how to for a book modern democratic citizen as modular, that is, as capable of bergeron conflict resolved moving about within the society, building and rebuilding relationships and how to, associations of diverse sorts, because of a set of social skills and social institutions that facilitate a generalized, dynamic mobility. The modular citizen gets a place in descriptive essay, society not through birth or the bonds of an inherited order but through a gregarious kind of entrepreneurial innovation.
The difficulty with too many liberal notions of social capital is that they are oblivious to how to book, the tension between conservatism and democracy. As a result, they are vague and ambiguous as to the nature of social capital, how it might be measured, and what kinds of institutions might erode or encourage it. An Essay Human Understanding Discussion? For example, a theory of social capital that locates it in plain numbers of social network connections is for a book, insufficient because it undervalues social skills and harrison resolved, overvalues particularistic forms of community that are not adaptive in a dynamic modern economy. This is how liberals end up quoting Tocqueville and sounding indistinguishable from conservative theorists of intermediary institutions. Social capital is just one example of how to write a review book a general crisis of liberal ideology. The first step in for term papers, resolving this crisis to get clear about what conservatism is and what is wrong with it. Post-sixties, many liberals consider themselves to be watered-down Marxists. They subscribe to a left-to-right spectrum model of politics in which they, as democrats, are located in some hard-to-identify place sort-of-somewhat-to-the-left-of-center, whereas the Marxists have the high ground of a clear and definite location at the end of the spectrum. These liberals would be further out on the left if they could find a politically viable way to do it. Conservative rhetors concur with this model, and indiscriminately calling liberals communists is back in style.
This is all nonsense. Marxism is not located anywhere on a spectrum. It is just mistaken. It fails to describe the real world. Attempts to implement it simply created an ugly and shallow imitation of conservatism at its worst. Democracy is the right way to for a book, live, and human questions, conservatism is the wrong way. Marx was a brilliant analyst for his time. His analysis of technology's role in the economy was wholly original.
He was the first to analyze the structural dynamism of a capitalist economy. But his theory of modern society was superficial. It overgeneralized from the situation of its time: the how to a review book recent discovery of economies of scale, crude market institutions, no modern separation of ownership and control, and a small middle class. Marx followed the political economy of his day in analyzing markets as essentially independent of the state. But this is not remotely the case. One difficulty with Marx, which is the topic of a vast literature, is that his theory requires a periodization of history that does not correspond to historical reality. Capitalism, for example, is supposed to descriptive, be a discrete totality, but claimed starting dates for this totality range across a good four hundred years. His economistic analysis of society, though indisputably productive in the way that many powerfully wrong ideas are, makes history seem more discontinuous than it is.
In fact, the write relationship between conservatism and democracy is more or less constant throughout thousands of years of history. One evidence of contoh essay beasiswa this, for example, is Orlando Patterson's stunning discovery that Western notions of freedom were invented by former slaves in the ancient world and how to write a review book, have remained more or less constant ever since. In economic terms, Marx's theory is mistaken because he did not analyze the role the capitalist plays as entrepreneur. The entrepreneur does an important and 10000 papers, distinctive type of work in inventing new ways to bring together diverse factors of production. Now in fact the nature of how to a review book this work has remained largely hidden throughout history for a wide variety of reasons. Because Marx had no notion of it, the capitalist's profit seemed to him simple theft. It does not follow, though, that entrepreneurs earn all of their money. The theories of mainstream economics notwithstanding, serious how-to manuals for entrepreneurs are quite clear that the entrepreneur is trying to identify a market failure, because market failures are how you make money. The relationship between entrepreneurship and the state is much more complicated than economics has even tried to an essay human questions, theorize. Capitalists, moreover, are not a class. Particular networks of capitalists and other well-off or otherwise connected personages may well try to constitute themselves as an aristocracy, but this is a phenomenon with several more dimensions than just economics.
Nor is Marxism of any use as politics. All that Marx offered to people who worked in how to write a review, deadening factory jobs was that they could take over the factory. Human Understanding? While unions and collective bargaining exist in many contexts for good economic reasons, they are an essentially medieval system of negotiations among orders and classes. They presuppose a generally static economy and society. They are irrelevant to knowledge-intensive forms of work. How To Book? Nor do they provide any kind of harrison resolved foundation for for a book democratic politics. People want their kids to be professionals, not factory workers, and democracy helps people to an essay human understanding discussion, knit themselves into the complicated set of institutions that enable people to write for a book, build unique and descriptive, productive lives.
Despite all of the for a conservative attacks, American English remains a useful language. So use it, and learn to 10000 ideas for term papers, say democratic things in it. There is a style of academic theory-talk that claims to be advanced and how to a review, sophisticated but actually lacks any precision. Privilege, for example, is not a verb. If new words are needed and are actually good for contoh essay beasiswa analyzing the deception of conservatism or the invention of democracy, go ahead and write a review, teach them. Integrate them into the vernacular language. While you are at it, forget the whole strategy of the counterculture. Sur La? Be the culture instead. * Stop surrendering powerful words. Many liberals abandon any word that conservatives start using.
That means, since conservatives systematically lay claim to every word of the English language, that liberals have been systematically surrendering powerful words such as family, nation, truth, science, tradition, and religion. This has made it increasingly difficult for liberals to how to write a review for a, explain what they believe. There is no alternative: if conseratives have been twisting a powerful word, then you have to explain in concise American English what the word really means and how the conservatives have distorted it. Contest the signifiers. Use the words. * Tipper Gore is right. Snoop Dogg's music really is garbage. Some liberals, however, argue that racists hate rap and so therefore any disapproval of rap abets racism. This is bad logic and stupid politics.
If racists hate rap then the logical, rational, politically efficacious thing to do is to uw thesis, say that some rap is good and how to a review, some rap is bad, and that good rap is an art form like any other, and that the bad rap exists because the people who rap it are bad people. Do not be afraid of losing contact with young people. If all you know about youth culture is essay untuk, Snoop Dogg, then I suppose it is time for some focus groups. Use the focus groups to identify language that Martin Luther King would approve of. Besides, there is plenty of how to write for a good politics in mass culture, as cultural studies professors have explained at length. Nor should you be afraid of losing campaign contributions from the entertainment industry.
The Hollywood moneybags will keep funding liberal candidates for the simple reason that many conservatives really do support censorship, where liberals do not. That said, there is certainly a disconnect between some liberal entertainers and the liberals who win elections. Some entertainers are willing to get up on stage and 10000 ideas for term, embarrass John Kerry. Scorn them. * Assess the sixties. Make a list of the positive and lasting contributions of the sixties. Americans would benefit from such a list. The spiritual leader of write a review modern liberalism, Martin Luther King, taught nonviolence. This has been narrowly construed in terms of not killing people. But, as King made clear, it has other meanings as well.
You have to love your enemies. This is difficult: the reality of conservatism is so extreme that it is difficult even to sur la didactique, discuss without sounding hateful. How To Write A Review? There is also an intellectual dimension to nonviolence. Nonviolence means, among other things, not cooperating in the destruction of conscience and language. Nonviolence implies reason. Analyze the various would-be aristocracies, therefore, and explain them in plain language, but do not stereotype them. Nonviolence also has an epistemological dimension. Few of us have the skill to hate with a clear mind.
Conservatism is very complicated, and you cannot defeat it by shouting slogans. This is the difficulty with Michael Moore. He talks American, which is good. But he is not intellectually nonviolent. He is not remotely as bad as Ann Coulter, and liberals have criticized him much more thoroughly than conservatives have criticized Ann Coulter. Uw Thesis? But he is not a model for write book liberal politics. There is concerning understanding discussion, no doubt that Martin Luther King would be in George Bush's face. But how? That is why liberals need a language. * Tell the taxpayers what they are getting for their money. Civilization requires a substantial number and how to book, variety of public services, which in turn require moderate and reasonable amounts of taxes.
Despite decades of conservative rhetoric, a majority of Americans are perfectly happy to pay their taxes. Essay? And yet liberals keep letting conservatives clobber them with rhetoric that makes taxes sound like a bad thing. It is time for liberals to write a review, stop losing this argument. To start with, do not talk about harrison resolved, amounts of how to write for a book money (we should spend $15 billion on harrison bergeron, health care). Instead, talk about what the how to for a book money buys (we should provide medical care to 15 million children). An Essay Concerning Human Questions? And stop letting Bush call his tax policies tax cuts: he is not cutting those taxes; he is just postponing them. * Make government work better for small business. The market continually undermines both conservatism and democracy. Both systems must continually improvise to accommodate it. The difference is that conservatism pretends to be a timeless order whereas democracy is all about experiment, innovation, and how to write for a, entrepreneurial culture.
Conservatives have historically tried to include entrepreneurs in their coalition, even though conservatism is almost the opposite contoh beasiswa, of the cultural conditions of how to for a book a modern economy. A certain amount of tension between democracy and the market is indeed irreducible. But a great deal has been learned about markets and their relationship to government, and essay untuk, the democratic culture of innovation can reduce the unnecessary tensions between small business and government while providing for social values such as urban design, consumer information, and the environment. An excellent example of how to write for a this is duplicative paperwork. Small business people must often fill out requirements dozens of forms for various government bureaucracies. This is a significant expense. These forms should be combined and given a clean and unified interface. The bureaucracies, however, each analyze things in their own incompatible ways, and so the forms cannot simply be merged. Like much of democracy, this is an interesting design matter. * Clone George Soros. George Soros is an excellent citizen.
Conservatism has gotten so out of write book sync with the conditions of a modern economy that significant numbers of wealthy people, especially young entrepreneurs who live and breathe the liberal culture that makes successes like theirs possible, would be happy to help build the institutions that a democratic society needs. What is needed right now are institutions that train people to win arguments for democracy in the mass media. Antireason has become thoroughly established in the media, and it will take real work to invent languages of reason that are fresh and cool. And this work just costs money. * Build the Democratic Party. Your model should be Pat Robertson. He is as extreme on the right as anybody in understanding questions, the United States is on the left. Yet his people took over large parts of the Republican Party.
They did this in three ways: laboriously designing a mainstream-sounding language, identifying large numbers of how to talented activists and training them in the day-to-day work of issue and party politics, and building their own communications systems. Liberals should do the same. Now, many liberals argue that the Democratic Party would magically start winning again if it would only move to the left. This is lazy nonsense. The Democratic Party has moved to the right for the simple reason that liberals do not have a language that wins elections.
To take over the Democratic Party, liberals need to replace the left-wing policies that do not work and, for the policies that do work, get a language that moves 51% of likely voters to vote Democratic. Other liberals argue that the Democratic Party, and the system in harrison bergeron conflict resolved, general, are irretrievably broken, and how to book, that they must build a third party, such as the Green Party with its endorsement of buy a descriptive essay Ralph Nader. The difficulties with this notion are hard to count. Write A Review Book? For one, splitting the left is a certain recipe for centuries of aristocratic domination. For another, building a party with only people who share your opinions to buy a descriptive, the nth degree is a certain recipe for factionalism and isolation. For another, the Green Party is a chaotic mess that has no serious chance of becoming a mass-based political party. Life under aristocratic domination is horrible. The United States is blessed to have little notion of what this horror is like. Europe, for example, staggered under the weight of its aristocracies for thousands of years. European aristocracies are in decline, and a review for a book, Europe certainly has its democratic heroes and its own dawning varieties of civilized life, and yet the psychology and institutions that the aristocracies left behind continue to make European societies rigid and blunt Europeans' minds with layers of internalized oppression.
People come to America to get away from all of that. Conservatism is essay untuk, as alien here as it could possibly be. Only through the most comprehensive campaign of deception in how to a review for a book, human history has it managed to establish its very tentative control of the country's major political institutions. Conservatism until very recently was quite open about the buy a essay fact that it is incompatible with the modern world. That is right.
The modern world is a good place, and it will win.
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