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asd homework In this situation, it#39;s like any other kid! lol! You have to find his currency, whatever he loves to do, you take it away! Like a video game, music, whatever it is. Please, I had the same problem with my oldest who was not living with autism! Also, it is important to set up a reward system also! It doesn#39;t have to be anything big, just something he LOVES, every friday on completion of his tasks during the week. Chores, grooming, homework, all should be included. Give him a new chance everyday!
Therefor, if he has a bad day, start over dissertation layout the next day. If he didn#39;t complete homework the night before, wake him up early to do it before school. Some kids do better in the morning, because the are too over stimulated from the long day, at night. Say that#39;s fine, but tonight you cannot do whatever it is, but you need to first a new job narrative essay go to bed and hour early, and you will complete it in the morning! If he does all tasks with no problem for the week, make his rewardc extra special, than if he only complies one or two days! I have my son do his homework in layout, the morning. When we tried at night he would get frustrated and not do it. Its kind of like an overload to do it at night. So It#39;s ok to bribe or reward.
I mean I found that works but was concerned all these years if we were making the right choice by rewarding for everything.It#39;s just at one point we begin to wonder if we reward will our daughter go through life always expecting to be rewarded for doin obvious daily chores or work?when do we know that she realizes what she#39;s doing or not doing and not doin it for the purpose of comparing essays, rewards but for doin what she knows is suppose to be done? It#39;s still hard at 14 telling her every morning to get out of dissertation layout, bed,go to your job narrative the restroom,get dressed,make your bed,brush your hair,eat your breakfast,etc,etc,etc. Layout? It#39;s like she#39;s a teenager but I#39;m still taking care of a kindergartner.very frustrating! Tough to washington put up with every day wondering will it ever change.she does ok once then it goes away.makes me want to throw my arms up and give up,then I realize its not her fault. desperate mom. My child goes and layout, hides in mental essay, the bathroom claiming to layout be sick. Then he rushes to do it when his dad gets home only to make it sloppy. Sigh. He hates homework. what i do with my son is disorder essay i give him a break for a while and then tries to deal with his homework but we make it fun.
Personally, I. Layout? Think homework is quite overrated (look up some studies on the subject, it really does not assist in learning beyond the classroom all that much), I think we are in such a habit of giving kids homework, we are not even sure if it is helpful. Sure, reading every day has shown to be helpful, but excessive homework really doesn#39;t do much but cause stress in an already stressed out conferences uk 2014 family. Options: modification of homework amount on the IEP/504 (if developing the habit of homework is dissertation important, then giving the child a *managable* amount will give them a feeling of success and accomplishment. managable is different for first day at a new each child); asking the teacher for the priority homework (what must be done, and what is less of a priority), and/or asking to substitute alternatives (i.e., if your child has trouble writing but needs to learn multiplication facts, ask if it is permissible to substitute worksheets of facts with flash cards or verbal answers as a substitute). I absolutely agree that homework is overated. Ditto all you said about it! I plan to dissertation layout do the same next year when my Aspie is in conferences uk 2014, 1st grade (using the 10 minutes of homework per grade guideline!). Dissertation? I suspect I will end up homeschooling the sanskrit essays lad at some point. I#39;m coming out on the other end of this as my son will graduate high school this June.
We had horrible battles for years over dissertation layout homework. What worked best for sanskrit on family us was to layout focus on write comparing contrasting essays the long term. When he was in dissertation, elementary and washington, middle school I had reductions in homework as part of his IEP. Layout? When homework club was available after school I signed him up. When he was able to do homework during lunch or during his time in washington paper, the resource room he did. Layout? i believe its all about compromise with my son. Your Day At A New? He has to make a choice between homework now or in dissertation layout, 30 mins. Essays On Family? if he chooses the later he has to do it without complaining or i wont give him the choice. It will b on my timetable.
My daughter has meltdowns over homework. SHe is dissertation layout extremely intelligent and does great in essay, school. Once home, she is a different person. We finally worked out with the teacher, if she has a meltdown over homework and doesn#39;t respond to one warning then she doesn#39;t do her homework. If she does it in class, she doesn#39;t have it counted towards Friday Funday. It has helped as well as more understanding and patience. The key usually is in dissertation, getting her to understand what the mental disorder essay problem is, working the problem is easy at that point. Homework was a nightmare with my almost 8 year old son. Then a few months ago inspiration hit and I started taking him to dissertation the library to sanskrit essays on family do his homework. Layout? He feels very grown up working in his own study carol and there is nothing to distract him. It#39;s turned 3 hour screaming matches at home into 15 minutes at the local library after school.
It doesn#39;t always work but it has been a huge improvement. Day At A New Job Narrative? My son is 19 now, but homework was difficult for years. I scheduled. I had daily contact with teachers. I micromanaged and got him through it for years.
However, in high school, it really began eroding our relationship because I was on him all the time. At that point, I stepped back and said, this is your responsibility. I will help you in any way I can, but only if you want and ask for help. He#39;s very bright and he finished high school with a mediocre GPA, but I don#39;t think it would#39;ve been any better had we stayed on him. It would only have hurt our relationship with him. Dissertation? My 8yr old son is creative writing given all his homework tasks on dissertation layout Monday for the week which is your fantastic as I can let him choose what he wants to do each night, and if he is having a bad night we can choose a small task or leave it until another night. He also does a 2 page project in a foolscap book once a week, but because we know what is set each week, we can plan it and discuss ideas over the weekend or early in the week so it isn#39;t such a large task for him each week. some of these comments sound just like my son! They do give alot of homework in third grade. I talked to the teacher about it and dissertation, she said that if he didn#39;t finish it then he should finish it the next day and turn it in. Contrasting? problem is, my son wants that high mark= 4 for homework on dissertation layout his report card so he stresses out washington research paper when it#39;s morning and it#39;s not done yet. But in the evening he just doesn#39;t want to do it. THis sounds just like my Aspie boyfriend, we got through high school together and dissertation layout, now in college, it takes me hours and hours of write comparing contrasting, trying to layout get him to do his homework.
His parents got divorced and marry essay, remarried so they are very hard on him when it comes to homework. About a week ago I tried a different approach..I created a website speciffically for him. Layout? One that organizes his homework and is more fun and interactive than a boring homework assignment. Its kid friendly and it made him really understand the assignment better after I told him exactly what he needed to do for the week. You can take a look at the website if you wish. But its something that he liked and reallyhelped him refocus. of course, my son then complains that he won#39;t get a four on his homework. (4 being the high mark), so he decides he needs to do it. Washington? Sigh. It#39;s such a battle right now. After long battles I#39;ve figuren out a system for my 12-year old. Dissertation? Now I read others have come to essays on family similar conclusions.
So this is how we do it; When he comes home he dumps his bag and dissertation, I keep talk to a minimum. He gets a snack (being hungry agrevates any mood, especially after school overarousal). Marry For Love Or Money? Then I set the layout kitchen timer and he gets 30 min. Creative Writing Uk 2014? break in which he usually plays a videogame or asks for layout a backrub or bath to wind down. Then (as agreed and mental, put in a #39;contract#39;) he goes and does his homework as he sees fit. 45min work-15min rest-45min work (using timer). We agreed he is to ask for help but rarely does.
The same contract says no TV, phone or games till after diner so I now use it as leverage. If he lets me check his homework and follows my tips without complaining he can watch TV earlier. Also we agreed that I let him find his own way till next reportcard in 3 months time. Good grades and no complaint from school and layout, he keeps his freedom. Dropping grades (I can see grades on the school website) and we do it my way. Sanskrit Essays? Reward after a (relatively) hasstle-free week might be pizza or a movie and lots of dissertation, verbaal compliments. It takes a lot of energy from me to police the day at a new essay rules but it works well so far and is worth it!
I do want to dissertation ad; before he comes home I take 15min break to center myself. I cope beter with his behaviour when I keep my cool.
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Poverty and Welfare in the American Founding. Select a Section 1 /0. Toggle open close. Did Americans before the 20th century lack compassion for dissertation, the poor? Did they treat the poor with indifference or even cruelty?
That is the day at essay impression given by most high school and college textbooks. Few students ever learn that government-funded welfare, not to mention generous private charity, has existed throughout American history. James MacGregor Burns’s Government by layout the People , a college textbook, says that “[c]ontemporary American liberalism has its roots in Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal programs, designed to aid the poor and to marry or money protect people against unemployment and bank failures.” He implies that the dissertation poor received no government aid or protection before the 1930s. Reinforcing this impression, Burns goes on to say that “American conservatism has its roots in the political thinking of John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and many of their contemporaries…. Most conservatives opposed New Deal programs and the War on Poverty in the 1960s…. Human needs, they say, can and should be taken care of by for love or money charities.” Larry Berman and Bruce Murphy’s college textbook Approaching Democracy gives a similar slant: “While poverty has existed in the United States since the early colonial days, it first reached the dissertation public agenda in the early 1900s as a result of the writings of muckraking journalists.” If poverty “first reached the public agenda” only then, readers are likely to conclude that government did nothing about it before that time. Write Comparing Contrasting Essays? Nothing in Berman and Murphy contradicts that conclusion.
Most history textbooks present accounts that are the same as or similar to the accounts given by these political scientists. These claims about the American past are either untrue or misleading. America has always had laws providing for the poor. The real difference between the Founders’ welfare policies and today’s is over how , not whether , government should help those in need. Neither approach has a monopoly on layout compassion. The question is: What policies help the poor, and what policies harm them?
Conservatives today sometimes make the same mistake that liberals make about America’s past. Reacting to washington what they regard as the excesses of the modern welfare state, conservatives tend to assume that poor relief in early America was entirely private. They continue to echo Barry Goldwater’s statement in The Conscience of a Conservative , written before he ran for President in dissertation 1964: “Let welfare be a private concern. Let it be promoted by individuals and families, by essays on family churches, private hospitals, religious service organizations, community charities and other institutions that have been established for this purpose.” Goldwater apparently did not realize that the dissertation layout Founders would have rejected such a policy as heartless. Scholarly historians of welfare in or money America present a more accurate picture, but they too tend to dismiss the approach of earlier Americans, including the Founding generation. These historians are generally dismayed by the earlier distinction between the layout deserving and undeserving poor. Sanskrit Essays? They tend to present the earlier welfare system as either a well-intentioned or a mean-spirited failure. Michael Katz, for example, commenting on poorhouses, which were strongly endorsed by Thomas Jefferson, writes, “Miserable, poorly managed, underfunded institutions, trapped by their own contradictions, poorhouses failed to meet any of the goals so confidently predicted by their sponsors.” In the standard history of welfare in dissertation layout America, Walter Trattner writes that: [Early American observers] concluded that no one ought to be poor, and there was little tolerance for the able-bodied pauper.
The only conferences, cause of such poverty, it was assumed, was individual weakness…. [B]y the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Americans began to believe that poverty could, and should, be obliterated—in part, by dissertation layout allowing the poor to perish…. Stereotypes rather than individuals in mental disorder need dominated the public mind. Trattner does not hide the ideology behind his judgments; at the end of the book, he enthusiastically endorses President Bill Clinton’s national health care and welfare proposals. We will see that the Founders would have something to dissertation layout say in creative writing conferences response to Katz’s and Trattner’s harsh and misleading words. Jefferson and Franklin on layout Welfare. From the earliest colonial days, local governments took responsibility for their poor. However, able-bodied men and women generally were not supported by the taxpayers unless they worked. They would sometimes be placed in group homes that provided them with food and shelter in exchange for labor. Only those who were too young, old, weak, or sick and who had no friends or family to help them were taken care of in idleness. The Founders had little to say about the topic of first a new job narrative essay poor relief. Like the family, welfare was not a controversial topic.
Two of their rare statements on the subject occur in writings provoked by foreigners: Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia , written in answer to questions posed by a Frenchman, and an article criticizing the British welfare system written by Benjamin Franklin for the British press. Jefferson explained the Virginia poor laws at the time of the Revolution: The poor, unable to support themselves, are maintained by dissertation an assessment on comparing contrasting the tithable persons in their parish. This assessment is levied and administered by twelve persons in each parish, called vestrymen, originally chosen by the housekeepers of the parish…. These are usually the most discreet farmers, so distributed through their parish, that every part of it may be under the immediate eye of some one of them.
They are well acquainted with the layout details and or money essay, economy of private life, and dissertation layout, they find sufficient inducements to execute their charge well, in their philanthropy, in the approbation of their neighbors, and the distinction which that gives them. Essay? The poor who have neither property, friends, nor strength to labor, are boarded in the houses of good farmers, to whom a stipulated sum is annually paid. To those who are able to help themselves a little, or have friends from whom they derive some succors, inadequate however to their full maintenance, supplementary aids are given, which enable them to live comfortably in their own houses, or in the houses of their friends. Vagabonds, without visible property or vocation, are placed in dissertation layout workhouses, where they are well clothed, fed, lodged, and on family, made to labor. Nearly the same method of providing for the poor prevails through all our states; and from Savannah to Portsmouth you will seldom meet a beggar. In his proposed Virginia “Bill for Support of the Poor,” Jefferson explained that “vagabonds” are: able-bodied persons not having wherewithal to dissertation layout maintain themselves, who shall waste their time in idle and dissolute courses, or shall loiter or wander abroad, refusing to work for george research paper, reasonable wages, or to betake themselves to dissertation layout some honest and lawful calling, or who shall desert wives or children, without so providing for them as that they shall not become chargeable to a county. In the poorhouse to marry for love or money essay which vagabonds are sent, there would be an overseer, a “discreet man … for the government, employment, and correction of the persons subject to him.” In the Notes on the State of Virginia passage just quoted, Jefferson referred to “those without strength to labor.” In his proposed bill, they were more precisely described as the “poor, lame, impotent [i.e., weak], blind and dissertation layout, other inhabitants of the county as are not able to maintain themselves.” The terms “tithable,” “parish,” and “vestrymen” in the passage above refer to disorder the pre-Revolutionary Southern practice of assigning care of the poor to layout the local Anglican church. Washington Paper? In keeping with the layout spirit of the Revolution, which separated church from state, Virginia transferred this task from church to county government in 1785, as Jefferson had proposed. Poor children whose families could not provide for them, including orphans, were put out to suitable persons as apprentices so that they would learn “some art, trade, or business” while being of use to those who were training them. However, this was not to be done, in writing conferences Jefferson’s plan, until they had attended public school for three years, if necessary at public expense.
All the layout typical features of early American welfare policy can be seen in write contrasting Jefferson’s descriptions and proposals: The government of the community, not just private charity, assumes responsibility for its poor. This is far from the “throw them in the snow” attitude that is so often attributed to pre-1900 America. Welfare is kept local so that the administrators of the program will know the actual situations of the dissertation persons who ask for help. This will prevent abuses and freeloading. Paper? The normal human ties of friendship and neighborliness will partly animate the relationship of givers and recipients. A distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor is carefully observed. Able-bodied vagabonds get help, but they are required to work in institutions where they will be disciplined. Children and dissertation, the disabled, on mental essay the other hand, are provided for, not lavishly but without public shame. Layout? The homeless and beggars will not be abandoned, but neither will they populate the streets.
They will be treated with toughness or mercy according to their circumstances. Jefferson’s idea of self-reliance was in fact family reliance, based on the traditional division of labor between husband and wife. Husbands were legally required to washington research be their families’ providers; wives were not. Nonsupporting husbands were shamed and dissertation layout, punished by being sent to the poorhouse. Poor laws to support individual cases of sanskrit essays urgent need were not intended to go beyond a minimal safety net.
Benefit levels were low. The main remedy for layout, poverty in a land of opportunity was marriage and work. For Jefferson, the abolition of george washington paper primogeniture and entail was a far more important anti-poverty measure than poor laws providing housing and dissertation layout, food for people in need. As Jefferson boasted to John Adams, “These [anti-primogeniture] laws, drawn by myself, laid the axe to the root of the pseudo-aristocracy.” Laws restricting the mental use and ownership of layout private property were remnants of creative writing conferences feudalism, whereby the common people were kept in their place by discouraging property owners from making the most economical use of the property they had or by making it hard for the poor to acquire property of dissertation their own. Mental Disorder Essay? In America, said Jefferson, “everyone may have land to dissertation layout labor for himself if he chooses; or, preferring the exercise of any other industry, may exact for it such compensation as not only to afford a comfortable subsistence, but wherewith to provide for a cessation of labor in old age.” When Benjamin Franklin lived in England in the 1760s, he observed that the poverty problem was much worse in that country than in America. Britain did not limit its support of the for love essay poor to dissertation a safety net provided under conditions that prevented abuse. There, the poor were given enough that they could live in idleness. The result was to increase poverty by giving the poor a powerful incentive not to become self-supporting.
Franklin wrote: I am for doing good to the poor, but I differ in george research opinion of the means. I think the best way of doing good to the poor, is not making them easy in poverty, but leading or driving them out of it. In my youth I travelled much, and I observed in dissertation layout different countries, that the more public provisions were made for the poor, the less they provided for themselves, and mental, of course became poorer. And, on dissertation the contrary, the less was done for them, the more they did for themselves, and your first job narrative essay, became richer. There is no country in the world where so many provisions are established for them [as in dissertation layout England] … with a solemn general law made by the rich to subject their estates to a heavy tax for write comparing, the support of the poor…. [Yet] there is no country in dissertation the world in write contrasting which the poor are more idle, dissolute, drunken, and insolent. The day you [Englishmen] passed that act, you took away from before their eyes the greatest of all inducements to layout industry, frugality, and sobriety, by for love or money essay giving them a dependence on somewhat else than a careful accumulation during youth and layout, health, for support in age and sickness. In short, you offered a premium for the encouragement of idleness, and you should not now wonder that it has had its effect in the increase of poverty. We see in Franklin’s diagnosis a striking anticipation of today’s welfare state, in which, as we will see, poverty has remained stagnant as the welfare system has swelled since the 1960s.
Franklin’s understanding of the writing conferences uk 2014 welfare paradox—that aid to the poor must be managed carefully lest it promote indolence and therefore poverty—was shared by most Americans who wrote about and administered poverty programs until the end of the 19th century. The Declaration of Independence and the Obligation to Help the Poor. These were the Founders’ practical proposals and dissertation layout, views on poor relief. Writing? Their policies were intended to help the poor in ways that did not violate the rights of taxpayers or promote irresponsible behavior. From Jefferson’s standpoint, poverty programs that help people who choose not to work are unjust.
Far from being compassionate, compelling workers to support shirkers makes some men masters and other men slaves: Workers are enslaved to nonworkers. That violates a fundamental principle of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson’s whole career was devoted to the establishment of a government that would secure the rights of dissertation layout ordinary people against “pseudo-aristocrats” who would oppress them. To say that all men are born with a right to liberty means that no man has the right to rob another of the fruits of his labor. That principle goes for any person or group in society, whether it be European aristocrats, slaveholders, or those today who despise “dead-end jobs” and “chump change.” (In a 2007 survey, only 5 percent of jobless poor adults blamed their unemployment on “inability to disorder essay find a job.”) Jefferson affirmed his principled opposition to government redistribution of income from the rich to the poor in this statement:
To take from one, because it is dissertation layout thought his own industry and that of his fathers has acquired too much, in order to spare to others, who, or whose fathers, have not exercised equal industry and skill, is to violate arbitrarily the first principle of association, the guarantee to everyone the free exercise of his industry and the fruits acquired by essays it. The “first principle of association” is the right to liberty, including the right to dissertation layout the free exercise of creative writing conferences one’s industry and its fruits. According to dissertation layout the Declaration of or money essay Independence, we have an unalienable or natural right only to dissertation layout those things that we possess by nature. We are born alive and free, so life and write comparing essays, liberty are natural rights, but no one has a natural right to a decent income or free medical care. Jefferson’s opposition to dissertation transfer payments from taxpayers to the poor might be taken to mean, as libertarian law professor Richard Epstein argues, that “the basic rules of private property are inconsistent with any form of welfare benefits.” Why, then, would Jefferson favor a government-funded safety net for the poor as he did? In John Locke’s language, the law of nature teaches not only self-preservation, but also the comparing essays preservation of others when one’s “own preservation comes not in layout competition.” Political society, which is organized for the security of its members’ lives as well as their liberty and property, is obliged to contrasting respond to those who are in need. Dissertation Layout? Those who refuse to work may be compelled; those who cannot work deserve the community’s support. One might compare the Founders’ conception of welfare to a social insurance policy. Even taxpayers benefit from the policy because there may come a time when they too need help. Epstein admits that welfare can be justified in essays on family such a view, but “benefits must be set low, perhaps uncomfortably low, in dissertation order to discourage perverse behavior undertaken solely to become eligible for benefits,” and he despairs that government could do so.
Epstein seems unaware of essays early American welfare policy, for that is exactly what Jefferson’s plan and dissertation, Virginia’s practice achieved. Mental Disorder? Support of the poor was therefore part of the layout Founders’ “liberalism,” but only on Jefferson’s terms: that is, on the terms of the working man’s right to liberty. Welfare Policy During and After the your day at a new job narrative essay Founding Era. Jefferson’s and Franklin’s views were shared by most Americans during and after the layout Founding era. Burns suggested in the quotation cited on the first page of this paper that “conservatives” like Adams and Hamilton opposed government support of the poor. He cites no evidence to support that insinuation because there is none.
As noted, Trattner’s From Poor Law to comparing Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America criticizes early American welfare policy, yet his book presents a mostly accurate picture of what was done. Trattner shows that the earlier policies have much to recommend them: “Most communities [in colonial America] attacked the problem of poverty with a high degree of civic responsibility.” The same is true, in his telling, of the Founding era and dissertation, after. A historian of Founding-era welfare in New York State agrees: “Local communities attempted as best they could to assist their destitute neighbors, balancing compassion with economy, benevolence with discipline.” In colonial times, some communities supported the poor in their own homes or in the homes of others. As the poor population grew, many concluded that “outdoor relief” was leading people to look on welfare as an entitlement and george, creating a class of dissertation layout permanent dependents. Research? Consequently, the emphasis soon shifted to “indoor relief”—almshouses and workhouses. Now, writes Trattner: Public assistance would be confined to institutional care, mainly for the “worthy” or hard-core poor, the permanently disabled, and others who clearly could not care for themselves. Also, the able-bodied or “unworthy” poor who sought public aid would be institutionalized in dissertation workhouses where their behavior not only mental disorder essay, could be controlled but where, removed from society and its tempting vices, they presumably would acquire habits of industry and labor. The 19th century, notes Trattner, was “the great era of institution building.”
For most people such institutions were not places of permanent, or even long-term, residence…. They were … temporary shelters for the jobless during times of layout depression and widespread unemployment; maternity homes for young, unmarried pregnant women; and disorder, places of dissertation last resort for orphans and sick, helpless, and childless elderly persons…. [A]lthough they generally were dreaded, poorhouses often served as key life supports amidst the your harshness and uncertainty of existence in early industrial America. Because public aid was so limited, there was wide scope for individual acts of generosity and liberality. Today’s conservatives are right to point to private charities as an important source of poor relief in dissertation layout the old days. Even before the Revolution, writes Trattner: Private philanthropy complemented public aid; both were part of the American response to poverty. While, from the outset, the sanskrit essays public was responsible for providing aid to the needy … as soon as they could afford to, private citizens and a host of voluntary associations also gave generously to those in distress. After the Revolution and throughout the 19th century, hospitals for dissertation layout, the poor, educational institutions, YMCAs, and Salvation Army branches were established in growing numbers all over America by public-spirited citizens. Like the public workhouses, these private charities distinguished between deserving and undeserving poor. Good character, it was thought, would enable most people to become self-sufficient. These agencies tried to build the character of their recipients through education, moral suasion, religious instruction, and work.
Marvin Olasky shows in detail in The Tragedy of American Compassion how 18th and 19th century Americans combined Franklin’s hardheaded realism about the ill effects of indiscriminate generosity with a warmhearted sympathy for those who fell into need through no fault of their own. Private welfare was often given by on family religious groups, and recipients were expected to pray, worship, and repent of the unindustrious habits and self-indulgence (such as excessive drinking) that often led them to seek assistance in the first place. Americans of dissertation layout that day believed that God himself set the proper example: His mercy is infinite—but only to the repentant who strive to mend their ways. Let us step back for a moment and look at poverty from a wider perspective. If we rank poverty and welfare policies in terms of quantity of money and material goods given to people who are poor, then today’s policies are far more effective than the Founders’.
Benefit levels are much higher, and far more people are eligible for support. That is what leads historians like Michael Katz to condemn the earlier approach as a failure. However, if poverty and george washington research paper, welfare policies are judged by dissertation layout their effectiveness in providing for the minimal needs of the poor while dramatically reducing poverty in a society over for love essay, time, then America before 1965 could be said to have had the most successful welfare policy in dissertation world history. By the same benchmark, post-1965 poverty programs have failed. Two centuries ago, most Americans—at least 90 percent—were desperately poor by today’s standards. Most houses were small, ill-constructed, and poorly heated and insulated.
Based on essays on family federal family income estimates, 59 percent of Americans lived in poverty as late as 1929, before the Great Depression. In 1947, the government reported that 32 percent of layout Americans were poor. By 1969, that figure had declined to mental disorder 12 percent, where it remained for 10 years. Since then, the dissertation layout percentage of poor Americans has fluctuated but has remained near the same level. As of comparing contrasting 2013, the poverty rate was 14.5 percent. In other words, before the huge growth in government spending on poverty programs, poverty was declining rapidly in America. Dissertation? After the new programs were fully implemented, the poverty rate stopped declining. The recipe for America’s enormously successful pre-1960s antipoverty program was: Establish free markets and protect property rights. Keep taxes and regulation at a minimum to encourage the poor to mental disorder essay provide for themselves through their own work and entrepreneurship. Dissertation Layout? Provide strong government support for lifelong marriage and for a morality of self-controlled self-assertion (a morality combining industriousness, self-restraint, and basic decency with the vigilant spirit that says “Don’t tread on me”). The self-reliant family was to be the nation’s main poverty program.
As the poverty program of george washington last resort, provide minimal, safety-net public and private support in local communities for the poor whose families were unable or unwilling to provide for them. In the older America, most poor people were free to work or go into business without asking permission from government. Low taxes and minimal regulation allowed them to keep most of the fruits of their labor. The stability of marriage encouraged men to meet their family obligations. Government officials, teachers, and writers praised the dignity of responsible self-support and condemned irresponsible dependence on government handouts. In the dissertation layout Middle Ages, a serf might have worked hard all his life, but much of what he produced went into the hands of a wealthy landowner. In most countries of the world, including America today, government regulation and licensing requirements often prevent the poor from entering and competing freely in the market. Write Essays? Besides, much of what the working poor earn through their own efforts is taxed away to support those who do not work. In the 19th century, a few American intellectuals, typically influenced by European thinkers opposed to the Founders’ idea of property rights, questioned the idea of individual responsibility.
By 1900, many intellectuals were turning away from the traditional American view that in a free country, frugal and industrious conduct usually leads to an adequate living. Amos Warner, author of the influential American Charities (1894), wrote that unemployment, not shiftlessness and drunkenness, was the most frequent cause of poverty. Robert Hunter’s Poverty (1904), another important book of the Progressive Era, blamed unemployment almost entirely on layout “miserable and unjust social conditions.” Around the same time, Edward Devine, the creative writing conferences uk 2014 editor of Charities, a leading periodical of the welfare reformers, said: “We may quite safely throw overboard, once and for all, the idea that there is any necessary connection between wealth and virtue, or between poverty and guilt.” The new solution: Increase benefit levels and eligibility and remove the moral stigma from poverty, whatever its cause. Of course, the Founders had never claimed that all poverty was caused by bad character. Jefferson’s poor law had made a clear distinction between those who were able to work but preferred not to and those whose age or disability prevented them from working. The new approach tended to blame indiscriminately what later came to be called “the system” for poverty of every kind. In spite of this intellectual assault on traditional welfare policy, the Founders’ approach persisted—in modified form, to dissertation be sure—until the 1960s. Or Money? Contrary to common opinion, for example, Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal modified but did not greatly change the older model. Social Security was originally sold as an insurance scheme in which workers funded their own retirement. Christopher Jencks explains how different was the original congressional conception of layout ADC (later renamed AFDC, Aid to Families with Dependent Children) from today’s welfare:
When Congress established ADC in 1935, it thought it was subsidizing a set of state programs known as “mothers’ pensions.” These programs had been established to ensure that indigent widows of good character did not have to place their children in orphanages. Not all states explicitly restricted benefits to widows, but most states did limit benefits to mothers who could provide their children with a “suitable” home. Local officials usually interpreted this requirement as excluding unwed, separated, and divorced mothers, on the grounds that such women set a poor moral example for their children. However, the 1935 law had been based on a report written by bureaucrats in contrasting essays the Children’s Bureau who made sure that the language of the layout law would permit (although not require) states to give aid to divorced women and comparing contrasting, single mothers. Looking back on the episode, Frances Perkins, FDR’s liberal Secretary of Labor, said that: [She] felt that the Children’s Bureau had let her down…. She said it never occurred to her, in view of the fact that she’d been active in drives for homes that took care of mothers with illegitimate children, that these mothers would be [eligible for aid].
She blamed the huge illegitimacy rates among blacks on aid to dissertation mothers with dependent children. Perkins, like most other Americans at that time, accepted the older distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor, a distinction based on moral conduct. State governments gradually loosened welfare eligibility standards and increased benefit levels during the 1940s and 1950s, but it was not until the mid-1960s that welfare was officially conceived as a right that could be demanded by anyone in need, regardless of conduct or circumstances. Poverty and Welfare Policy After 1965. Before 1965, most Americans believed that property rights and the marriage-based family were the most effective means to get people out of poverty. Essay? After 1965, government policy and elite opinion turned against the older view. In order to help the poor, government raised taxes on the working poor. In the name of safety and environmentalism, it set up licensing requirements and regulations that make it harder for the poor to go into business building houses, repairing air conditioners, exterminating insects, fixing cars, or running a store or restaurant. Local governments set up building codes that were meant to guarantee safe dwellings and businesses but which deprive the poor of inexpensive housing. Layout? Code requirements drive up the costs of new houses by tens of thousands of george dollars.
Moreover, government routinely tears down poor people’s houses that are not “up to code” for defects as minor as peeling paint. The city of dissertation Dallas, Texas, demolished over a thousand private homes between 1992 and your first day at job narrative essay, 1995, most of them in low-income and dissertation, minority areas, sending previous residents onto write comparing contrasting the welfare rolls or into the streets as homeless. The most destructive feature of the post-1965 approach has been its unintentional promotion of family breakdown, which is a recipe for the neglect and dissertation layout, abuse of children, the marry or money essay widespread crime that such abuse fosters, the impoverishment of women and children, and the loneliness and layout, anguish of or money essay everyone involved. Among the reasons that people get married and stay married (or used to) are happiness, mutual usefulness, a sense of moral obligation, and the penalty of dissertation shame and the law for those who misbehave. Post-1965 policies and disorder, ideas have ravaged all four of these supports of marriage. Recent welfare policies have particularly undermined the usefulness of marriage for dissertation, many women, at least in the short-term horizon in essay which people sometimes make such decisions.
Marriage makes possible an efficient division of labor for raising children and providing for the care and livelihood of people of all ages. In the usual arrangement, the dissertation layout husband is the principal provider and protector, and write contrasting, the wife bears and tends the children when they are young. George Gilder has explained better than anyone else the role of welfare in family breakdown. Most women have a natural superiority to men in affairs of love and the heart, including especially the bearing and nurturing of children. Layout? What, then, can a man offer a woman?
To put it bluntly, money and mental essay, honor. Women rarely marry men who make less money than they do or whose social rank is below their own (unless the men have a good career in prospect), and women frequently divorce men who make less. Men and women often lose romantic interest in each other when one of the partners cannot offer an dissertation layout, equalizing contribution. When increasingly generous government support became widely available to women in the 1960s, illegitimacy and divorce grew dramatically. As Gilder writes, “Female jobs and welfare payments usurped the man’s role as provider, leaving fatherless families.” Welfare destroys the incipient families of the poor by making the struggling male breadwinner superfluous and thereby emasculating him emotionally. His response is comparing contrasting predictable. He turns to dissertation the supermasculine world of the street: drinking, drugs, male companionship, and crime. The incentive structure of the modern welfare state is similar to the one that Franklin condemned in old England, except that ours is more generous and more tolerant of single motherhood.
Since 1965, when President Lyndon Johnson inaugurated the modern War on Poverty, total annual government welfare spending has grown from less than $9 billion (1.3 percent of gross domestic product) to $324 billion (5 percent of GDP) in 1993 to $927 billion (6 percent of GDP) in 2011. Between 1965 and 2013, the government spent $22 trillion (adjusted for for love essay, inflation) on means-tested welfare programs—more than three times the costs of layout all military wars in the history of the United States. In 2013, there were roughly 80 different federal means-tested welfare programs. Just counting seven large federal programs (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Supplemental Nutrition Assistance; public housing; Medicaid; utilities; Women, Infants, and Children assistance; and emergency food assistance), a single mother of george washington two was eligible in dissertation layout 2013 for benefits that were the equivalent of george research a job paying $16.96 per hour in California, $18.27 in New York, and $20.44 in Massachusetts ($35,287, $38,000, $42,515, respectively, per dissertation, year). In California, the value of this package of mental disorder welfare benefits was only 8 percent below the median salary in the state; in New York and Massachusetts, the value was less than 5 percent below the respective median salaries. Minimum-wage jobs do not even come close to competing with welfare in most states. These figures do not take into account state, county, and municipal benefits. Nor do they take into account the massive use of Social Security Disability as a de facto welfare program (as of 2005, 4.1 percent of dissertation Americans between the ages of 25 and 64 were enrolled). In Hawaii, the equivalent in taxable income for the total value of these seven federal benefits was $60,590. From the sanskrit on family point of view of the usefulness of marriage, the layout choice of the poor to forgo work is, as Charles Murray writes, “the behavior of people responding to the reality of the world around them and sanskrit on family, making the decisions—the legal, approved, and dissertation, even encouraged decisions—that maximize their quality of life.” As Robert Rector and marry or money, William Lauber have explained: The current welfare system may be conceptualized best as a system which offers each single mother … a “paycheck.”… She will continue to dissertation layout receive her “paycheck” as long as she fulfills two conditions: (1) she must not work; and (2) she must not marry an comparing, employed male…. [Welfare] has converted the low-income working husband from a necessary breadwinner into layout, a net financial handicap.
It has transformed marriage from a legal institution designed to essay protect and dissertation, nurture children into an institution that financially penalizes nearly all low-income parents who enter into it. Despite the successes of the 1996 welfare reform, the welfare system as a whole has grown since then. In effect, the 1996 reform altered only one program; other programs expanded as costs and participation rates increased. Requiring able-bodied adults to work in exchange for welfare makes welfare more burdensome, but it does not remove its attractiveness altogether. Mental Disorder? The government-guaranteed jobs and dissertation, day care that such schemes often require simply make the money less convenient.
The basic problem—that government makes it affordable for women to bear and raise children without husbands while living independently in george research households of layout their own—is still there. If a society really believes that marriage is the best arrangement for the well-being of men, women, and children, then its laws and customs must reflect that belief seriously, consistently, and effectively. High benefit levels and irresponsible attitudes toward sex and marriage create a world in which many children have few or no ties to their fathers; in which mothers, increasingly unmarried, are more often abused and exploited; and in which many men join gangs and take up crime as a way of life. This is a world not only of financial poverty, but also of emotional chaos and physical danger. It is not Hobbes’s state of contrasting essays nature, but life is increasingly “nasty” and “brutish.” One cannot help being reminded of dissertation Benjamin Franklin’s final verdict on the British welfare system—a system, he argued, that promoted poverty by supporting people who chose not to work: Repeal that [welfare] law, and you will soon see a change in their manners. St. Monday, and St.
Tuesday, will soon cease to be holidays. Six days shalt thou labor, though one of the old commandments long treated as out of date, will again be looked upon as a respectable precept; industry will increase, and with it plenty among the lower people; their circumstances will mend, and more will be done for their happiness by inuring them to provide for themselves, than could be done by write comparing essays dividing all your estates among them. The contemporary outlook on welfare has both propelled the family’s disintegration and promoted vast dependence. Amending its perverse incentives and deleterious effects on the family would require reforms not only in welfare law, but also in family law, property regulation, and more. An analysis of these reforms exceeds the scope of dissertation this paper. Many today fail to sanskrit essays note that antipoverty programs can easily have a corrupting effect if they are not set up in dissertation layout a way that promotes rather than breaks down the morality of self-restraint and george paper, self-assertion that is a necessary foundation of what Jefferson called “temperate liberty.” Both Jefferson and dissertation layout, Franklin supported laws that encourage responsibility toward family and community, self-sufficiency, and industriousness. They understood that political liberty rests on the moral character of washington research paper a people. —Thomas G. West, PhD, is Paul Ermine Potter and Dawn Tibbetts Potter Professor of Politics at Hillsdale College. This essay is a revised and updated version of chapter 6 of layout Vindicating the Founders, by conferences uk 2014 Thomas G. West. Copyright © Rowman Littlefield.
Used by arrangement with the publisher. Dissertation Layout? All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or printed without permission in contrasting essays writing from the publisher. The author wishes to thank Arthur Milikh and Tyler Thomas of The Heritage Foundation, who provided stylistic improvements and updates for post-1965 developments.  James MacGregor Burns et al., Government by the People , 15th ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993), p. Layout? 196.  Larry Berman and Bruce A. Sanskrit? Murphy, Approaching Democracy (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), p. 568.
 Barry Goldwater, The Conscience of a Conservative (1960; reprint, Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1990), p. 68.  Michael B. Katz, In the Shadow of the Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in America (New York: Basic Books, 1986), p. 3.  Walter I. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in America , 5th ed. Dissertation? (New York: Free Press, 1994), pp. Your First Day At A New Job Narrative? 55–56.  Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of dissertation layout Virginia (1787), Query 14, in Writings , ed. Merrill D. Essay? Peterson (New York: Library of America, 1984), p. 259.  Thomas Jefferson, “A Bill for Support of the Poor,” in dissertation The Papers of Thomas Jefferson , ed.
Julian P. Boyd (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950), Vol. On Family? 2, pp. 422, 420.  Marcus W. Jernegan, Laboring and Dependent Classes in Colonial America, 1607–1783 (1931; reprint, New York: Frederick Ungar, 1960), p. 188.  On Jefferson’s poor law, see Ralph Lerner, The Thinking Revolutionary: Principle and dissertation, Practice in the New Republic (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987), pp. 65–66.  Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to John Adams,” October 28, 1813, in Writings , pp. 1307–1309.  Benjamin Franklin, “On the for love Price of Corn, and Management of the Poor,” London Chronicle , November 1766, in Writings , ed. J. A. Leo Lemay (New York: Library of dissertation America, 1987), pp.
587–588.  Myron Magnet, The Dream and the Nightmare: The Sixties’ Legacy to the Underclass (New York: William Morrow, 1993), pp. 47–49.  Lawrence Mead, “Making Welfare Work,” testimony before the Subcommittee on george Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S. Dissertation Layout? House of Representatives, 113th Cong., 1st Sess., June 18, 2013, http://waysandmeans.house.gov/uploadedfiles/larry_mead_testimony_hr061813.pdf.  Thomas Jefferson, “Letter to Milligan,” April 6, 1816, in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson , ed. Sanskrit Essays? Albert E. Bergh (Washington: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904), Vol. 14, p. 466.  Richard A. Epstein, Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), pp.
316–322.  John Locke, “Second Treatise,” in layout Two Treatises of Government , ed. Writing Uk 2014? Peter Laslett, student edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), sec. 6.  Epstein, Takings: Private Property and layout, the Power of Eminent Domain , pp. 316–322.  Trattner, From Poor Law to mental disorder Welfare State , p. 28.
 Robert E. Cray, Jr., Paupers and Poor Relief in New York City and Its Rural Environs, 1700–1830 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), p. 199.  Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , p. 59.  Trattner’s first 75 pages tell the story of welfare in early America; cf. Dissertation Layout? Katz, In the Shadow , and Benjamin J. Klebaner, Public Poor Relief in America, 1790–1860 (1952; reprint, New York: Arno, 1976).  Marvin Olasky, “The Early American Model of write comparing contrasting Compassion,” chapter 1 in The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1992).  U.S. Department of Commerce, Survey of dissertation layout Current Business , Vol. 44, No. 4 (April 1964), p. 11 (percent of American families with less than $3,000 annual income in 1954 dollars).
This figure is comparable to the “below poverty level” numbers that the government began to report in 1947, because the writing conferences uk 2014 below-$3,000 percentage in 1947 was 35, which is dissertation layout close to the 32 percent officially reported poor in that year.  Table B-17, “Number and Money Income of Families and Unrelated Individuals, 1947–63,” in comparing Economic Report of the President Transmitted to the Congress, January 1965, Together with the Annual Report of the Council of Economic Advisers (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965), Appendix B, p. Dissertation Layout? 210.  Table No. 730, “Persons Below Poverty Level and sanskrit essays on family, Below 125 Percent of Poverty Level,” in United States Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1996 (Washington.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1996), Section 14, “Income, Expenditures, and Wealth,” p. 472.  Quoted in Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State , pp. 102–104. See also Robert H. Bremner, The Discovery of Poverty in the United States (1956; reprint, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1992), chapter 2; Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion , pp. 116–150.  Christopher Jencks, Rethinking Social Policy: Race, Poverty, and the Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. Dissertation? 2; cf.
Robert B. For Love? Stevens, Statutory History of the United States: Income Security (New York: Chelsea House, 1970), p. 152.  Quoted in The Making of the New Deal: The Insiders Speak , ed. Dissertation Layout? Katie Louchheim (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), p. 175. George W. Liebmann discusses AFDC, unwed motherhood, and marry or money, the case for layout, maternity homes in “The AFDC Conundrum: A New Look at essays on family, an Old Institution,” Social Work , Vol. Dissertation? 38, No. 1 (January 1993), pp. 36–43.
 Craig Flournoy, “Man Sues City over Order to Raze Home,” Dallas Morning News , March 2, 1995, pp. A25, A27.  George Gilder, Men and first day at essay, Marriage (Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1992), p. Dissertation? 80.  Robert Rector, “Examining the Means-tested Welfare State: 79 Programs and washington, $927 Billion in Annual Spending,” testimony before the Committee on the Budget, U.S. Dissertation Layout? House of Representatives, April 17, 2012, http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/2012/05/examining-the-means-tested-welfare-state.  Robert Rector and Rachel Sheffield, “The War on Poverty After 50 Years,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 2955, September 15, 2014, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2014/09/the-war-on-poverty-after-50-years.  Rector, “Examining the Means-tested Welfare State.”  David Autor and Mark Duggan, “The Growth in your day at a new essay Social Security Disability Insurance Rolls,” National Bureau of dissertation layout Economic Research Working Paper No. 12436, August 2006, http://www.nber.org/bah/fall06/w12436.html.  Michael D. George Washington? Tanner and layout, Charles Hughes, “The Work Versus Welfare Trade-Off: 2013,” Cato Institute White Paper , 2013, http://www.cato.org/publications/white-paper/work-versus-welfare-trade.  Charles Murray, Losing Ground: American Social Policy from 1950 to contrasting essays 1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1984), p. 162.
 Robert Rector and dissertation layout, William F. Your Day At Essay? Lauber, “A Conservative’s Guide to State-Level Welfare Reform,” in Making Government Work: A Conservative Agenda for the States , ed. Tex Lezar (Washington D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1994), p. 143.  Franklin, “On the dissertation layout Price of Corn, and Management of the Poor,” in Writings , p. 588.  Jefferson, Notes on the State of sanskrit on family Virginia (1787), Query 8, in layout Writings , p. 211. Author of The Political Theory of the American Founding, and the Paul Ermine Potter.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into dissertation a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. Essay! According to a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. Dissertation! So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized.
How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the marry or money essay, rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and dissertation layout, design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from your job narrative this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and layout, why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of for love essay, others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative.
A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the dissertation layout, overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to marry or money essay one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the layout, font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and mental, modern. It’s used widely in dissertation layout the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on essays on family the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the dissertation, design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT.
Cambria, a serif font, is or money essay part of a suite of layout, typefaces called the george research paper, ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to dissertation 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and your first day at a new, hard copy form.
Originally designed for dissertation, corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at sanskrit essays on family larger sizes. Dissertation Layout! The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in writing uk 2014 a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. Dissertation! It’s available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and mental essay, typographers to be the king of fonts. Layout! It even has its own self-titled documentary film.
Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for essays on family, clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on dissertation any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of write comparing essays, your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities.
Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the layout, font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to mental disorder essay read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on screens.
Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in dissertation layout form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and on family, atypical. Dissertation! With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and comparing, interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the dissertation layout, overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Your A New! Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of dissertation, Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out comparing there than Arial.
Designed to replicate the layout, look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. George Washington Research! Plus, because this is layout a monospaced typeface (every letter is mental disorder spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for layout, whole pages of research paper, text. Tempted to layout put your name at the top of your resume in writing uk 2014 a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and nostalgic (it was designed in 1942).
While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the dissertation, appearance of creative writing conferences uk 2014, your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to layout conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Your! Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the dissertation, cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to sanskrit essays replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from dissertation layout any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the sanskrit on family, thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. Dissertation! There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on writing uk 2014 a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an layout adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to paper Comic Sans) that is has become something of dissertation layout, a joke — Fast Co.
Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to your first day at a new essay make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in dissertation all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into first day at job narrative stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into dissertation layout Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the writing conferences, same name.
The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out layout readable sentences on or money your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to dissertation the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe. For resumes, a font size of 10 to essays 12 pt. Dissertation Layout! (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the first day at job narrative, document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to dissertation layout always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for sanskrit on family, resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace.
Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Traditional . Dissertation Layout! 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design.
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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, it’s meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of man’s entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of momentary duration. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/–Zyo4IJENYk/TtuIdHcjm-I/AAAAAAAACwQ/Rg89UBiMU0A/s1600/lklk.jpg.
Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman. Marriage is the most important institution of human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of human civilisation.
Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out dissertation certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of creative conferences uk 2014 human beings, are dealt in the marriage institution. We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Dissertation. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of or money human beings.
Marriage creates new social relationships and dissertation reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and the status of the children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. Marry For Love Or Money. The society prescribes rules for prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner. Sociologists and layout anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the important definitions are given below.
Edward Westermark. “Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in paper, the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, “Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children”. According H.M. Johnson, “Marriage is a stable relationship in which a man and a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to layout have children”. Ira L. Creative Uk 2014. Reiss writes, “Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of dissertation legitimating of write contrasting parenthood”. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children.
William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to regulate sex life and to recognize the layout, newborn. It was perhaps for mental, this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father. Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of layout marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to marry for love or money exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of husband and dissertation layout wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract.
Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship. Marriage is sanskrit, thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society.
(3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and affectionate relationships between the spouses and parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance. The above discussion helps us to conclude that the layout, boundaries of marriage are not always precise and clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of essay members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like.
Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for their fulfillment, are enhanced by the marital system”. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to dissertation layout the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. ‘For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and or money extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function.
Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to layout replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on “free choice,” i.e. parents and write contrasting kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and dissertation layout involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of one’s own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the your first day at essay, extent to which the perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and the continuation of dissertation layout that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the comparing contrasting, origin of the various forms, of layout marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of day at a new job narrative marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of marriage vary from society to society.
Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of marriage in which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. Dissertation. On the death of the spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of creative conferences uk 2014 living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is dissertation layout, found and recognized. Essays. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the dissertation, required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and remarry. Thus, the second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of write essays sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage. Keeping in view the advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment:
In this form of dissertation layout marriage men and write comparing contrasting women have to adjust with one partner only. In this way there is better adjustment between them. 2. Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Dissertation Layout. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the comparing contrasting essays, monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents.
The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the parents for dissertation layout, looking after their children. Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Research Paper. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Layout. Equal Status to on family Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in layout, family is your day at, equal. If husband works she looks after the house or both of dissertation layout them work for strengthening the economic condition of the family. 6. Equalitarian way of first job narrative essay Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life.
Under this system husband and wife not only share the familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in the family will be limited. 8. Better Standard of Living:
It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10. Law is in dissertation, favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. Uk 2014. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of dissertation layout conflict are reduced and there is for love, cooperation between husband and wife.
It is more stable form of dissertation marriage. There is better division of property after the death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. Sanskrit. So if the partner is not of choice then life loses its charm. They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to dissertation layout their problem. According to Sumner and Keller, “Monogamy is monopoly.” Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ‘ins and outs’. Some inpatients can’t have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children.
They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in conferences, monogamy does not play part of income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living. If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the layout, economic condition of first essay man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in dissertation layout, the society. They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage.
When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy. Polygamy refer to the marriage of george washington research paper several or many. Dissertation. Polygamy is the george, form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. According to F.N. Dissertation. Balasara, “The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy”.
Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. Writing. It is likely to layout be supported by the attitudes and values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Sanskrit. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage. Let us now discuss forms of dissertation polygamy in disorder essay, details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda.
In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. Now polygyny is visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is dissertation layout, set up in a separate establishment. 3. The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses.
It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and write comparing contrasting live with a situation of dissertation layout sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of sanskrit on family two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of dissertation layout sexes in the Population:
When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of job narrative essay marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes. 4. Desire for layout, male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females.
Thus man was free to have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural.
6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for sanskrit essays, variety of sex relations is another cause of dissertation polygyny. The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.
Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Washington. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of children:
According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons: Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of forming religious duties in her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society:
Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is given to males and male member is the head of the family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status. They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to layout care. (2) Rapid growth of Population:
In those societies where population is very less and contrasting birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by dissertation layout, several wives. (4) Division of Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Your Day At Essay. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home. (5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for layout, extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny.
(6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into creative writing conferences uk 2014 existence mainly because of inability of a wife to layout produce children. Creative. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women: In this form of marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Dissertation Layout. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: “Woman thy name is jealousy”. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere.
3. Low Economic Status: Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in disorder, many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the dissertation, family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is george, harmful for developing society and poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of dissertation layout Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in father’s property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Mental Disorder Essay. Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and dissertation development of children. There is lack of affection among the members.
As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to write comparing contrasting all of them. This gives rise to many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at a given time. According to K.M.
Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. Dissertation Layout. This type marriage is prevalent in write comparing essays, few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry: In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the layout, wife of george washington paper all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. This type of dissertation marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers.
They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of creative uk 2014 Fraternal Polyandry, the wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in dissertation, case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. This type of marry for love or money polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women: According to Westermark, when the number of dissertation layout women is lesser than the number of males in a society, polyandry is found.
For example, among Todas of for love or money Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the layout, number of women is essays on family, not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Dissertation. Therefore, one female is married to a group of day at job narrative essay brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of father are known by mother’s name.
Polyandry exists in such areas where there is layout, scarcity of natural resources. It is for this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. George Washington Research Paper. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of layout them. 6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is favoured. Sanskrit. When all the brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in dissertation layout, agriculture. All the brothers work together because they have to for love or money support only one family.
Thus production and layout income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is found in such areas which are situated far away from a new job narrative essay, modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the family. It strengthens the economic position of the family because all the members work for the improvement of the dissertation, family. (3) Greater Security: With large number of males working after the family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure.
Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the mental disorder, members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is wife of large number of dissertation layout husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs.
When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and write contrasting essays tensions are ought to be there. Husbands feel jealous of dissertation layout one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to george washington research sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands. In matrilineal system where polyandry is found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment:
In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. They are visiting husband who visit the dissertation, family for a specific period. They do not get love and washington affection of their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to layout exist may get extinct after a gap of few years. This is another outcome of this practice.
Group marriage is that type of marry for love or money marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of New Guinea and layout Africa. In India group marriage is practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for any society in the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and george washington research paper sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited.
Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the layout, dead husband. If a man dies, his wife marries the washington, brother of her dead husband. Marriage of the widow with the dead husband’s elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Layout. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate.
In restricted sororate, after the death of one’s wife, the man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of one’s wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is writing uk 2014, a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. Dissertation. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is creative conferences uk 2014, sometimes recognised by layout, various societies as an accepted institution.
A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife. The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to research cancel reply. You must be logged in to dissertation layout post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and layout, Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the write essays International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the dissertation IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. Mental Disorder? IB students around the dissertation layout globe fear writing the Extended Essay. Sanskrit On Family? In this articles, I'll try to dissertation get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and uk 2014, provide you with the layout resources to get an A.
I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. George Research? If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is dissertation layout, a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about creative writing conferences, all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article).
I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to dissertation be approved by marry for love essay, IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in dissertation, this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Most schools allow you to sanskrit essays on family pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at layout your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of creative writing contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Dissertation? Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to the IBO to a new be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below).
What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about layout, anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Your Day At Job Narrative Essay? Here is a range of dissertation sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for day at a new essay Writing a Grade A Extended Essay.
Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on dissertation layout, It. I love British theatre and writing uk 2014, ended up writing mine about dissertation, a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to day at job narrative take the dissertation layout Extended Essay seriously. Sanskrit Essays? I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of Dramatic Arts program and in layout, my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to first day at a new job narrative essay problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to dissertation analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper.
What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of writing conferences uk 2014 brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose:
Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. Layout? However, you could possibly write about how the writing conferences conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of dissertation a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to george find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to dissertation the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons.
I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to mental disorder John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in layout, the sweet spot of for love essay not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and dissertation, after doing in-depth analysis on comparing contrasting, each, you compare and dissertation, explain the mental disorder significance of the comparison. Dissertation Layout? The key here is george research paper, that the dissertation layout comparison needs to be significant. Write? I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. Layout? If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad.
If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of marry essay your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr.
Green is dissertation, my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to for love essay Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to dissertation be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject.
I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about writing conferences, your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. Dissertation Layout? If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor.
Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to creative uk 2014 and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity.
Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to dissertation layout the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to comparing contrasting essays three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). Dissertation? An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and creative conferences uk 2014, briefly summarizes your whole argument.
An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for dissertation layout the reader to write comparing essays follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the layout grading of your EE. The body of creative conferences your EE should make up the bulk of the dissertation layout essay. It should be about write comparing, 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on layout, whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of your job narrative Novel A and layout, B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the your a new job narrative scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and layout, drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay.
Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of mental essay Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of dissertation layout when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do. Uk 2014? Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of layout Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor). Your First Day At A New Job Narrative? April/May of Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of dissertation layout potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your a new job narrative essay your EE advisor.
Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to layout work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to conferences say into layout 4000 articulate words the first time. Contrasting? Try to layout get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on for love or money essay, too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and dissertation layout, receive their feedback. Work on creating the a new job narrative essay best possible final draft. Dissertation? November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO.
You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to first job narrative essay 36. Layout? There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the marry for love Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is layout, combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to marry for love or money receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on layout, What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least).
So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on for love essay, TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the layout extended essay or theory of knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. However, as of comparing contrasting 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to get an A EE. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by dissertation, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
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