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Essay report treatise dissertation

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a research essay WRITING RESEARCH ESSAYS #150; A GUIDE FOR. STUDENTS OF ALL NATIONS - PART ONE. Essay Treatise Dissertation! Table of Contents. Topic Selection and Analysis. The Research Question. Structure of a Research Paper. Should you use the Words of appendix paper format Others? What is Plagiarism?

What is Proper Research Paper Form? Appendix: Sample Papers. PowerPoint related to this site: The research essay is dissertation a common assignment in higher education. The concept of the research essay at first appears simple: But it is really not simple at all. International students often are very disappointed when they receive their first essay back from a professor.

The comments may include: Much of this material appears to be plagiarized This website will show you what professors expect from students doing research essays. Let#146;s begin with the an introduction to an essay university topic: It is obvious that a research essay must have a topic, but what sort of topic? Some professors will give you a list and report treatise dissertation ask you to choose one. Conjugaison Verbe Essayer Futur! Others will give you general guidelines only. For example, you might be taking a course on The History of the Middle Ages in Europe and essay report be told to write a paper on some important person of that period, showing how his/her life influenced the Middle Ages. The first thing you will need to assume is that your topic is likely to appendix format, be too broad, that is, it will require you to deal with too much information for one essay. If you leave the topic broad, it will be superficial. Picture it like this: You have two lakes, one small but deep, the other large but shallow. The wide but shallow lake is like a broad topic.

You can say many things about the topic, but everything you say will be at essay report treatise, a very basic or survey level. For example, if you were writing an essay on the development of industrialization in Korea, you could say many things, but you could not, for essayer example, go into in depth analysis about the effect that the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990#146;s had on the progress of essay report dissertation automobile manufacturing in Korea. The narrow lake is like taking your broad topic and choosing to deal with only one part of it, but now in depth. For example, instead of writing a history of the development of industrialization in essayer Korea, you could choose only one time period along with one industry and dissertation narrow your topic to appendix paper format, The effect of the Asian financial crisis of the treatise late 1990s on good mfa programs creative writing automobile manufacturing in essay treatise dissertation Korea. Now you have room to do more analysis and get deeper into the subject. Essay! In the academic setting, professors usually want you to narrow your topic to allow for. depth. You do this by treatise dissertation, choosing to deal with only one part of the topic, not all of it. Many students believe that the purpose of a research essay is to report on the books and articles they have read. They think the professor wants them simply to quote from or summarize what they#146;ve read so that the result is an essay that tells the reader all about the topic. This, however, is not the purpose of a research essay.

A research essay is intended to allow you to conjugaison verbe essayer, answer a question or controversy related. to the topic you are studying. How can a student develop a proper research question? Narrow your topic as described in Topic Selection and Analysis above. Use reference sources or short introductions to your topic in books to discover aspects of the essay dissertation topic that are controversial or need investigation. Develop a few possible research questions based on conjugaison essayer futur what you find in essay report dissertation reference sources. These should be one sentence questions that are simple and clear.

Choose one of these questions to be the research question for your essay. Take note that every research essay should have only mfa programs one research question. Essay Report! You do. not want to have an writing an introduction essay university essay that states, The following paper will examine __________. and will also _____________ and will also ________________. Report Treatise Dissertation! You want to deal. with only one question in any research project. Here are some examples: You start with a topic like: The history of industrial development in Korea. You choose one aspect and narrow your topic to The history of the automobile industry in Korea during the Asian Financial Crisis of the late 1990s. Then you develop a research question: Did the Asian Financial Crisis of the late 1990s bring harm or did it bring benefit to the automobile industry in Korea? For more information in narrowing topics and creating research questions, see Chapter Two of my online and print textbook, Research Strategies: Finding your Way through the Information Fog.

The way you structure or outline your research paper is very important. It must have definite sections to it: Introduction #150; The introduction serves two purposes. Silas! First, it allows you to provide the reader with some brief background information about the essay report topic. Second, it lets you state your research question. Silas Marner Coursework! Note that your research question must always be in your introduction. Report! It's best to make it the last sentence of good mfa programs creative your introduction. The Body #150; The body of the research essay is the main part. It is generally broken down into various headings that deal with aspects of your topic. It is not easy to decide what headings should be in the body or in what order they should come. You must look at your topic and ask yourself, What issues must I cover in order to answer my research question? This may mean that you need a section to describe the controversy in essay report dissertation depth, a section to answer the teratogens arguments of someone who does not agree with your position, and a section to report, make a strong case for your position being true.

Here are some examples from the topics we discussed in The Research Question above: Did the Asian Financial Crisis of the late 1990s bring harm or did it bring benefit to the automobile industry in Korea? II. Initial Effect on the Automobile Industry. III. Later Effect on the Automobile Industry. IV. Research Format! Was the Effect Positive or Negative? Was the religious conversion of Constantine genuine or only a political act?

II. Arguments that the conversion was genuine. III. Arguments that the essay dissertation conversion was only a political act? What evidence is paper format there, if any, from the Netherlands euthanasia experience that legalizing euthanasia creates a slippery slope? II. The Laws that Control Euthanasia in the Netherlands. III.

Actual use of Euthanasia Laws in the Netherlands. IV. Is there evidence that Doctors are going beyond the Controls of the Euthanasia Laws? The Conclusion #150; The conclusion summarizes your research and answers your research question. For a good example of the essay report dissertation use of resources to marner coursework, answer a research question, see the essay, Penguins vs.

Lemurs , a pdf file of a project done by Trinity Western University student Kevan Gilbert, and reproduced with permission.

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Quaid E Azam- an Architect of Pakistan. Submitted to: Sir Superman Submitted by: James Bond Degree ‘34’ Syndicate ‘CIA’ Date: 21-03-2013 CONTENTS Chapter 1 * Background * Quaid’s early life * Education Chapter 2 * Politics * Membership of Congress * Hindu-Muslim Unity * Devotion to Muslim League * Leadership of Muslims Chapter 3 * Thought of Separate Homeland * Pakistan Resolution * Gandhi-Quaid meetings * Views about Quaid Chapter 4 * Defending Policy of Quaid Chapter 5 * Formation of Federal Cabinet * Constitutional Problems * Establishment of Capital * Provincial Government Establishment of Administrative Headquarters * Foreign Affairs * Education Policy CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES 1) Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. Essay Report Treatise Dissertation. I (1936-1947) 2) Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) 3) Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). 4) Quaid’s speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947 5) Syed Hussain Imam “Sterling qualities of Quaid”. ) Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of marner coursework, Quaid-e-Azam. 7) Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986) 8) Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. 9) www. national heritage . government. pk 10) “Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. Government of Pakistan Website. 11) “Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah”. The Jinnah Society. Treatise Dissertation. 12) “Jinnah: South Asia’s greatest ever leader”.

13) BBC’s Poll for South Asia’s greatest ever leader. 14) “The Father of Pakistan”. The Most Influential Asians of the writing to an essay, Century by TIME. Report Dissertation. 15) “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Story of Pakistan.

16) “Jinnah’s speech to the Constituent Assembly of appendix paper, Pakistan”. Dissertation. 11 August 1947. 17) “Jinnah’s Thought at a Glance”. Silas. Yes Pakistan. com. 18) “Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Harappa. com.

19) “Pictures of Quaid (Album)”. Urdu Point. 20) “South Asia’s Clarence Darrow”. Chow. 21) “I Remember Jinnah”. Daily Dawn (newspaper). 22) “1947 – August”. Treatise Dissertation. Chronicles Of Pakistan ACKNOWLEDGE This research paper is dedicated to all those martyres who worked the reation of a separate home land for Muslims. Appendix Research. They helped Quaid-e-As am in treatise this great mission and gave sacrifices for our independence . They face many problems and hardships for the independence of Muslims in conjugaison the subcontinent. Dissertation. I would like to thank James Bond for assigning this topic to me. It was truly an enlightening experience for me to do research on this topic.

I would also like to thank my respected teacher Iron Man for guiding me and providing me with more than enough knowledge on this topic. The research was mainly done using the help of computers and writing to an essay university internet therefore the bibliography section may look a little empty at essay, first. But once one gets to visit these internet sites he is marveled by the amount of data provided on the respective topic. So hats off to all those people who are spending their precious time to run these enlightening websites. Without these the worth of internet would be much less in appendix research format the context of report treatise dissertation, knowledge. The main objective of this research paper is to highlights the research, efforts of the Quaid-e-As am Muhammad Ali Jinnah in essay report treatise the creation of Pakistan. This modern disease has even spread to those who live in the West but have Pakistani roots.

It is however interesting that all these critical people studied in Pakistani schools, travelled on Pakistani passports and have families in that country. Painting a realistic image of Pakistan in our young people’s minds is the conjugaison verbe, only way they can hope to have a sense of belonging to the country and the elderly generation has a duty to provide a great deal in helping such parents and essay treatise families living abroad whose roots are still fastened firmly with this land. Coming back to he topic, it is very difficult to add something new or something that is verbe essayer not known about him. Yet the essay, paradox is that the younger generation has to be reminded of silas coursework, his contribution to the history of Muslims of the Subcontinent What I want to share with you about Quaid, is not only the information from history books, magazines and films, but also what was told to me by my father and those who saw the Quaid, worked for the cause of Pakistan and treatise dissertation saw the creation of an introduction university, Pakistan. Pakistan’s story is so much linked with the life of the Quaid –e-As am that one cannot be told without the other.

So who was this great man, who with the help of his type writer and an adoring sister created the largest country for Muslims in report treatise dissertation the world in a span of rubric, few years. In his biography of titled “Jinnah of Pakistan”, the report dissertation, American historian, Stanley Wilbert, makes the following observation that so accurately describes the legacy of Quaid and his footprint on conjugaison essayer futur, history: “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three. During his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in essay treatise dissertation the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. ————————————————- ————————————————- CHAP # 1 Quaid’s Early life Background According to Sarojini Naidu, a famous Congress politician, close friend and follower of Gandhi but also author of Quaid’s first biography, Quaid’s ancestors were Hindu Rajput who converted to Islam. Jinnah’s family belonged to the Ismailia Kahoka branch of Shi’a Islam. Early Education He studied at several schools at the Sind Madras a-tool-Islam in Karachi; briefly at the Goal Das Ten Primary School in Bombay; and writing to an finally at the Christian Missionary Society High School in Karachi, where, at age sixteen, he passed the matriculation examination other University of Bombay. Higher Education in England In 1892, at the age of only report dissertation 16, he sailed to England to study and in 3 years, at age 19, he became the teratogens, youngest Indian to be called to the bar in England. During his student years in England, Jinnah came under the influence of 19th-century British liberalism, and his education included exposure to the idea of the democratic nation and progressive politics.

But later as an report dissertation, Indian intellectual and political authority, Jinnah would find his commitment to the Western ideal of the nation-state and the reality of Indian society of many religions, cultures and appendix research ethnic groups difficult to reconcile during his later political career. In 1896 he returned to India and settled in Bombay. He built a House in Malabar Hill, later known as Jinnah House. He. Like most of the report dissertation, Congress at silas coursework, the time, Jinnah did not favor outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, culture and industry as beneficial to India.

Quaid had initially avoided joining the All India Muslim League, founded in 1906 because he regarded it as too religiously oriented. However he decided to provide leadership to the Muslim minority. Hindu-Muslim Unity ; Joining Muslim League His efforts to essay work for silas marner coursework all Indians was so much respected that he was called; Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity. Eventually, he joined the Muslim League in 1913 and became the President at the 1916 session in Luck now. Jinnah was the architect of the 1916 Luck now Pact between the Congress and essay the League, bringing them together on verbe, most issues regarding self-government and presenting a united front to the British. Jinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which a temperamentally law abiding barrister Jinnah disapproved of. Treatise Dissertation. One Western journalist asked Quaid, why he never went to ontario rubric jail while all Congress leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, Patel and Baldev Singh have been in many times in prison. Quaid replies: “I am a parliamentarian.

Prison is for report treatise dissertation criminals”. Teratogens. In 1924 Quaid, officially reorganized the Muslim League and Devoted the next seven years attempting to bring about Unity among various ranks of Muslims and to develop Rational formula to effect a Hindu Muslim settlement, Which he considered the pre-condition for Indian freedom. This task was very difficult and was frustrated in the start. Balder Singh “He once remarked that every time, I put my hand in the pocket, I find forged coins, refereeing to disunity and internal fight among Muslim leaders”. Even if he was working tirelessly to report treatise dissertation unite Muslims in Hindustan, he attended several unity conferences between Congress and Muslim league. Marner Coursework. He wrote the “Delhi Muslim Proposals in 1927”, pleaded for the incorporation of the basic Muslim demands in the Nehru report, and essay report dissertation formulated the “Fourteen Points” Furthermore, in 1927, Quaid entered negotiations with Muslim and Hindu leaders on the issue of a future constitution, during the struggle against the all-British Simon Commission. The Muslim League wanted separate electorates while the about, Nehru Report favored joint electorates. Quaid personally opposed separate electorates, but accepted the report dissertation, decision of silas coursework, his party. He then drafted compromises and report treatise put forth demands that he thought would satisfy both. These became known as the 14 points of Mr.

Jinnah. Silas Coursework. However, they were rejected by essay report the Congress and other political parties. The British government called 2 Round Table Conferences in London to let Hindustani leaders to work out their differences, but talks failed. Quaid was so disillusioned by the breakdown of talks, that in 1931 he relocated to english rubric London in order to practice in the Privy Council Bar. Devotion to essay treatise Muslim League. That was a dark time for Muslims in India. But luckily, prominent Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal, the creative, Aga Khan and Chaudhary Rah mat Ali made efforts to convince Quaid to return from London to India and take charge of a now-reunited Muslim League. Report Treatise Dissertation. In 1934 Quaid returned and began to re-organize the party, being closely assisted by Liquate Ali Khan, who would act as his right-hand man.

In the mfa programs creative writing, 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly, the League emerged as a competent party, capturing a significant number of seats under the Muslim electorate, but lost in the Muslim-majority Punjab, Sind and the North-West Frontier Province. After the election success, Quaid offered an alliance with the Congress – both bodies would face the British together, but the Congress had to essay share power, accept separate electorates and the League as the representative of India’s Muslims. That was a proof of Quaid was willing to go a long way to have an independent united Hindustan where Hindus and Muslims would be equal partners. The latter two terms were unacceptable to the Congress, which had its own national Muslim leaders and membership and adhered to One India. Even as Quaid held talks with Congress president Rajendra Prasad, Congress leaders suspected that Quaid would use his position as a lever for exaggerated demands and obstruct government, and demanded that the League merge with the Congress. The talks failed, and while Quaid declared the resignation of all legislators from provincial and central offices in 1938 as a “Day of Deliverance” from Hindu domination, some historians assert that he remained hopeful for an agreement. But it was becoming clearer to Quaid and his associates that may be Congress was interested in good writing such solution.

Gandhi often said to Quaid; “Let the essay report treatise, British leave. Afterward, we can figure out a solution. Ontario. ” In one of his famous letters, Quaid asked Gandhi to be more precise as to how the power would be distributed. Gandhi replied; “My dear Jinnah, I cannot answer your questions because my inner light is report treatise not working”. Quaid wrote back; ”To hell with your inner light. Marner Coursework. Why do not you admit that you have no answer to what I am asking”? ————————————————- CHAP # 3 The Idea of essay treatise, Pakistan By the writing to an essay, way, a wish for a separate homeland for Muslims of Hindustan was in the air for some time. In a speech to the Muslim League in 1930, Llama Irbil raised the idea of an independent state for Muslims in “Northwest India”. Chaudhary Rah mat Ali published a pamphlet in 1933 advocating a state called “Pakistan”. Essay Report Dissertation. Thought of Separate Homeland Following the failure to work with the Congress, Quaid, who had embraced separate electorates and creative the exclusive right of the Muslim League to represent Muslims, was converted to the idea that Muslims needed a separate state to protect their rights.

He came to believe that Muslims and Hindus were distinct nations, with unbridgeable differences—a view later known as “the Two Nation Theory”. Quaid declared that a united India would lead to the marginalization of essay, Muslims, and eventually civil war between Hindus and Muslims. This change of view may have occurred through his correspondence with Allama Iqbal, who was close to him. Essays Teratogens. Pakistan resolution In the session in Lahore in 1940, the Pakistan resolution was adopted as the essay report treatise dissertation, main goal of the Muslim League. The resolution was rejected outright by the Congress, and criticized by coursework many Muslim leaders like Maulana Abu Kalama Azad, Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, Side Abdul Al Muddy and the Jamaal-e-Islamic. On 26 July 1943, Quaid was stabbed and wounded by a member of the extremist Chasers in an attempted assassination. During the report treatise dissertation, mission of creative, British minister Stafford Cripps, Jinnah demanded parity between the number of Congress and League ministers, the League’s exclusive right to treatise dissertation appoint Muslims and a right for mfa programs writing Muslim-majority provinces to secede, leading to the breakdown of talks. When it became clear to both British and Congress party that Quaid and report treatise Muslim League would not budge from its demand, they made a common front against him.

Gandhi-Quaid meetings. In 1944 Gandhi held talks fourteen times with Quaid in Bombay, about a united front— while talks failed, Gandhi’s overtures to Jinnah increased as a last ditch effort to avoid the partition of Hindustan. But League was becoming very representative of all Muslims. The League’s influence increased in the Punjab after the good writing, death of essay dissertation, Unionist leader Sikandar Hayat Khan in 1942. In the 1946 elections for the Constituent Assembly of India, the Congress won most of the elected seats, while the League won a large majority of Muslim electorate seats. Interim Government portfolios were announced on 25 October 1946. Muslim Leaguers were sworn in on 26 October 1946. Essay University. The League entered the interim government, but Quaid refrained from report accepting office for himself.

This was credited as a major victory for appendix format Quaid, as the League entered government having rejected both plans, and was allowed to appoint an equal number of ministers despite being the minority party. Essay. The coalition was unable to work, resulting in a rising feeling within the coursework, Congress that independence of dissertation, Pakistan was the only way of avoiding political chaos and possible civil war. Different views about coursework Quaid. Some revisionist historians like H M Serve and Ayesha Jalap assert that Quaid never wanted partition of India. It was actually the outcome of the Congress leaders being unwilling to share power with the Muslim League. It is asserted that Quaid only used the Pakistan demand as a method to mobilize support to report obtain significant political rights for Muslims. Whatever the case may be, looking at the poor situation of Indian Muslims today and their second class status, Pakistanis should be grateful that Quaid gave up the idea of a united India after the appendix paper format, British departure and insisted that Muslims in Hindustan should have their own homeland. Quaid has gained the admiration of major Indian nationalist politicians like Leal Krishna Advani whose comments praising Jinnah caused uproar in his own Bharatiya Janta Party Jessant Singh likewise praised Jinnah for standing up to the Indian National Congress and the British.

Everyone from Mount baton, Gandhi, and Nehru down to ordinary persons, friend and treatise dissertation foe all agreed that during his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to good mfa programs creative follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. In his book “Verdict on India” (1944), Beverley Nichols, the British author and journalist has a chapter; Dialogue with a Giant. Treatise Dissertation. This is about his meeting with Quaid. He wrote; “Mr. Good Mfa Programs Creative. Jinnah is in a position of unique strategic importance.

He can sway the battle this way or that as he chooses. His 100 million Muslims will march to the left, to the right, to the front, to dissertation the rear at his bidding and at marner coursework, nobody else’s. If Gandhi goes, there is Nehru or Raj opal or Paten or a dozen others. But if Jinnah goes, who is there? ” CHAP # 4 Jinnah’s Vision for Pakistan Defending Policy of dissertation, Quaid. In 1937, Quaid defended his ideology of good creative writing, equality in dissertation his speech to essays about the All-India Muslim League in Luck now where he stated, “Settlement can only be achieved between equals. ” He also had a rebuttal to Nehru’s statement which argued that the only two parties that mattered in treatise India were the British Raj and INC. ” Jinnah stated that the Muslim League was the silas marner coursework, third and “equal partner” within Indian politics. Quaid gave a precise definition of the term ‘Pakistan’ in 1941 at Lahore in which he stated: “Some confusion prevails in report treatise the minds of some individuals in regard to the use of the word ‘Pakistan’. This word has become synonymous with the Lahore resolution owing to the fact that it is a convenient and compendious method of mfa programs creative, describing it.

Whilst giving an report treatise, interview to American press representatives in July 1942, when asked by one of the journalists whether the Muslims were a nation or not, Quaid replied: “We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and creative writing architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and treatise traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all cannons of international law we are a nation. Writing To An. ” A controversy has raged in Pakistan about whether Jinnah wanted Pakistan to be a secular state or an Islamic state. His views as expressed in essay report treatise dissertation his policy speech on 11 August 1947 said: “I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to ontario english essay be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State”. Jinnah, 11August 1947 – presiding over essay report dissertation, the constituent assembly. Quaid wanted a secular state, but with Islamic principles. Appendix. The reason is that a true Islamic state is not a theocratic state “Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission.

We have many non-Muslims – Hindus, Christians, and report Parses – but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in rubric the affairs of treatise dissertation, Pakistan”. Broadcast talk to the people of the essay university, United States of report dissertation, America on good creative writing, Pakistan recorded February 1948 Inaugurating the assembly on report, 11 August 1947, Quaid spoke of an inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for all citizens regardless of religion, caste or creed. This address is a cause of much debate in Pakistan as, on its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech is being taken out of context when compared to other speeches by him. On 11 October 1947, in an address to Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi, he said: “We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play”. On 21 February 1948, in an address to the officers and teratogens men of the 5th Heavy and essay treatise 6thLight Regiments in Mali, Karachi, he said: “You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve”. CHAP # 5 Quaid-e-As am as a Governor General On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-As am Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General. He remained Governor General for thirteen months. During this period, he solved many important national issues. Some of them are mentioned as under: Formation of Federal Cabinet As soon as the Quaid-e-As am took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to run the Government affairs smoothly.

Liquate Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister. Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. This first cabinet of Pakistan took oath on conjugaison verbe essayer, 15th August 1947. Members of the report treatise, Cabinet 1. Vardar Abdul Rib Nester (Transports) 2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture) 3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education) 4. I. I Chundrigar (Industry) 5. Writing To An. Glulam Mohammad (Finance) 6. Jogander Nath Mandala (Law) 7. Report Treatise. Sir Afar Ulla Khan Adjani (Affair) Constitutional Problems The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state. Thus this great achievement was done under the administrative leadership of the Quaid-e-As am.

Establishment of Capital Karachi was made Capital of english rubric, Pakistan. Provincial Government Quaid-e-As an elected Chief Minister and Governor. Here are chief ministers of provinces: Khan Iftikhar Husain Midmost – Punjab Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn – East Bengal Khan Abdul Qayyum – N. W. F. P Mohammad AyeChurro – Sind Chief Commissioner (British) – Baluchistan Administrative Head Quarters For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhary Mohammad Aye was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established.

Moreover, Head-quarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up. An ammunition factory was also set up. Attention to Foreign Affairs Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-As am paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy. Membership of UNO After independence, Quaid-e-As am paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the essay report treatise, United Nations Organization (UNO). On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the silas marner coursework, UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-As am. Implementation of Education Policy Education plays an important role in the development of a country. It improves living standard of a nation and essay report dissertation development. Education sector also needed attention at conjugaison essayer, the time of independence. For this purpose, he held the dissertation, first Educational Conference in 1947.

He wished that every citizen of about, Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and essay national spirit. Writing To An. He made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of scientific and technological education compulsory for the students. Quaid-e-As am did a lot to improve education policy of the essay treatise dissertation, country. About. In the Service of Pakistan. Quaid-e-As am served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on going through the important files. He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption.

First Cabinet of Pakistan First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-As am. He took of essay treatise, it. Liquate Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of Pakistan. CONCLUSION In the conclusion I would like to silas marner coursework say that Quaid was great leader and essay report treatise dissertation a true Muslim and he was a real architect of Pakistan. He was great leader and he proved it by the creation of Pakistan and he is guiding star for the generation to come and he is conjugaison verbe essayer futur role model for generation to come. Limitations First of essay report treatise dissertation, all I am thankful to Allah Almighty who enabled me to make this assignment.

It is wisely said that one feels no pains after he has been successful in doing a work. But I would like to mention some as they are asked. I live in hired hostel where internet is not available. Therefore, I faced many difficulties in gathering data. Moreover, I do not have my own computer so I had to work on my roommate’s computer or on the lab computer. Research Paper. I had much burden of studies of other subjects. So, I could not give as much concentration to this assignment. I am very firstly living in hostel therefore I have time management problems. I also do not possess very vast general knowledge. Bibliography * Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of essay dissertation, Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Writing Essay. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol.

I (1936-1947) * Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) * Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. * BBC’s Poll for South Asia’s greatest ever leader. * “1947 – August”. Chronicles Of Pakistan. Essay Report Dissertation. * “I Remember Jinnah”. Daily Dawn (newspaper). “Jinnah’s speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan”. 11 August 1947. * “Jinnah’s Thought at a Glance”. Yes Pakistan. com. * “Jinnah: South Asia’s greatest ever leader”. * “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Story of Pakistan. * “Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”.

Harappa. com. * Prof. Writing An Introduction. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). * “Pictures of report, Quaid (Album)”. Urdu Point. * Quaid’s speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947. * “Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. Government of Pakistan Website. * “Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah”. Writing Essay University. The Jinnah Society. Essay Report Dissertation. Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the verbe essayer, Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986). * Syed Hussain Imam “Sterling qualities of Quaid”. * “South Asia’s Clarence Darrow”. Chow. * “The Father of Pakistan”. The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. Report. * Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. * www. national heritage . government. pk ————————————————- ————————————————- THE END… ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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The Nash equilibrium: A perspective. Edited by essay dissertation Vernon L. Smith, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, and approved January 28, 2004 (received for review January 7, 2004) In 1950, John Nash contributed a remarkable one-page PNAS article that defined and characterized a notion of equilibrium for n- person games. This notion, now called the “Nash equilibrium,” has been widely applied and adapted in economics and other behavioral sciences. Indeed, game theory, with the Nash equilibrium as its centerpiece, is becoming the most prominent unifying theory of social science. In this perspective, we summarize the historical context and subsequent impact of Nash's contribution. In a brief 1950 communication to PNAS (1), John Forbes Nash formulated the marner coursework notion of equilibrium that bears his name and that has revolutionized economics and parts of other sciences.

Nash, a young mathematics graduate student at essay report treatise, Princeton, was a part of the Camelot of game theory centered around von Neumann and Morgenstern. Writing! They had written Theory of Games and essay report Economic Behavior (2) to expand economic analysis to allow economists to essays about, model the “rules of the game” that influence particular environments and to extend the scope of economic theory to include strategic small-group situations in essay report dissertation which each person must try to anticipate others' actions. von Neumann and Morgenstern's definition of equilibrium for “noncooperative” games was largely confined to the special case of “two-person zero-sum” games, in which one person's gain is another's loss, so the payoffs always sum to zero (3). Appendix Research! Nash proposed a notion of equilibrium that applied to a much wider class of games without restrictions on the payoff structure or number of players (1, 4, 5). von Neumann's reaction was polite but not enthusiastic.† Nevertheless, the Nash equilibrium, as it has become known, helped produce a revolution in the use of game theory in report dissertation economics, and it was the contribution for which Nash was cited by research paper format the Nobel Prize committee at the time of essay report treatise dissertation his award, 44 years later. Equilibrium Points in n -Person Games. The first part of the 1950 PNAS paper introduces the model of a game with n participants, or “players,” who must each select a course of action, or “strategy”: One may define a concept of an n- person game in which each player has a finite set of pure strategies and in futur which a definite set of payments to the n players corresponds to each n- tuple of pure strategies, one strategy being taken for each player. (ref. 1, p. 48) The notion of a strategy is quite general, and it includes “mixed” strategies that are probability distributions over decisions, e.g., an essay treatise, inspector who audits on a random basis or a poker player who sometimes bluffs. Another interpretation of a mixed-strategy is that of a population of randomly matched individuals in the role of each player of the writing game, some proportion of whom make each of a number of available choices.

The idea of the Nash equilibrium is that a set of strategies, one for each player, would be stable if nobody has a unilateral incentive to deviate from their own strategy: Any n- tuple of strategies, one for each player, may be regarded as a point in essay treatise dissertation the product space obtained by multiplying the n strategy spaces of the players. One such n- tuple counters another if the strategy of each player in the countering n -tuple yields the highest obtainable expectation for its player against the n – 1 strategies of the other players in the countered n -tuple. A self-countering n -tuple is called an equilibrium point. Creative Writing! (ref. 1, p. 49) That is, a Nash equilibrium is a set of strategies, one for each of the n players of a game, that has the property that each player's choice is his best response to essay dissertation, the choices of the n – 1 other players. An Introduction To An University! It would survive an announcement test: if all players announced their strategies simultaneously, nobody would want to essay treatise, reconsider. The Nash equilibrium has found many uses in economics, partly because it can be usefully interpreted in a number of ways. When the goal is to give advice to all of the verbe essayer players in a game (i.e., to advise each player what strategy to report dissertation, choose), any advice that was not an equilibrium would have the unsettling property that there would always be some player for whom the advice was bad, in the sense that, if all other players followed the parts of the advice directed to them, it would be better for research, some player to do differently than he was advised. If the treatise advice is an essays teratogens, equilibrium, however, this will not be the case, because the advice to each player is the best response to the advice given to the other players. This point of view is sometimes also used to derive predictions of what players would do, if they can be approximated as “perfectly rational” players who can all make whatever calculations are necessary and so are in the position of deriving the relevant advice for themselves.

When the goal is prediction rather than prescription, a Nash equilibrium can also be interpreted as a potential stable point of a dynamic adjustment process in which individuals adjust their behavior to treatise, that of the essays about other players in the game, searching for strategy choices that will give them better results. This point of view has been productive in biology also: when mixed strategies are interpreted as the proportion of a population choosing each of a set of strategies, game payoffs are interpreted as the change in inclusive fitness that results from the play of the game, and the dynamics are interpreted as population dynamics (6, 7). No presumptions of essay report rationality are made in this case, of course, but only essays about teratogens, of simple self-interested dynamics. This evolutionary approach has also been attractive to economists (e.g., ref. 8). A third interpretation is that a Nash equilibrium is a self-enforcing agreement, that is, an (implicit or explicit) agreement that, once reached by the players, does not need any external means of enforcement, because it is in the self interest of each player to treatise dissertation, follow the essays teratogens agreement if the others do. Viewed in this way, the Nash equilibrium has helped to clarify a distinction sometimes still made between “cooperative” and essay report “noncooperative” games, with cooperative games being those in which agreements can be enforced (e.g., through the english essay rubric courts), and noncooperative games being those in which no such enforcement mechanism exists, so that only equilibrium agreements are sustainable. One trend in modern game theory, often referred to report treatise dissertation, as the “Nash program,” is to marner coursework, erase this distinction by including any relevant enforcement mechanisms in the model of the essay report dissertation game, so that all games can be modeled as noncooperative.

Nash took initial steps in silas marner coursework this direction in his early and influential model of bargaining as a cooperative game (9) and then as a noncooperative game (10). Nash's 1950 PNAS paper not only formulated the definition of equilibrium but also announced the report proof of existence that he obtained using Kakutani's (11) fixed point theorem. This technique of proof subsequently became standard in economics, e.g., the silas notion of a competitive equilibrium as a vector of anticipated prices resulting in essay dissertation production and consumption decisions that generate the same vector of prices. In a personal communication to one of the authors, Nash remarked, “I know that S. Kakutani's generalized fixed point theorem was actually inspired to improve on some arguments made by von Neumann in an economic context in the 1930s.” Nash shared the verbe essayer futur 1994 Nobel Prize with John Harsanyi and Reinhard Selten. Harsanyi was cited for extending the Nash equilibrium to the larger class of essay treatise games called games of incomplete information, in which players need not be assumed to know other players' preferences and feasible choices (12). Selten was cited for essays about teratogens, his work on equilibrium refinements, which takes the point of report dissertation view that the requirements of the Nash equilibrium are necessary conditions for advice to perfectly rational players but are not sufficient conditions, and there may be superfluous equilibria that can be removed from consideration by appropriate refinements that focus attention on silas marner coursework, a nonempty subset of report Nash equilibria (13, 14). The Nash equilibrium has been extended, refined, and generalized in about teratogens other directions as well. One noteworthy generalization of mixed strategy equilibrium is “correlated equilibrium” (15), which considers not only essay report, independently randomized strategies for each player but also jointly randomized strategies that may allow coordination among groups of players.

The Nash equilibrium is useful not just when it is itself an accurate predictor of how people will behave in a game but also when it is not, because then it identifies situations in which there is a tension between individual incentives and teratogens other motivations. A class of report treatise problems that have received a good deal of study from this point of view is the family of “social dilemmas,” in which there is a socially desirable action that is not a Nash equilibrium. Indeed, one of the first responses to Nash's definition of equilibrium gave rise to one of the best known models in the social sciences, the Prisoners' Dilemma. Essays! This model began life as a simple experiment conducted in January 1950 at report, the Rand Corporation by mathematicians Melvin Dresher and Merrill Flood, to demonstrate that the Nash equilibrium would not necessarily be a good predictor of behavior. Each of the essays about two players in that game had to choose one of two decisions, which, for expositional purposes, we will call “cooperate” or “defect.” The game specifies the payoffs for each player for each of the four possible outcomes: (cooperate, cooperate), (cooperate, defect), (defect, cooperate), and (defect, defect). The payoffs used were such that each player's best counter to essay report dissertation, either of the other's choices was to defect, but both players would earn more if they both cooperated than if they both chose their equilibrium decision and defected. Nash's thesis advisor, Albert Tucker, was preparing a talk on recent developments in game theory to be given to the Stanford Psychology Department when he saw the Dresher and Flood payoff numbers on a blackboard at the Rand Corporation. Tucker then devised the famous story of the silas dilemma faced by two prisoners who are each given incentives by the prosecutor to confess, even though both would be better off if neither confesses than if they both do (16, 17). In the initial experiment (18) and in report treatise dissertation innumerable experiments that followed, players often succeed, at least to some degree, in cooperating with one another and avoiding equilibrium play (19).‡ Social scientists across many disciplines have found prisoner's dilemmas helpful in thinking about english rubric phenomena ranging from ecological degradation (20) to essay report treatise dissertation, arms races.

What the writing Nash equilibrium makes clear, even in a game like the prisoner's dilemma in which it may not be an report, accurate point predictor, is that the cooperative outcome, because it is not an equilibrium, is going to be unstable in ways that can make cooperation difficult to maintain. This observation has been confirmed in many subsequent experiments on this and more general “social dilemmas” (see, e.g., refs. Appendix Research Paper! 21–23). You can put yourself into a social dilemma game by going to the link: and playing against decisions retrieved from a database. Essay Report Treatise! This Traveler's Dilemma game is some-what more complex than a prisoner's dilemma, in an introduction essay university that the best decision is not independent of your beliefs about what strategy might be selected by the other player (24). Design of Markets and report dissertation Social Institutions. One of the ways in which research on dilemmas and other problems of collective action has proceeded is to look for the social institutions that have been invented to change games from prisoner's dilemmas to games in which cooperation is sustainable as an equilibrium; see e.g., Elinor Ostrom's 1998 presidential address to the American Political Science Association (25).

For example, just as firms selling similar products may undercut each other's price until price is driven down to an introduction to an essay, cost, it is possible for a series of actions and reactions to force players in a game into a situation that is relatively bad for all concerned, which provides strong incentives for restrictions on unilateral actions. Essay! This kind of “unraveling” is encountered in rubric some labor markets in which employers may try to report treatise dissertation, gain an advantage by good mfa programs creative making early offers. Treatise! In the market for federal appellate court clerks, for essays teratogens, example, positions began to essay report treatise, be arranged earlier and earlier, as some judges tried to hire clerks just before their competitors. This continued until offers (for jobs that would begin only on graduation from good mfa programs, law school) were being made to law students 2 years in advance, only on the basis of treatise dissertation first-year law school grades (see ref. 26). Silas! This situation was widely viewed as unsatisfactory, because it forced both judges and law students to essay dissertation, make decisions far in advance, on the basis of too little information. The most recent of many attempts to reform this market took the form of a year-long moratorium on silas, the hiring of clerks by appellate judges, which ended the day after Labor Day 2003, with only third-year law students to be hired. It is still too early to essay treatise dissertation, know whether this relatively mild intervention will finally solve the unraveling of the rubric law clerk market. But a moratorium by itself does not change the rules of the game sufficiently to alter the dilemma-like properties of the equilibrium, and essay report so we predict that further changes will be needed if the familiar problems are to be avoided in good mfa programs the long term. An alternative solution to this prisoner's dilemma problem of timing in such markets is to arrange an organized clearinghouse in which both employers and job candidates participate. Such clearinghouses arose, for example, as a result of situations in which medical students were being hired well over 1 year before graduation; this happened in the U.S. in the 1940s and in the U.K. in the 1960s.

Today, graduates of American medical schools (and others applying for residencies at American hospitals) submit rank order lists of essay report treatise preferred positions to conjugaison verbe futur, a clearinghouse called the National Resident Matching Program. Roth (27, 28) has studied these U.S. and U.K. matching markets. It turns out that one important factor in whether such a labor market clearinghouse succeeds or fails is whether the clearinghouse is designed so that it is dissertation, a Nash equilibrium for applicants and employers to participate in a way that produces a matching of workers to jobs that is stable, in the sense that no employer and applicant who are not matched to one another would both prefer to be (29, 30). Participation in writing such a clearinghouse is report treatise, even more straightforward if the clearinghouse is constructed so that it is a Nash equilibrium for applicants to simply put down their true preferences, regardless of how likely they think they are to receive each of the jobs for which they have applied, or how other applicants are ranking those jobs. For matching markets like these entry level labor markets, this kind of equilibrium is possible for an appropriately designed clearinghouse.

Thus the ontario english current version of the National Resident Matching Program algorithm, designed by Roth and Peranson (31), has the property that applicants can confidently be advised it is in their best interest to submit rank order lists of residencies that correspond to their true preferences. That game theorists have started to play a role in designing such clearinghouses and other markets is an indication of treatise dissertation how game theory has grown from a conceptual to format, a practical tool. Auctions are another kind of market in which it is becoming increasingly common for report, game theorists to be asked for english rubric, design advice (see, e.g., refs. 32 and 33). And the economic theory of auctions [for which a Nobel Prize was given to William Vickrey in 1996, in essay report treatise large part for his seminal 1961 paper (34)] is a perfect example of how game theory and the Nash equilibrium have changed economics. Before game theory, economists often analyzed markets simply in terms of the supply and demand of the goods to be sold, with no way to discuss the rules of the game that make one kind of auction different from another or make auctions different from other kinds of markets (such as stock markets or shopping malls). Essay University! Today, that discussion is essay treatise dissertation, most often carried forward by analyzing the Nash equilibria of the auction rules.

It is worth mentioning that Nash both commented on and participated in early experiments in economics (see ref. 35). It was a natural progression to move from to an, a fascination with mathematical models of strategic behavior to the observation of decisions made by people who are playing for real money payoffs under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Indeed, as game theory started its move to treatise, the forefront of economic theory, it generated scores of testable predictions and helped lay the writing university groundwork for the introduction of essay report experimental methods into economics (36, 37). The increasing use of appendix paper experimental methods in economics and the growing interaction between economics and psychology was itself recognized by essay report treatise dissertation the 2002 Economics Nobel Prize that was awarded to a psychologist, Daniel Kahneman (see, e.g., ref. 38) and good creative an economist, Vernon Smith (see, e.g., ref. 39). Report Treatise! Before Smith's experiments, it was widely believed that the competitive predictions of supply/demand intersections required very large numbers of ontario english essay well-informed traders. Smith showed that competitive efficient outcomes could be observed with surprisingly small numbers of traders, each with no direct knowledge of the others' costs or values. An important developing area of game theory is to treatise dissertation, explain these and other experimental results in the context of well-specified dynamic models of the interaction of writing to an university strategic traders.

Another emerging connection between game theory and experimentation is the increased use of experimental methods in teaching. A well designed classroom experiment shows students that the essay seemingly abstract equilibrium models can have surprising predictive power. The Internet makes it much easier to run complex games with large groups of students. For example, 30 different types of games, auctions, and markets can be set up and run from a site, ( that also provides sample data displays from classroom experiments. Most of the data displays and dynamically generated data graphs have options for good mfa programs, hiding the relevant Nash predictions when the dissertation results are being discussed and then showing the Nash predictions subsequently. Modeling Learning and Stochastic Equilibrium. Experimentation has helped move game theorists to focus on approaches that are able to predict how people actually behave when the essays about teratogens perfect foresight and perfect rationality assumptions of classical game theory are not satisfied.

The experimental literature is full of examples both of games in which observed behavior quickly converges to equilibrium behavior and games in which equilibrium is a persistently poor predictor. This has helped to reinforce the trend, already apparent in the theoretical literature, to essay treatise dissertation, extend the static, often deterministic, formulation of equilibrium and consider dynamic and stochastic models. Experiments make clear that players often do not conform to equilibrium behavior when they first experience a game, even if it is a game in mfa programs which behavior quickly converges to equilibrium as the players gain experience. One reaction to this has been to develop models of learning that converge to essay report treatise dissertation, equilibrium in the limit, starting from nonequilibrium behavior (see, e.g., refs. 40 and teratogens 41). Another has been the beginning of attempts to develop models of learning that can predict observed behavior in simple experimental games (see, e.g., ref.

42). In particular, learning models are useful for explaining patterns of adjustment, e.g., whether prices converge from above or below, as well as the essay dissertation ultimate steady-state distributions (e.g., refs. 43 and 44). Some games are played only once, e.g., the exact strategic environments in conjugaison essayer many military, legal, and political conflicts are unique to essay report, the particular time and essays about place. In that case, there is no history that can be used to form precise predictions about others' decisions. Therefore, learning must occur by introspection, or thinking about what the other person might do, what they think you might do, etc. Such introspection is likely to be quite imprecise, especially when thinking about essay others' beliefs or their beliefs about about teratogens your beliefs. There has been some recent progress in formulating models of noisy introspection, which can then be used to predict and explain “non-Nash” behavior in experiments using games played only once (24, 45). If a game is repeated, e.g., with random matchings from a population of players, some noise may persist even after average tendencies have stabilized.

The “quantal response equilibrium” is based on the idea that players' responses to differences in expected payoffs are sharper when such differences are large and are more random when such differences are small (see ref. 46 for an existence proof and ref. 47 for application to bidding in an auction). This notion of equilibrium is a generalization of the Nash equilibrium in the sense that the quantal response predictions converge to a Nash equilibrium as the noise is report, diminished. But the essays about effect of nonnegligible noise is essay report dissertation, not merely to spread decisions around Nash predictions; strategic interactions cause feedbacks in some games that magnify and distort the effects of noise. English Rubric! This approach has been used to explain data from some laboratory experiments in which observed behavior deviates from a unique Nash equilibrium and ends up on the opposite side of the essay report treatise set of feasible decisions (24, 43). Still another approach seeks to reconcile experimental evidence and equilibrium predictions by appendix format considering how those predictions would differ if systematic regularities in participants' preferences were modeled. Essay Dissertation! One lesson that consistently emerges from appendix research paper format, small-group bargaining experiments is essay treatise dissertation, that people are often as concerned with fairness issues as they are with their own payoffs (see, e.g., ref.

48). The incorporation of fairness and good creative other notions of nonselfish preferences into essay report standard models often brings economic game theory into contact with evolutionary explanations of human behavior (see, e.g., refs. 49 and 50). Nash's Contributions in Perspective. In the last 20 years, the notion of a Nash equilibrium has become a required part of the tool kit for economists and other social and marner coursework behavioral scientists, so well known that it does not need explicit citation, any more than one needs to cite Adam Smith when discussing competitive equilibrium. There have been modifications, generalizations, and refinements, but the essay dissertation basic equilibrium analysis is the place to ontario english, begin (and sometimes end) the analysis of strategic interactions, not only in economics but also in law, politics, etc. The Nash equilibrium is probably invoked as often in small-group (and not-so-small-group) situations as competitive equilibrium is used in report treatise large markets.

Students in economics classes today probably hear John Nash's name as much as or more than that of any economist. In the half century after the publication of Nash's PNAS paper, game theory moved into verbe futur center stage in economic theory. Game theory has also become part of essay dissertation a lively scientific conversation with experimental and other empirical scientists and, increasingly, the source of practical advice on the design of markets and other economic environments. Looking ahead, if game theory's next 50 years are to be as productive, the challenges facing game theorists include learning to incorporate more varied and realistic models of individual behavior into the study of strategic behavior and learning to conjugaison essayer futur, better use analytical, experimental, and computational tools in concert to deal with complex strategic environments. This work was funded in part by National Science Foundation Infrastructure Grant SES 0094800. ? * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cah2k . This Perspective is published as part of a series highlighting landmark papers published in PNAS. Read more about this classic PNAS article online at

This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office. ? † In a personal communication with one of the authors, Nash notes that von Neumann was a “European gentleman” but was not an enthusiastic supporter of Nash's approach. ? ‡ H. Raiffa independently conducted experimens with a Prisoner's Dilemma game in 1950, but he did not publish them (see ref. 19). Received January 7, 2004. Copyright © 2004, The National Academy of Sciences. Facebook Twitter Google+ CiteULike Delicious Digg Mendeley. Download the app for free from essay, Google Play today! Facebook Twitter Google+ CiteULike Delicious Digg Mendeley.

Published online before print March 15, 2004 , doi: 10.1073/pnas.0308738101.

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Air Pollution: Essay on Air Pollution (8634 Words) Air is the most vital constituent of environment for the sustenance of essay report dissertation life on essays teratogens earth. Air forms nearly 80% of man#8217;s daily intake by weight. In pure air, the proportion of different constituents like oxygen, nitrogen and other gases is fixed and definite. It may be noted that air cannot be pure because some gases like sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, emission from volcanoes and swamps, salt spray, pollens from plants etc., are continuously added to the air by natural processes. Thus, air is polluted when its natural composition is disturbed either by essay report dissertation, natural or by man-made sources. 1. Classification of Air Pollutants. 2. Essayer Futur. Source of Air Pollution. 3. Important Air Pollutants. 4. Effects of Air Pollution. 5. Essay. Consequences of Air Pollution.

6. Control of Air Pollution. H. Perkins (1974) has defined air pollution as, #8220;the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants such as dust, fumes, gases, mist, smoke or vapours in quantities of characteristics and of duration such as to be injurious to living organisms and to good writing, property which reasonably interferes with comfortable enjoyment of life and property. According to World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution is defined as limited to essay report dissertation, situation in which the outdoor ambient atmosphere contains materials in concentration which are harmful to man and english, its environment. In general sense, air pollution may be defined as the imbalance or disequilibrium in the quality of air due to introduction of treatise foreign materials from natural or anthropogenic sources to the air so as to cause adverse effect to biological communities in general and man in particular. The nature, dimension and magnitude of air-pollution depend upon a number of factors such as source of pollutants, nature of pollutants, quantity of pollutants, residence time of the pollutants in atmosphere.

According to H.E. Essays Teratogens. Hobbs (1980), the residence time of report pollutants depend upon nature of the pollutants, their way of emission, meteorological factors and on sink mechanisms. Mainly there are two factors which contribute to the problem of air pollution. These are population explosion and productivity, each rising 2 to 3 per cent every year. 1. Classification of Air Pollutants : Air pollutants are of two types: (1) Primary air pollutants; (2) Secondary air pollutants.

These are the harmful chemicals which directly enter into air due to natural events or human activities. Conjugaison Essayer. For example, when carbon containing substance is burnt, it will release CO 2 and/or CO to atmosphere. These gases directly entering into atmosphere influence the biosphere are termed as primary pollutants. It is seen that there are mainly five primary pollutants which contribute together more than 90% of global air pollution. These are namely, carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), oxides of sulphur (SO 2 ) hydrocarbons (HC), and particulates. Essay Report Treatise. Transportation accounts for silas marner coursework, more than 46% of the total pollutants produced per year and report dissertation, hence remains as the principal source of air pollution. Carbon monoxide is the major individual air pollutant with a tonnage matching that of all other pollutants together. Different primary pollutants, their sources and amounts, released to air are given in table 7.2. These are the harmful chemicals produced in air due to chemical reaction in between two or more components i.e. the reaction in between primary air pollutant and some components of air. Usually the primary air pollutant suffers chemical changes in presence of H 2 O (v), O 2 (g) and ultraviolet radiation of sun to form secondary pollutants.

Some reactions showing conversion of primary pollutant to secondary pollutant are described below: Primary pollutant Reactant Secondary Pollution. Just like primary pollutants, the secondary pollutants have significant detrimental effects on animals, soil, vegetation#8217;s, crops and materials. The Principal sources of air pollution can either be natural or anthropogenic. The natural sources of air pollution are: (iii) Soil Erosion, (v) Evaporation of volatile organic matter, and. (vi) Bacterial decomposition products. (b) Anthropogenic Sources: (i) Automobile Exhaust: These contain carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen, ethane, ethylene, 3, 4- benzpyrine. These gases are due to incomplete combustion of petrol and diesel. (ii) Industrial Exhaust: The industries mainly Chemical Factories, Paper and Pulp, Sugar, Petroleum Refineries, Steel Plants etc. are the chief air polluting agents. The industrial exhaust contain gases like CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO, (iii) Release of organic substances : The processes like biological decomposition of organic matter, seepage from good natural gas and oil fields, volatile emission from plants, sewage gas etc. Treatise. are the causes for the release of organic substances like CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 6 H 5 NH 2 , C 2 H 4 etc. (iv) Release of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): The chlorofluorocarbons are released to the atmosphere from essays teratogens air conditioners, refineries, pre cooler systems of cold storage etc. (v) Photochemical oxidants: These are ozone and peroxyacylnitrate (PAN) formed by certain photochemical reactions. (vi) Tobacco smokes; it is produced by cigarette and bidis. (vii) Particulate Pollution: Solid and liquid aerosols suspended in atmosphere are referred as particulate matters. Essay Treatise. These arise from research paper format grinding of essay dissertation ores, spraying and soil erosion.

Aerosols are chemicals, which are released into the air in the form of vapours. For example lead containing gasoline fumes from good creative writing automobiles, constitute the chief source of lead contamination. Report Treatise Dissertation. (viii) Agricultural Chemicals: The agricultural chemicals like pesticides, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc. are also released into the air as pollutants. (ix) Explosives in War: A number of poisonous gases are released in the atmosphere during the explosions of sophisticated explosives in war. (x) Photochemical Smogs: When different gases like SO 2 , NO, N 2 O, NO 2 and ontario, un-burnt hydrocarbons are released into atmosphere, these form photochemical smog by report treatise, combining with dust and good mfa programs creative, moisture. (xi) Mining Activity: During mining activities i.e. crushing and grinding of ores, a lot of particulate matters are released to atmosphere. (xii) Release from fertiliser plants: Ammonia gas is released from report ammonium fertilizer plants. (xiii) Emission from jets and aircrafts: A significant quantity of carbon monoxide gas and un-burnt hydrocarbons are released from jets and aircrafts. (xiv) Domestic burning: Domestic burning of coal, kerosene oil, cow dung cakes etc. releases CO 2 , CO, SO 2 , etc. Pollutants are the various harmful chemicals present in the atmosphere in concentrations that disturb the dynamic equilibrium in the atmosphere and thereby affects the living organisms and their environment. Conjugaison. These are released to the environment partly or completely by anthropogenic activities or natural processes. Some potent chemical pollutants, their sources, mechanism of action in environment, detrimental effects and their control measures are described below. Natural process like volcanic action, electrical discharge during storm or lightening, seed germination, marsh gas production etc. release small quantity of Carbon monoxide to the atmosphere. The significant contribution of carbon monoxide is from anthropogenic activities.

For example out of the annual emission of 350 million tonnes, human activities contribute 275 million tonnes and essay treatise, natural processes contribute only 75 million tonnes. Some important CO producing processes are: It contributes about ontario essay rubric 74% of CO through motor vehicles aircrafts, rail, roads etc. (ii) Agricultural burnings: These include forest fire, burning of crop residues, brush, weeds etc. (iii) Industrial processes: These are the third largest contributors of CO. Industries like iron, steel, paper, petroleum etc. release large quantity of CO to the atmosphere. The release of CO to the atmosphere is taking place in such a large scale that the essay report dissertation concentration is supposed to be doubled in every five years. Marner Coursework. But the actual increase in ambient global CO concentrations is much less. The lowering of the concentration of CO is atmosphere may be due to: (i) The oxidation of CO to CO 2 in the atmosphere by report treatise dissertation, atomic oxygen, hydroxyl radical, NO 2 , singlet O 2 etc. (ii) Some micro-organisms present in mfa programs the soil help in the oxidation of CO to CO 2 . Essay Dissertation. (iii) Green plants also fix and metabolize CO with the help of chlorophyll in light or in dark, photosynthetically and non-photosynthetically. C. Detrimental Effects: CO interferes with oxygen carrying function of writing an introduction essay university hemoglobin by forming carboxy hemoglobin complex. (i) When carboxy haemoglobin (CO-Hb) content reaches 5% oxygen transport gets inhibited. (ii) When carboxyhaemoglobin (CO-Hb) level exceeds 5%, cardiac and pulmonary functions are also affected, specially with mycocardial interactions.

The poisonous effect of CO is due to the fact that it prevents the R.B.C., saturated with CO from absorbing oxygen and carrying it into different parts of the body. Death is caused by asphyxiation. (iii) When CO concentration becomes 400-500 ppm, it leads to loss of dissertation fertility, premature birth, spontaneous abortion and deformed babies in essays pregnant women. Plants are insensitive to basal level of CO. However, prolonged exposure of plants to higher concentrations of CO causes hazards in plants. (i) CO inhibits nitrogen fixing ability of bacteria when these are exposed to CO level of 2000 ppm for 33-38 hours. (ii) CO level within 100 to 10000 ppm causes lead drop, premature aging, leaf curling, reduction of leaf size, etc. Report. (iii) CO also at higher concentration, inhibits cellular respirations in plants by reacting with cytochrome oxidise. D. Control of Co-Emission: Extensive investigations suggest that about 74% of all the CO emission is from automobiles. So control efforts must be focused on automobile emission. The following approaches can be made to control automobile emission: 1. Appendix Research Format. Modification of internal combustion engines are needed to reduce the quantity of essay treatise CO during fuel combustion. 2. Development of exhaust system reactors which will complete the combustion without forming CO. 3. Development of coursework substitute fuels for essay report treatise dissertation, gasoline which will give low concentration of CO on combustion. 4. Development of pollution free power source as a substitute for internal combustion engine.

5. Use of ontario english essay catalytic converters in two compartments which help in preventing emission of exhaust gases into the air. Sulphur-dioxide is the essay treatise second potent air pollutant as it accounts for good writing, 29% of the total weight of report dissertation all pollutants. There are two sources of SO 2 — (1) Natural Source, and. (2) Anthropogenic source. Natural processes like volcanic eruption provide 67% of the creative S0 2 pollution which is distributed all over the globe. Anthropogenic source contribute about 33% of SO 2 pollution which is localised mainly in urban areas. The different man made activities are: (1) Fuel combustion (coal) account for 74%, (2) Industries account for 22%, (3) Transportation accounts for 2%. Specifically, burning of essay fossil fuels in thermal power plants, manufacture of sulphuric acid and fertilizers, smelting industries etc, account for essays about teratogens, 75% of total SO 2 emission while automobiles and refineries contribute to the rest 25%. The quantity of SO 2 in atmosphere is very small as compared to essay report treatise, its annual emission. Appendix Research Paper. This may be due to its reaction in atmosphere. Actually there are four possible roots for essay, the removal of conjugaison futur SO 2 from environment: (i) It may undergo photo-chemical oxidation reaction with atmospheric oxygen.

(ii) It may undergo photochemical and chemical reaction with nitrogen oxide and/or hydrocarbon. (iii) It may undergo chemical reaction with moisture and become sulphuric acid or sulphurous acid. On further reaction with metals or their salts, these are converted into metal sulphates. (iv) It may undergo reaction with solid particles in the atmosphere. C. Detrimental effects of SO 2 : Sulphur dioxide is perhaps the most dangerous air pollutant affecting both living and non-living world. (1) It causes irritation to eye and respirating tract even at 2.5 ppm. (2) It causes swelling of treatise dissertation nasal system and stimulates mucus secretion. Research Paper Format. (3) It causes lung cancer at high level. (4) It induces desquamation or peeling off of the surface epithelium in the mucosa. (5) Presence of S0 2 in moisture and fog becomes more dangerous due to formation of H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 3 which are 5 to 20 time more irritating than SO 2 alone. (6) Its inhalation causes symptoms of bronchitis, emphysema and other lung diseases. (b) Effects on plants: (1) It affects plant growth and nutrient quality of products. (2) It kills leaf tissues causing leaf necrosis. (3) It causes chlorosis and dwarfing when the concentration exceeds 1 ppm. (4) Its chronic exposure to plants causes bleaching of plant pigments. (5) At high concentration, it decreases PH of essay report treatise leaf tissues of some plants increasing the essays teratogens sulphur content #8216;n plants. (6) It affects stomatal pores, stomatal frequency, cholorplast and essay treatise, transpiration through stomata. (c) Effect on non-living materials: (1) It attacks marble, lime­stone, roofing state, electrical contacts, textiles and buildings, (2) It reacts with leather reducing its strength and inducing it s disintegration. (3) The acid rain produced by the reaction of SO 2 corrodes metals, attacks fibres, and verbe essayer futur, washes out basic material from soil. The reaction of H 2 SO 4 on essay report treatise dissertation marble is known as stone leprosy. (4) It affects durability in paint films. (5) SO 2 polluted air accelerates the corrosion rate of metals such as iron, zinc, copper etc. The oxides of sulphur can be reduced and controlled by the following methods: 1. Removing sulphur from fuel before burning. 2. Futur. Using low content sulphur fuels. 3. Removing the sides of sulphur from fuel gases as soon as these are formed. 4. Essay Dissertation. Using non-sulphur containing fuels such as natural gases.

5. Using nuclear power to generate electricity from power plants. NO x exists as nitrous oxide (N 2 O), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen trioxide (N 2 O 3 ), nitrogen peroxide (NO 2 ) and nitrogen pentoxide (N 2 O s ). Amongst all these nitrogen oxides, nitrogen peroxide (NO 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) are the two main reagents causing air pollution. About 95% of NO x is released to the atmosphere mainly as NO as remaining as NO 2 . NO x is released to the atmosphere mainly through anthropogenic activities and partly through natural processes. 1. Anthropogenic sources: Anthropogenic activities release about 5 x 10 7 tonnes of NO x every year. Some important activities include: 1. Writing An Introduction University. Combustion of coal, oil, natural gases and report, gasoline. English Essay. 2. By-products of some chemical industries like HN0 3 am H 2 SO 4 . Essay Treatise. 3. Thermal power plants. 4. An Introduction University. Supersonic aircraft exhaust. 5. Nuclear explosion. 6. Manufacture of nylon intermediates.

2. Natural Sources: Natural processes release about 5 x 10 10 tonnes of NO x every year. Some natural processes include: 1. Bacterial action or microbial action on earth surface: Microorganisms reduce N 2 0 under anaerobic condition producing potent pollutants, NO and NO 2 . Report Dissertation. 2. Photo-chemical reaction in the atmosphere mediated by cosmic rays. 3. Volcanic eruption. B. Consequences of NO x Accumulation: The accumulation of NO x in essays about teratogens the environment causes varieties of hazards such as acid rain, depletion of ozone layer, smog formation etc. NO x causes acid rain by report treatise dissertation, reacting with atmospheric moisture giving acids like nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and nitrous acid (HNO 2 ) (b) Depletion of ozone layer: NO x released to the atmosphere moves up and silas marner coursework, reacts with ozone layer causing its depletion. Such a process allows the passage of UV radiation into earth surface.

The presence of excess quantity of NO and NO 2 induces smog formation and generates a number of harmful species like free radicals, PAN (Peroxy acetyl nitrate) etc. C. Detrimental Effects of NO x on Living Organisms: The accumulation of NO x is toxic to both plants and animals. The toxic action is attributed to their interference with the course of a number of biochemical reactions possibly through their modulating action over a number of report treatise dissertation cellular enzymes and production of a number of secondary pollutants like OH, HO 2 , O 3 , PAN etc. 1. Loss of photosynthetic activity. Silas Coursework. The threshold limit value (TLV) of NO and NO 2 for human beings are 25 and 5ppm respectively.

Although NO (Whose value is essay less) does a not cause major health hazard NO 2 causes serious health hazards. Some serious health hazards are: 1. Inflammation of lung tissues. 2. Respiratory diseases like lung cancer, pulmonary haemorrhage. 3. Appendix Research Format. Destruction of oxygen transport efficiency of blood. In view of the essay treatise detrimental and adverse effects of NO x on the entire living and good mfa programs, non-living world, it is essay treatise dissertation necessary to keep the level of NO x below the threshold value. Some important control measures are outlined as below: 1. Conjugaison Verbe. To remove HO x from stack gases, one of the approach is the chemical absorption process (H 2 SO 4 solution or alkaline shrubbing solution containing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ) is used. 2. Catalytic converters should be used to control automotive emission of NO x . Catalytic converter acts in two ways: (i) It decomposes HO x to nitrogen and oxygen in presence of essay treatise dissertation suitable catalyst. (ii) It reduces NO x to nitrogen in presence of suitable catalyst and reducing agent. 3. NO x emitted from power plants (about 50-1000 ppm) can be reduced up to 10% by two stage combustion process. Appendix Research Paper Format. (i) The fuel is fired at essay report treatise dissertation, high temperature mixing with 90-95% of stoichiometric air. (ii) Fuel burn out is to an essay completed at a relatively low temperature in excess of air. Essay Report Treatise Dissertation. 4. Public awareness should be created to educate the common man about the hazards of NO x . About. 5. Government should take stringent action against industries discharging higher quantity of NO x into environment than the level prescribed by pollution control board.

Some more common chemical pollutants, then source and dissertation, detrimental effects are described as in the table given below: In addition to different gases, a series of hydrocarbons are released to the atmosphere either through natural processes or through human activities. Conjugaison Verbe. These hydrocarbons sometimes behave like primary pollutants and some other times induce the formation of essay report treatise other potent secondary pollutants. Natural sources of hydrocarbon release into air includes emission from trees, liberation from anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in presence of bacteria, liberation from domesticated animals etc. The main hydrocarbon in good mfa programs creative writing natural sources is methane whose residence time in air is 3 to 7 years. Anthropogenic activities contributes nearly 20% of the hydrocarbon emitted to the atmosphere every year.

The major anthropogenic sources are: (i) automobile exhaust, (ii) industrial processes like processing, storage, transfer of products, (iii) incinerator and refuse burning, (iv) solvent , and. (v) burning of coal and wood etc. Global emissions of pollutant hydrocarbons is treatise dissertation given in table 7.5. Table 7.5 : Global Emission of Pollutant Hydrocarbons. Conjugaison Verbe Essayer. The level of hydrocarbon in atmosphere is usually reduced by essay report, several reactions and photo-chemical reactions. Being thermodynamically unstable, these are oxidised in good creative a series of steps to report dissertation, carbon dioxide. Besides, the hydrocarbons are also settled either by the action of gravity or by rain water. Futur. c. Treatise. Detrimental effects of hydrocarbons: (a) Effect on human beings: (i) It has carcinogenic effects on lungs due to its swelling at university, higher concentration. (ii) Aromatic hydrocarbons causes irritation to muscus membrane. (iii) Hydrocarbons induce formation of PAH (peroxy acyl nitrate) which causes irritation of eyes, noses, throat etc. (iv) Excess of hydrocarbon causes blocking or respiratory tract. (v) Benzpyrene induces cancer. (vi) Methane at higher concentration causes narcotic effects. (vii) Black-lung disease of coal miners, pulmonary fibrosis of asbestos workers and employsema of urban peoples are due to particulate accummulation. (viii) The lodged particles in the lungs (3µ) can cause severe breathing trouble by report treatise dissertation, physical blockage and ontario english rubric, irritation of lung capillaries. (b) Effects on plants: (i) Hydrocarbons retard the growth of plants. (ii) These along with ozone cause chlorosis. Essay Report. (iii) Ethylene hydrocarbons damage leaf tissues and flowering plants. (iv) Acetylene and propylene bring about early maturity of an introduction essay university plants. Essay Report Treatise Dissertation. (c) Effects on materials: (i) Hydrocarbons even at a very low concentration attack paper, rubber, synthetics etc. (ii) These attack long chain polymers losing tensile strength of polymers. (iii) These lower the elastic nature of plastics thereby making them more brittle. d. Control of Hydrocarbons: The level of hydrocarbons can be reduced by an introduction to an, controlling their emission from the source.

The emission from automobile exhaust and industrial exhaust can be controlled through processes like incineration, absorption, adsorption, condensation etc. Particulates are the small solid particles and liquid droplets present in report dissertation the atmosphere in fairly large numbers. The dimension of particulates range from 0.0002 µ to 500 µwith life time varying from a few seconds to several months. The presence of these particulates in good mfa programs air causes serious environmental consequences. The release of particulates into atmosphere is both natural and anthropogenic.

The natural processes include volcanic eruption, blowing of dust and soil by wind, spraying of salt and other solid particles by the seas and oceans etc. The contributions from manmade activities are: fly ash from power plants, melters and mining operations, smokes from incomplete combustion processes etc. The incomplete combustion processes are fuel combustion from stationary sources (wood, coal, oil, natural gas etc.), industrial processes and dissertation, other sources like forest fire, structural fires, agricultural burning etc. b. Types of particulates: The particulate matter may be inorganic particles or organic particles. The inorganic particles include metal oxides (e.g. CaO, Fe 3 O 4 , V 2 O s , CaCO 3 etc.), Metal halides (e.g. PbCl 2 , PbBr 2 , Pb BrCl etc.), salts (e.g. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , CaSO 4 etc.), fly ash asbestos particles etc.

The organic particles are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo (?-) pyrene, Chrysene, benzofluoranthene, soot etc. c. Detrimental effects: (a) Effects on human beings: (i) Asbestos particles cause lungs disorder. (ii) Lead containing particulates affect children#8217;s brain and interfere with the development and writing an introduction, maturation of red blood cell. (iii) Particulates of less than 1 µ reach alveoli of report treatise dissertation lungs and damage lungs tissues. iv. Soluble aerosols get absorbed into blood from alveoli while the insoluble aerosols are carried to the lymphatic stream and get deposited in essays about the pulmonary, lymphatic depot point or lymp glands. (b) Effects on plants: (i) The deposition of particulates on soil makes the soil unsuitable for plant growth. (ii) Deposition of particulate on leaves prevents CO 2 absorption and hence decreases the rate of photosynthesis. Essay Report Treatise. (iii) Particulates deposited on plant leaves block the stomata of plants and thus inhibiting the rate of transpiration from the soil. (iv) In case of some plants which are sensitive to traces of toxic metals, their enzyme activity is disturbed in presence of particulates containing trace elements. To An. (c) Effects on materials: (i) Particulate fumes and mists react directly with painted surfaces and cause cracks on it. (ii) Particulates induce corrosion of metals. (iii) Particulates accumulate on the soil surface causing soil erosion. (iv) Particles including fumes, dust, soot, mists and aerosols can bring about essay report severe damage to buildings, sculpture and monuments. (d) Effect of solar radiation: (i) Particulates reduce visibility by absortion and appendix research paper format, scattering of essay report treatise dissertation solar radiation. (ii) Particulates disturb the delicate heat balance of the atmosphere. (iii) Particulates compensate the climatic effects due to increased CO 2 concentration. (iv) Particulates influence the climate through the formation of clouds, rains and snow, by an introduction to an university, acting as nuclei upon essay report dissertation, which water condensation can take place. d. Control of particulate emission: The quantity of particulates in essays about teratogens the air can be minimised by the following techniques: (i) By using gravity settling chamber. (ii) By using cyclone collector. Essay Dissertation. (iii) By using cyclonic separators and trajectory separators. (iv) By using filters and scrubbers. (v) By using electrostatic precipitators. Some air pollutants, their sources and detrimental effects are outlined in table 7.7. Table 7.7: Some Chemical Pollutants, Their Sources and Detrimental Effects. Marner. The important effects of air pollution are as follows: 1. Essay Report Dissertation. Atmospheric particles, due to writing to an essay university, fuel combustion for industrial and household heating purposes, can scatter and absorb sunlight and thus reduce visibility.

2. Increased level of CO 2 causes greenhouse effect. 3. Chlorofluoro carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides cause ozone layer depletion and ozone hole. 4. The effect of particulate matter includes corrosion of metals, erosion and soiling of buildings, sculptures and painted surfaces and soiling of clothing and draperies, damages of electric equipment#8217;s etc. 5. The toxic effects of particulate matter on animals and human beings can be classified as: (i) Intrinsic toxicity due to chemical or physical properties. For example, CO can combine with hemoglobin and reduce its oxygen carrying capacity. Since CO has greater affinity than oxygen to occupy the co-ordination position of oxyhaemoglobin, it can remove oxygen even at low partial pressure. Interference with clearance mechanism in the respiratory tracts. For example, chronic bronchitis and emphysema have also been found to report treatise, be caused by SO 2 . Toxicity due to absorbed toxic substances. For example, lead particles from vehicle exhaust, in higher dose, can kill outright but in lower dose shortens life span and causes deterioration of nervous system.

6. The oxides of sulphur and nitrogen combine with water vapours of the atmosphere and cause acid rain. 7. Benzpyrenes play an important role in higher cancer rates in urban areas even at a very lower concentration. 8. The small solid particles can serve as carrier for micro­organisms and other infective agents and thereby spreading diseases. The accumulation of about pollutants in air causes a number of disasters to the living world. Some important consequences of air pollution are as follows: Ozone layer present in the stratosphere strongly absorbs UV radiation of treatise 220-203 nm and thereby protects life on earth from severe radiation damage.

But due to conjugaison verbe essayer futur, continuous and essay report dissertation, non- interrupted release of appendix paper chloroflurocarbons, oxides of essay report treatise dissertation nitrogen etc. by the civilised world, the ozone layer is constantly depleted. The reaction is medicated through a number of free radicals like CI + , CIO + , + OH etc. and a number of portent species like (O, NO, SO 2 NO 2 etc.) The mechanisms of some important reactions causing ozone depletion are given below. (i) Depletion through CFCs: Each CFC is capable of destroying 1 lakh of silas marner 0 3 molecules in chain reactions. It is also calculated that 1 kg of CFC can deplete 3.5 tonnes of ozone. (ii) Depletion through MO (Nitric oxide) Since residence time of essay treatise dissertation NO in atmosphere is longer, it is a potent agent causing depletion. Marner. (iii) Depletion through N0 2 (nitrogen peroxide) (iv) Depletion through Cl 2 gas: (v) Depletion through nascent oxygen: (vi) Depletion through + OH (Hydroxyl radical) (vii) Depletion through SO 2. (viii) Depletion through N 2 O (Nitrous oxide) Due to the depletion of ozone layer, the harmful solar radiations easily penetrate into the environment and cause the following detrimental effects: In the early sixties (1963) scientists have reported a large hole in essay the ozone layer over Antarctica where ozone level dropped by 30 per cent. The ozone hole covers an area as large as USA. CFCs were considered to be prime suspect for causing ozone depletion. It was also established that one molecule of CFC is capable of destroying 3 lakh ozone molecules. Subsequently a similar hole was discovered over the thickly populated northern hemisphere.

A study by NASA scientists (National Aeronautics and mfa programs creative, Space Administration, USA) revealed that the area of ozone over northern hemisphere decreased by 3 per cent between 1969 and essay report dissertation, 1986. The overall reduction in the O 3 layer is now estimated to be about 8 per cent. Under the auspicies of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 34 countries have signed an agreement at Montreal, Canada, in 1986 called #8220;Montreal Protocol#8221;. The scientists have agreed to appendix paper format, reduce the production and use of CFCs upto 50 per cent by the year 1999. In a second meeting at Helsinki held in 1989, it was agreed upon a total phaseout of CFCs by 2000 A.D. Effects of Ozone Depletion: Due to the depletion of ozone layer in the stratosphere, the harmful UV radiation will reach the surface of earth causing mass destruction. Some of the harmful effects of essay treatise dissertation UV-radiation may be outlined as below: 1. Writing An Introduction University. UV-radiation can cause skin burns, melanoma skin cancer, leukemia, breast cancer, lung cancer, photo keratitis, cataracts etc. 2. UV-radiation may damage the genetic material, DMA leading to mutation. 3. UV-radiation injures plant proteins and causes depletion of chlorophylls and mutations. 4. The depletion of ozone layer will induce eye cancer in cattle.

5. The depletion of ozone layer leads to the loss of report treatise dissertation various plants from rubric terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Report Dissertation. 6. Research Paper. It will reduce the crop productivity. 7. It will bring about significant changes in the climate. 8. Due to depletion of ozone layer, UV-radiation may cause Green House effect changing the global energy. Protection of essay report treatise dissertation ozone layer: By protecting the ozone layer of the research stratosphere, we can protect the human beings, all plants and animals, eco-system and finally biosphere from destruction. Some protective and treatise dissertation, controlling measures of ozone layer depletion may be outlined as given below: 1. The production and use of CFCs should be banned and their substitutes should be found out.

2. The use of plastic foam has to be boycotted. 3. The use of CFCs in research paper format aerosol, spray cans, egg crates etc. should be banned and available substitutes be used. Essay Report. 4. Suitable procedures should be adopted to recapture the CFCs released from the air-conditioner and refrigerator servicing units. 5. Stringent international and national laws are to coursework, be promulgated to see that ozone layer remains intact without destruction. Mow the scientists are trying to phase out CFCs by injecting different alkanes (ethane, propane, etc.) into Antarctica Atmosphere. These alkanes are capable of capturing the chlorine radicals, responsible for ozone depletion obtained from CFCs. (i) It causes skin cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, eye cataracts etc. (ii) It causes damage of the genetic materials like DHA and RNA leading to mutations. (iii) It inhibits the protein synthesis and causes the depletion of chlorophyll in report dissertation plants. (iv) It induces eye cancer in cattle. (v) It reduces the crop productivity. The green house is conjugaison verbe futur that body which allows short wavelength solar radiation to pass through it but does not allow the long wavelength infrared radiation to escape.

Due to rapid and essay, unplanned industrialization the gases like CO 2 , chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), ozone (O 3 )/etc. accumulate in the atmosphere. The layer of these gases behave like wall of a green house and transmit short wave solar radiations but does not allow the longer wavelength heat radiation (infrared) to be reflected back into outer space. English Essay. That is green house are transparent to solar radiation but not to heat radiation. Essay Report Dissertation. Thus, the about green house effect may be defined as the progressive warming up of the atmosphere at essay, the surface of earth due to paper, blanketing of essay treatise dissertation infrared radiation from the verbe essayer earth#8217;s surface by the green house gases. (G.H. gases) + hv (Solar radiation) > (G.H. gases) + hv (solar radiation) (G.H. gases) + hv 1 (infrared) > (G.H.gases) + The green house effect is based on principle of report treatise dissertation infrared absorption characteristic of gases. AH the green house gases are infrared sensitive.

It is seen that higher the concentration of green house gases, higher will be the magnitude of IR-radiation trapped and re-emitted back to earth#8217;s surface increasing the appendix paper mean global temperature. The contribution of different gases inducing green house effect is essay as follows: The intensity of the effect increases in essayer futur presence of dust, aerosols, etc. The green house effect was for the first time suggested by J. Report Dissertation. Fourier (1827). This effect is also known as Global Warming or Carbon dioxide enrichment or atmospheric effect. The green house effect was initially essential for colder climates to grow few plants in winter, which require higher temperature for their growth and survival. But, now-a-days, it is seen that enrichment of an introduction university green house inducing gases in the atmosphere also cause global warming because their concentration is far above the normal. Essay Treatise. The fundamental principles underlying green house effect are: (i) Absorption of english essay rubric infrared radiation by the green house inducing gases, (ii) Re-emission back toward the earth surface which results in heat trap and report, increases the mean global temperature. Sources of green house gases: Some major sources of green house inducing gases may be described as given below: (i) CO 2 gas is released into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gases etc.), industrial activities, thermal power stations, automobiles, aircrafts, etc. (ii) CFCs and halons are released during the operation of coolants and refrigerant, burning of plastic foam products and from spray cans. (iii) Methane (CH 4 ) gas is released from domestic waste and sewage. (iv) Reduction of silas ground cover and deforestation indirectly enrich CO 2 gas in the atmosphere. (v) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is released to the atmosphere due to forest Fire, burning of grassland and natural oil and bio-decomposition of nitrogenous fertilisers. (vi) The concentration of ozone in the atmosphere increases due to the formation of photo-chemical smog.

Effect of Green House Gases on essay treatise dissertation Climate Change: A number of predictions have been made about the change in global climate due to green house effect. Some of these may be outlined as given below: 1. It is reported that between 1960 and 1986, the average global level of CO 2 has increased by 26 per cent (from 275 ppm to 346 ppm. and this level may reach upto 550 ppm by the end of next century). Such an essays increase in CO 2 concentration will lead to an average increase in global temperature by 1.5°C to 4.5°C. Warming will be more pronounced in polar region than in the equatorial regions. 2. Increase in temperature in the poles will result in the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps and report dissertation, raising of the level of appendix paper sea water by about 1.5 metres. 3. Increase in temperature will evaporate terrestrial water content leading to shortage of report treatise dissertation drinking water. 4. Increase in temperature changes the rainfall pattern. Writing Essay. 5. The snowing period will be reduced as a result of which the rate of decomposition of organic matter will increase. Effect on Agriculture: Global warming has significant impact on agricultural productivity. Some of these effects are discussed as given below.

1. Global warming will decrease in essay treatise dissertation cereal production of the world due to english rubric, reduction of soil moisture. However, the productivity may increase in the polar region. 2. The changes in climatic conditions may shift the report treatise dissertation cropping pattern. 3. An increase in temperature will increase the rate of development of insect pests. Effect on mfa programs writing Human Health: Global warming has significant effect on essay dissertation human health and human diseases: 1. It may favour spreading of diseases like malaria and filaria.

2. It may favour the essays about breeding and growth of insect vectors. 3. It may favour the spreading of insect vectors from essay report treatise one latitude and altitude to other, thereby extending the boundaries of the diseases. Control of Green House Effect: In order to reduce the concentration of different green house gases including gases in the atmosphere and to cope with green house effect, the following strategies should be adopted : 1. Reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels drastically, 2. Increase of the efficiency of internal combustion engines used in automobiles so that the research paper pollutants in the exhaust will be reduced. 3. Use of scrubbers to remove CO 2 from the report treatise emissions of coal burning power plants and industries. 4. Writing An Introduction University. Methanol as a substitute to be used in report dissertation transport sector. Conjugaison Verbe. 5. Use of biogas for domestic purposes, as conventional energy. 6. Use of unleaded petrol in vehicle. 7. Banning of the use of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs). 8. Banning of deforestation. 9. Developing greeneries by undertaking massive afforestation programmes.

Smog is a combination of two words smoke and fog. The word smog was for essay treatise dissertation, the first time suggested by ontario english essay, H. A. Vocus in 1905 but first came into limelight in Belgium in dissertation 1930 as smoky fog. In 1952, the smog became a deadly pollutant killing few thousands in London. Smoke is produced as a result of the creative incomplete combustion of fuels. The smoke contains various gases and suspended particulate matter. In addition, another substance responsible for smog formation is dust. Dust is nothing but small particle of treatise dissertation solid matter that can be carried in suspension.

Dusts are produced from paper forest fires, automobile exhaust, industrial combustion process, soil blowing by wind, ocean spray, mining areas, etc. Dust combines with smoke and later with fog to produce #8216;smog#8217;, which appears in essay the form of cloudy layer in the atmosphere. Silas. A thick cloud of smog is produced where smoke instead of escaping, the area to outer atmosphere stays nearer to the surface due to temperature inversion. The smog is caused either due to the presence of oxidising pollutants or due to reducing pollutants. If the smog is caused due to oxidising pollutants, it is known as oxidising smog and if it is caused due to essay dissertation, reducing pollutants, it is known as reducing smog. Besides, the smog can also be classified according to english essay rubric, its pollutant content or nature of the reactions shown by the pollutants or the source from which the pollutants are generated etc. Let us discuss various types of smogs and their characteristics: 1. Sulphurous Smog: It is a mixture of fog, smoke and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas.

This type of smog was marked in London in 1952 where the smog prevailed for five days killing few thousands. Essay Report. The pollution was caused due to sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and smoke during temperature inversion. The effects were more severe in morning hours and became deadly after sunrise because of photo­chemical oxidation. The smog caused bronchitis, pneumonia, respiratory distress, and eye diseases. Since it is a mixture of reducing pollutants, it is research format also known as reducing smog. 2. Report Treatise. Los Angeles Smog: Such type of smog was recorded at silas coursework, Los Angeles in 1944 and thereafter it#8217;s known as Los Angeles smog. It is a type of photo-chemical smog. The smog contains different compounds at different times of treatise dissertation a day. In the morning, when nitric oxide (MO) is discharged from automobile exhausts build up and react with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) which is a yellowish brown gas with pungent and chocking odour. Format. Since MO 2 gas produces a characteristic brown haze, the cities where this type of smog predominates, are called brown air cities.

As the sun rises, the UV-rays cause a rapid conversion of report treatise NO 2 to MO and nascent oxygen atom. The peak is obtained in- between 10 A.M., and ontario english, 4.00 P.M. The nascent oxygen atoms react with oxygen molecules of air to give Ozone (O 3 ), the concentration of which is maximum at around 10 A.M. The other highly reactive chemical forms are hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxy radicals (OH) etc. Essay Dissertation. The presence of oxides of nitrogen in the environment induces the formation of other potent species like ozone (O 3 ), hydrogen. Peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxyl radical (HO + ), carbony radical (R CO + ), acetly peroxy radical (CH 3 COOO) + etc. The smog brings about a disaster in the living world possibly through the species like ozone, H 2 O 2 , hydroxyl radicals ( + OH), acetyl peroxy radicals, peroxy acyl nitrate (PAN), hydroperoxy radical etc.

The accumulation of oxides of good creative writing nitrogen in the environment induces the formation of other potent species as per the given mechanism. NO 2 hv (traction) > NO + O. R- CO + + O 2 >R-CO O- O + (Acyl peroxy radical) R- CO – O –O + + NO 2 > R- COO – NO 2 (Peroxy acyI nitrate) The formation of essay report treatise smog is highly destructive and influences both the physiological and metabolic activities of living organisms#8217; some important effects of smog are discussed as given below: 1. The presence of ozone, PANs and aldehydes in smog lead to eye irritation and affects respiratory tracts and throat. 2. Mfa Programs Creative. The presence of NO 2 in smog causes nose and eye irritation and chronic diseases in lungs and heart. Report. 3. Essay. The presence of PANs in smog causes extensive agricultural and essay dissertation, forestry damage, such as damage to leave and stomatal tissues. 4. PANs cause dizziness and headache in man. 5. Essay Rubric. Smog includes early maturity of plants and essay, hence induces senescence and silas, reduces rate of photosynthesis. 6. Essay Report Treatise. Smog damages metals, paper, rubber and about, fabrics.

7. The particulate matters in smog induce lung cancer. 8. Ozone decolourises the paintings. Report Treatise. The following are the methods to control smog: 1. The production of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and hydro-carbon should be controlled which checks the production of ozone and mfa programs creative, PANs. 2. The process like incineration, absorption, adsorption and condensation should be employed to essay report, reduce the different harmful constituents of smog such as oxide of ontario english essay rubric sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbon, carbon-monoxide, dust etc. Now-a-days, one of the major consequences of environmental pollution is the dissertation acid rain. It has become serious threat to ontario english essay rubric, water bodies like ponds, rivers, lakes and reservoirs and also to the terrestrial eco-systems like grasslands and forests. Acid rain may be defined as any precipitation such as rain, fog, mist or snow etc. which is more acidic than the report treatise dissertation normal i.e. having a lower pH than that of normal rain water. Normal rain water means rainfall in absence of any major pollutants in air. The normal rain water is also slightly acidic (pH approximately 5.6) because the basal level of CO 2 gas present in the air can also be solubilised in rain water giving carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), weak acid. However, when the essays about teratogens atmospheric air is essay report treatise highly polluted containing the major pollutants like oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and halogen radicals, these pollutants react with water vapours or rain droplets to ontario english essay, form different types of strong acids like sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and essay, hydrochloric acid (HC1) which have grave environmental impact. Hence, acid rain means the presence of excessive strong acids in rain water which lowers the pH of an introduction university water from normal.

The term acid rain was first referred by Robert Angus in 1872. It has become a serious problem in essay report treatise most of the industrialised countries like U.S.A., U.K., Germany, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Canada, etc. In India, it is also known that acid rain is destroying the essays about teratogens greatest monument Taj Mahal in Agra. Here, the acid rain is caused due to Mathura Oil Refinery, an industry discharging a number of poisonous gases into the atmosphere. Acid rain is due to the presence of dissertation various pollutants like oxides of nitrogen, oxides of sulphur and halogen radicals or molecules in the atmosphere. These pollutants are discharged into the atmosphere by several natural processes and human activities. Natural phenomena like volcanic eruptions, forest fires, lightening, burning of fossil fuel, decomposition of organic matters etc release large quantities of these pollutants into the atmosphere. Human activities like burning of fuels, automobile exhausts, industries and smelting plants, thermal power plants, petroleum refineries etc. release large quantities of these pollutants into the atmosphere. After the release of the pollutants (oxides of conjugaison futur sulphur and nitrogen and halogens) into treatise dissertation the atmosphere, these can travel thousands of kilometres. The longer these stay in the atmosphere, the more likely these are to be oxidized into acids. The conversion of the pollutants into ontario rubric their corresponding acids are shown in the.

Equations given below: (a) Formation of Nitrogenous acids: (b) Formation of Sulphuric acid: (c) Formation of treatise dissertation Hydrochloric acid: (d) Formation of conjugaison verbe essayer futur carbon acid: All these acids with naturally occurring carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) form acid rain with rain water and pH falls to 4,0, at times the treatise dissertation pH can also fall to about, 2.0. The concentration of these acids as well as the quantity of water in which the acids are dissolved determines the pH of essay treatise dissertation rain water. Ontario Essay. Heavy rains are usually less acidic as there is relatively more water. On the other hand, fogs and mists are more acidic as the acid molecules are dissolved in relatively little water. Report Treatise Dissertation. Acid rains create complex problems and their imports are far reaching. Some major impacts of acid rain on the eco-system are discussed below: 1. Acid rain increases the soil acidity affecting land flora and essays about teratogens, fauna. 2. Report Dissertation. It causes acidification of aquatic bodies which leads to the killing of aquatic plants and animals.

The increase in acidity also affects the metabolism, growth and mfa programs writing, development of aquatic organisms. Essay Dissertation. 3. It induces senescence of plants thereby reducing the productivity of the eco-system. Marner Coursework. 4. It leaches various metals such as aluminum, zinc, copper, manganese, cadmium, lead etc. from the soil into aquatic bodies. When the concentration of essay these metals (in soluble form) increases beyond the safe limit, it affects development and leads to the death of many aquatic organisms in general and fishes in particular. 5. It corrodes buildings, monuments, statues, bridges, fences, railings etc. Marner Coursework. 6. Acid rain affected plants and report, animals are easily attacked by pathogens. 7. Essayer Futur. Diseases caused by bacteria and pathogens can be spread by acid rain water. Essay Report Treatise Dissertation. 8. Acid rain may cause respiratory and good mfa programs creative, skin diseases.

Some important air pollution disasters are given in Table 7.8. Acid rain can only be controlled by managing the source of pollution. Several control methods are adopted to manage acid rain. Some important control measures are as discussed below: 1. The aquatic bodies and farmlands should be periodically limed to neutralise the acidity due to acid rain. 2. The fuels, devoid of sulphur or having low sulphur amount should be used to minimise the quantity of essay sulphur dioxide gas in about teratogens the atmosphere. 3. The leakage of essay report dissertation chlorine or its discharge should be stopped. 4. The vehicular exhaust should be minimised by using control valves in the outlet of the silas marner coursework exhaust pipeline of the automobiles. 5. The scrubbers should be used to reduce the essay emission of SO 2 during coal burning. 6. SO 2 gas released is mfa programs sprayed with water containing lime which precipitates SO 2 as calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ). 7. General public awareness should be created regarding the ill effects of environmental pollution and consequences of treatise dissertation acid rain.

In view of the above detrimental impacts of air pollution on mankind, plants and vegetation, we have to adopt some control measures in order to reduce the level of air pollutants in environment. Some important control measures are as follows: (i) Pollution from domestic fire should be controlled to the house holder#8217;s use. Alternative methods of the fuels like smokeless chullah should be used in order to increase the fuel efficiency and reduce the emission of conjugaison essayer futur solid particulates. (ii) Welled air house with high chimneys and scattered dwellings can reduce the problem of air pollution. (iii) As the plants absorb mainly air polluting gases like CO 2 , there should be massive afforestation programme in industrial areas and big cities. (iv) Setting of air quality standard for protection of dissertation environment and human health is highly essential. Ventilation and air-conditioning should be introduced. Teratogens. (v) Particulate emissions should be controlled in a gravity settling chamber, cyclone collector, cyclonic separator, filter, scrubbers and electrostatic precipitator. (vi) More and more flyovers, bridges, bylanes, footpaths for pedestrians, steamers and ferry launches and essay, other modes of navigational metropolitans public transport systems should be developed with a view to silas marner, minimize the usage of individual auto vehicles and thereby smoke emissions. This will ultimately lead to ecological and environmental preservation. (vii) More and more diesel multiple unit trains (DMU Trains) should be introduced in town area so that the people#8217;s dependency on the individual and public road transport may be minimized. (viii) Environmental education and awareness programmes need to treatise dissertation, be institutionalized by incorporating these in the essential activities of educational institutions. (ix) Use of unleaded petrol and diesel should be made compulsory. (x) Adequate legislation (Air Act) should be enacted to paper, compel to control air pollution.

Severe punishment should be specified to the defaulters. (xi) The use and production of CFCs should be banned with suitable substitute in order to check air pollution. (xii) The fuels devoid of sulphur or having low quantity of sulphur should be used to minimize the amount of sulphur dioxide gas in the atmosphere thereby reducing acid rain. (xiii) The production of Nitrogen Oxide (NO x ) and hydrocarbons should be controlled which will minimize the generation of ozone and PANs thereby declining smog formation. (xiv) The vehicular exhaust should be minimised by using control valves in report the outlets of the english rubric exhaust pipeline of the automobile. Air quality shows a combination of the physical and chemical characteristics which makes air, an important resource for better existence of report all living organisms including man. The physical characteristics are described by factors like temperature, density, moisture content and writing to an, air movement in the troposphere. The chemical characteristics include the concentration of different gases and pollutants. Dissertation. Mainly the natural processes are responsible in altering the physical characteristics whereas changes in chemical characteristics are due to anthropogenic activities.

The emissions from automobiles, industries, agricultural processes etc. Research Paper. add a number of obnoxious gases which adversely affect the air quality and essay treatise, render it unfit for living organisms on earth. It is, therefore, necessary to know to what extent the pollutant present in air can result in a situation in essays about which the latter can be termed as polluted. The Pollution (Prevention and Control) Boards, of different countries have fixed standards for ambient air quality (in India under Air Act 1981) beyond which an report dissertation ambient air can be considered as polluted. In India, the Air Act 1981 prescribes emission standards for many industries. Thus, air quality standards is creative a limit on the amounts of a given pollutant permitted in essay report dissertation the air around us and to an, emission standard signifies the maximum amount of treatise dissertation pollutants those can discharged from a specific point source. Till recently, limited, attention has been focused on vehicular pollution control in India.

The environment (Protection) Act, 1986 puts the responsibility of laying standards for vehicular emission to the Central and State pollution Control Boards so that standards can be incorporated in research format motor vehicle Acts and Rules. The ambient air quality standards of different primary pollutants are shown in Table 7.9. The governments of many countries have their legal standards for essay report treatise dissertation, ambient air quality. The purpose of these standards is to reduce the pollutants to verbe essayer, a certain level which would avoid undesirable effects. The prescribed standards may vary slightly from country to country depending upon their meteorological and geographical features and the population density. The air quality standards for United States of America are given in Table 7.10. and 7.11.

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CO-OP health plans: patients’ interests first. By Louise Norris contributor August 27, 2017. It’s been a rough few years for the ACA’s Consumer Operated and Oriented Plans. Essay Dissertation? There were 23 CO-OPs when the first open enrollment period got underway in essays about teratogens the fall of 2013, but by essay treatise dissertation, the beginning of 2016, only verbe essayer, 11 of them were still operational. By July 2016, four additional CO-OPs – in Ohio, Connecticut, Oregon, and Illinois – had failed. And in report dissertation September, Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey stopped offering new plans and announced that their existing plans would terminate at coursework, the end of 2016 (unlike the other CO-OPs that have failed, state regulators in New Jersey were initially saying that it might be possible for Health Republic to treatise dissertation be rehabilitated enough to return to essay the market in 2018, but that ultimately was not the case, and an order of liquidation was filed in February 2017). In December 2016, more than a month after open enrollment began for 2017 coverage, Maryland regulators announced that Evergreen Health CO-OP would not renew or issue individual market plans for 2017, leaving just five CO-OPs offering coverage in 2017 (Maryland regulators made an dissertation, administrative order in July 2017 that is expected to lead to receivership for Evergreen Health). In June 2017, Minuteman Health announced that they would no longer offer coverage as a CO-OP after the end of 2017. Their intent at that point was to reopen in 2018 as Minuteman Insurance Company (and to have plans available for sale during open enrollment in the fall of 2017 under that name), which was to have been a for-profit insurer rather than a CO-OP.

But by mid-August, they had failed to raise enough capital by the deadline to secure a license to essayer futur sell coverage for 2018, and would not be able to re-open as Minuteman Insurance Company in 2018. Minuteman Health has been placed in receivership by the Massachusetts Division of Insurance, and report treatise dissertation, their plans will terminate at silas marner, the end of 2017. After all the closures, there are just four CO-OPs slated to treatise offer coverage in 2018, in teratogens five states: Maine, Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The CO-OP failures have been due in large part to a combination of premiums that were too low, benefits that were too generous, enrollees who were sicker than anticipated, competition from bigger carriers with larger reserves, the risk corridor shortfall that was announced in the fall of 2015, and the risk adjustment payment announcements that were made in June 2016 (see below for a timeline of the closures). The Trump Administration’s approach to essay dissertation health care reform, and GOP lawmakers’ efforts to repeal and replace the ACA (via bills written in secret that bypass the normal bipartisan committee process), have further increased the ontario essay uncertainty that insurers are facing, making the situation even more precarious for small insurers like the dissertation remaining CO-OPs. 2018: 4 CO-OPs selling plans in 5 states. There are four CO-OPs that are expected to offer plans in five states in 2018. Although the vast majority of the original CO-OPs have failed, these four are showing signs of good creative writing, overall stability. It’s important to note, however, that if the Trump Administration continues to report cause uncertainty and ontario essay rubric, instability in the insurance markets (including Trump’s recent threats to dissertation cut off federal funding for coursework cost-sharing reductions), the report dissertation remaining CO-OPs will be among the most vulnerable.

Community Health Options (CHO) This was originally called Maine Community Health Options, but the name was changed to reflect the carrier’s expansion outside of Maine. 44,000 people enrolled in coverage through the exchange in 2014, and 83 percent of them selected Community Health Options, making the CO-OP’s first year an amazing success. CHO expanded into New Hampshire for 2015, fueled by marner, their initial success in 2014 and by a new loan from essay, CMS. During the second open enrollment period, CHO once again dominated the Maine market, securing about 80 percent of the exchange market share. They also enrolled about 5,000 people in New Hampshire. Marner Coursework? However, CHO reported significant losses in the third quarter of 2015, and decided to limit enrollment in individual plans for 2016. Enrollment directly through Community Health Options ceased December 15, 2015; enrollment in dissertation Community Health Options plans through ceased December 26. CHO ended 2015 with $74 million in losses – a far cry from the profitable year they had in 2014.

In early 2016, Maine’s Insurance Superintendent proposed putting the CO-OP in marner receivership and canceling a portion of its plans (about 20,000 members would have been transitioned to other coverage). But CMS didn’t allow that, saying that the plan cancellations would run afoul of the ACA’s guaranteed-renewable provision. The CO-OP is under increased oversight from the Maine Bureau of Insurance, which puts out essay report, monthly reports that detail how the CO-OP is faring relative to its business plan. According to the July 2017 report from the Bureau of Insurance, CHO’s net income in May 2017 was considerably lower than projected, but year-to-date claims were running just about as-projected. CHO is the only remaining CO-OP that received money—as opposed to having to pay out money—under the risk adjustment program for appendix research paper 2015 and essay treatise dissertation, again for an introduction to an essay university 2016. Essay Report Treatise Dissertation? For 2017, Community Health Options had an average rate increase of 25.5 percent in Maine, where bulk of their members live. They exited New Hampshire entirely at the end of good mfa programs creative, 2016, and reverted to essay dissertation operating solely in Maine, as they did in 2014. They have proposed roughly a 20 percent average rate increase for 2018 in the individual market, where they have about three-quarters of ontario essay, their membership. Their total membership was 67,539 at the end of essay report treatise, 2016, and had dropped to 44,015 by the first quarter of 2017 (all in Maine, since they’re no longer offering plans in New Hampshire).

Mountain Health Cooperative Montana Health CO-OP started in Montana, and expanded to Idaho in 2015. The CO-OP seems to be on relatively solid financial ground. CEO Jerry Dworak noted that the CO-OP didn’t expand too quickly, and maintained substantial reserves; they were not relying as heavily as other CO-OPs on risk corridor payments to essays teratogens shore up their financial position. Average rates for essay treatise Mountain Health CO-OP in Idaho increased by 26 percent for 2016. Writing Essay? For 2017, Mountain Health CO-OP’s average rate increase is essay report treatise, 29 percent in Idaho, and 31 percent in Montana. As of December 22, 2016, the CO-OP ceased enrollments in Montana due to essays teratogens the “large number of new members for 2017.” The enrollment freeze was lifted in July 2017 for report treatise off-exchange enrollments; on-exchange enrollments in good mfa programs Montana were expected to become available in the summer of 2017 as well. In both cases, this was ahead of schedule, as the CO-OP had originally expected the lift the enrollment freeze as of essay report treatise, November 1, at the start of mfa programs creative writing, open enrollment. In another indication of the CO-OP’s increasing viability, their average proposed rate increase for 2018 is report treatise, only 4 percent in Montana.

This demonstrates that the 31 percent average rate increase for 2017 may have been enough to stabilize the CO-OP and “right-size” the premiums. New Mexico Health Connections The CO-OP had net earnings of $420,000 in the first quarter of 2016, as opposed to a loss of $2.3 million in the first quarter of 2015. By the end of the 2016 open enrollment period, New Mexico Health Connections had more than 50,000 members, and the CO-OP had added several big-name employers, including Goodwill Industries of New Mexico, Youth Development Inc., and Heritage Hotels Resorts. NM Health Connections has said that they weren’t counting on significant payments from the risk corridor program in marner 2015, so the treatise dissertation shortage didn’t hurt them as much as it hurt other carriers. New Mexico Health Connections dropped their PPO plans for 2016 in order to focus on plan designs that allow them to better control costs. An Introduction? Several big-name carriers around the country took a similar approach in 2016, and PPOs are less common than they once were in report the individual market. For 2017, New Mexico Health Connections had an writing to an, average rate increase of 33 percent, before any exchange subsidies are applied. They have filed an average rate increase of 30.1 percent for report treatise dissertation 2018 (much lower than the 84 percent average rate increase they initially filed; the lower rate filing came about once it became clear that other insurers would not be exiting New Mexico’s market and the CO-OP did not have to insulate themselves against silas a flood of new enrollees). But their average rate increase could be even lower still, and the CEO noted in July that the CO-OP’s proposed rate increases were in the 20 to 25 percent range. Common Ground Healthcare Cooperative – The CO-OP offers coverage in 19 eastern Wisconsin counties.

The approved weighted average rate increase for essay Common Ground for 2016 was 18 percent. The CO-OP had 23,629 enrollees in Wisconsin in 2015. For 2017, the CO-OP had an average rate increase of 12.6 percent. And after losing money from ontario rubric, 2014 through 2017, Common Ground Healthcare posted a positive net income of $2.7 million in the first quarter of 2017. 2015 risk adjustment: 9 of report, 10 CO-OPs owed payments. Under the ACA’s risk adjustment program, health insurers with lower-risk enrollees end up paying money to english essay rubric health insurers with higher-risk enrollees. The idea is to treatise prevent insurers from designing plans that appeal only to healthy enrollees, and to ensure that premiums reflect benefit levels, rather than the overall health of a plan’s enrollees. On June 30, 2016, HHS released data on risk adjustment numbers for 2015.

Of the 10 CO-OPs that were still operational at that point, nine had to pay into essays teratogens the risk adjustment program for treatise 2015; only one remaining CO-OP – Community Health Options in Maine and New Hampshire – received a risk adjustment payment. Community Health Options received about $710,000 in risk adjustment funds. Some of the remaining CO-OPs had begun to be profitable in early 2016 (details below), but all of the essayer futur CO-OPs’ financial situations now have to be considered in conjunction with the fact that the CO-OPs will have to pay out the following amounts in essay report treatise risk adjustment payments, making their financial futures even more uncertain (of the nine CO-OPs that owed money in good mfa programs creative 2016 for the risk adjustment program, six have closed or are facing impending closure; only the CO-OPs listed in bold continue to essay report treatise be fully operational) Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP (Idaho and Montana): $481,000 Oregon Health CO-OP (Community Care of Oregon): $914,000 ( closed; plans ended July 31, 2016 ) Common Ground CO-OP (Wisconsin): $1.9 million Minuteman (operates in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, but risk adjustment outlay was for NH; MA operates its own risk adjustment program): $11 million (Minuteman has filed a lawsuit against CMS in an effort to “invalidate the illegal Risk Adjustment methodology and institute necessary changes immediately.” Minuteman Health is in receivership, and will stop offering coverage at good writing, the end of 2017 ) New Mexico Health Connections : $14.6 million. Dissertation? NM Health Connections filed a lawsuit against HHS in August 2016 over the risk adjustment program, requesting that the program be halted until improvements could be made. Healthy CT: $13.4 million ( closed; plans ended December 31, 2017 ) Evergreen Health CO-OP (Maryland): $24.2 million (Evergreen filed a lawsuit to block the collection of the risk adjustment payments; a district judge denied the CO-OP’s request on July 21, and the CO-OP immediately appealed the decision; Between $2 million and $3 million of the risk adjustment payment was to writing an introduction university be withheld by essay dissertation, CMS in mid-July from funds owed to the CO-OP for an introduction premium subsidies and cost-sharing reductions, and the remainder of the payment had to be remitted by Evergreen by report, August 15).

Evergreen notes that they would have profited between $2 million and $3 million in essays teratogens 2016 if it weren’t for the $24 million they had to report pay into english essay the risk adjustment program. Report Dissertation? As a result of the losses, they began the process of being acquired by private investors and conjugaison verbe essayer, converting to a for-profit entity (this process ultimately didn’t happen fast enough for Evergreen to be able to sell or renew individual plans for 2017; in July 2017 the investors terminated the acquisition, and Maryland regulators began the process that’s expected to lead to receivership for Evergreen Health ). Land of Lincoln (Illinois): $31.8 million (the state ordered Land of Lincoln to withhold payment until if and report treatise, when the CO-OP receives the money they were supposed to get in 2015 for the 2014 risk corridors program. English? That tactic didn’t work however, and on July 12, Illinois regulators began the process of essay report treatise dissertation, closing Land of Lincoln Health, and the CO-OP was placed in liquidation as of October 1, 2016 ). Freelancer’s CO-OP (Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey): $46.3 million ( in mfa programs creative writing September 2016, regulators placed Health Republic in rehabilitation, and essay, the CO-OP stopped selling new plans ; the risk adjustment payment — which was much more than they had previously been advised it would be — was cited as a primary reason for the CO-OP’s financial instability). HHS has proposed changes to the risk adjustment program for marner 2018, to essay dissertation make it more equitable and less burdensome for new, smaller carriers. They’ve also indicated that states can make regulatory changes before 2018 to ensure a more functional risk adjustment program. 2016 risk adjustment: 4 out of 5 remaining CO-OPs once again owe money. On June 30, 2017, HHS published the risk adjustment report for 2016. Maine Community Health Options was once again the only remaining CO-OP that will receive funding under the verbe essayer futur risk adjustment program; they’ll get $9.1 million.

The report also details the amount that insurers owe or will receive for 2016 under the ACA’s temporary reinsurance program (2016 was the last year for the reinsurance program). All five of the remaining CO-OPs will receive money from the 2016 reinsurance program, but in essay report treatise most cases, it’s not as much as they’ll have to pay out under the risk adjustment program. Maine Community Health Options — the only remaining CO-OP receiving funding under the risk adjustment program — will also receive $21 million under the 2016 reinsurance program, which is far more than any of the other CO-OPs will receive. Common Ground CO-OP has to pay $3.7 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $10.5 million in reinsurance) Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP has to pay $8.3 million in writing to an essay university risk adjustment (but will receive $2.9 million in reinsurance) New Mexico Health Connections has to report treatise pay $8.9 million in risk adjustment (but will receive $3 million in ontario english essay reinsurance) NM Health Connections sued the report federal government in 2016 over to an university, the risk adjustment program, but so far, the system is still set up in a way that ultimately ends up taking money from essay treatise, smaller, newer insurers and marner coursework, giving it to report treatise larger, more established insurers. Minuteman, which is closing at the end of marner, 2017, has to pay $25.4 million in risk adjustment for 2016 (but will receive $3 million in reinsurance). Dissertation? Notably, they owed far more in 2016 risk adjustment than any of the other remaining CO-OPs. They explained in mfa programs creative writing June, in treatise dissertation conjunction with their announcement that they would no longer be a CO-OP after 2017 (at that point, they hoped to re-open as a for-profit insurer, but that plan was scrapped when they were unable to raise enough capital to appendix paper format secure a license for 2018), that the treatise amount they had been forced to pay into the risk adjustment program amounted to about a third of the premiums they had collected.

In May 2016, after extensive input from stakeholders, HHS issued new regulations in an effort to help the mfa programs writing remaining CO-OPs become financially viable. Due to the urgency of the situation, the regulations took effect almost immediately, on May 11. Report? The new regulations make a variety of changes that make it easier for CO-OPs to seek outside investments and expand their coverage offerings beyond the individual and small group markets: In the past, there were relatively strict rules governing the make-up of CO-OP boards. English Essay Rubric? CO-OP board members could not be representatives or employees of dissertation, any federal, state, or local government entity, and they could also not be representatives or employees of any health insurance carrier that was operational as of research paper, July 2009. Report Treatise? These rules were established to prevent conflicts of interest among CO-OP board members (for example, an employee of appendix research paper format, a competing insurance company might have a conflict of interest and might not make decisions solely based on the best interests of the essay treatise CO-OP). The new regulations relax these rules, as HHS has discovered that the rules were too strict, and were preventing well-qualified experts from essays teratogens, joining CO-OP boards. The new regulations allow government employees and representatives to be on CO-OP boards as long as they’re not in senior or high-level positions in the government. Treatise Dissertation? And employees or representatives from already-established insurers can be on CO-OP boards as long as they’re affiliated with insurance carriers that don’t compete in the individual and small group markets where CO-OPs operate.

The old rules also required all of a CO-OP’s board of ontario, directors to be elected by CO-OP members, and also required all members of the report dissertation board of directors to also be members of the CO-OP. The new regulations allow for english some leeway here too. Only a majority of the board members must be elected by essay report treatise, CO-OP members, and board members are no longer required to be members of the CO-OP. This allows outside entities that are providing loans, investments, and services to the CO-OP to have representatives on essays about teratogens, the board of directors, and will – in theory – make it easier for CO-OPs to attract new investments . Treatise Dissertation? HHS notes that including investor representatives on boards of directors is silas marner, a common practice in the private sector. The old rules made it difficult for CO-OPs to find willing and qualified individuals to serve on report, their boards of directors, and the old rules allow them to seek outside experts to provide assistance via being on ontario essay rubric, the board of directors. The CO-OPs will still be member-driven though, as the majority of board members must still be elected by CO-OP members. New Mexico Health Connections announced in 2016 that they planned to work with Raymond James, a New York based investment firm, to raise “a substantial amount” of funding for New Mexico Health Connections. Maryland’s CO-OP, Evergreen Health , was working to raise $15 million by August 2016, and by July, the CO-OP had come to agreements with eight guarantors to front more than half of essay dissertation, that $15 million. But Evergreen Health later opted for the ultimate private investor arrangement, with plans for private investors to silas marner coursework acquire the CO-OP in 2017. If that had worked out, the treatise dissertation insurer would still have been called Evergreen Health, but would have been a for-profit entity and essay, no longer a CO-OP.

Ultimately, the new arrangement didn’t receive federal approval in time to essay report continue to offer coverage for 2017, and Maryland’s Insurance Commissioner announced on December 8 that Evergreen would not sell or renew any individual plans for creative 2017. They had planned to return to the individual market in 2018, but the private investors terminated the acquisition in July 2017, and Maryland regulators imposed an essay report treatise, administrative order that is expected to research paper lead to the CO-OP entering receivership. The ACA requires that at least two-thirds of a CO-OP’s policies must be issued in the individual and essay report dissertation, small group markets in the state where the essayer CO-OP is licensed. Originally, the report treatise dissertation rule was that CO-OPs that ran afoul of that provision would have to repay their federal loans immediately. The new regulations allow for more leeway: CO-OPs that aren’t meeting the two-thirds rule don’t necessarily have to repay their loans immediately, but they do have to teratogens demonstrate a plan for essay report getting into compliance with the conjugaison essayer futur two-thirds rule, and report dissertation, be acting in good faith to marner coursework achieve that standard (most CO-OPs only operate in the individual and small group markets thus far, but HealthyCT in Connecticut is an exception – they offer large group plans in addition to individual and small group plans). The new flexibility allows CO-OPs to enter into other markets – including large group, Medicare, Medicaid, and ancillary products such as dental and vision, without having to be overly concerned with running afoul of the two-thirds rule and triggering an immediate payback requirement for federal loans. Under prior rules, CO-OPs weren’t allowed to sell their policies to another insurer.

So when 12 CO-OPs failed by the end of 2015, the only option was to send their members back to the general market – on or off-exchange – to report dissertation seek new coverage. Good Mfa Programs Creative? The new HHS regulations allow insolvent CO-OPs to sell their policies to another insurer, although the transaction would have to be approved by CMS. Essay Treatise? The idea here is to preserve coverage for existing members if additional CO-OPs fail. Membership surpassed a million enrollees by 2015, but has declined sharply with CO-OP closures. During the 2014 open enrollment period, just over 400,000 people enrolled in CO-OPs nationwide. That climbed to over a million by the end of the 2015 open enrollment period – despite the fact that CoOpportunity (Iowa and Nebraska) stopped selling policies in writing to an university December 2014, and their once-robust enrollment (120,000 members) had dropped to essay dissertation about 2,000 people by mid-February 2015. While enrollment in private plans through the exchanges increased by english rubric, 46 percent in 2015 (from 8 million people in the first open enrollment period, to 11.7 million in the second open enrollment period), enrollment in CO-OPs increased by 150 percent.

At the end of 2015, however, more than 500,000 of those enrollees had to switch to a different plan, as 11 of the 22 remaining CO-OPs closed at the end of 2015. In May 2016, Ohio regulators announced that InHealth Mutual would be liquidated, leaving just ten remaining CO-OPs nationwide. And only three of essay report, them are not currently subject to enhanced federal oversight: New Mexico Health Connections, Mountain Health Cooperative (Montana and Idaho), and Minuteman Health, Inc (Massachusetts and mfa programs writing, New Hampshire). The other eight CO-OPs still in operation are all under “corrective action plans” from the federal government. Seven of the essay report treatise eleven CO-OPs that were still operational at the end of 2015 had at research paper format, least 25,000 enrollees as of mid-2015, which is the minimum number that CMS says is necessary for financial solvency. The other four had not yet achieved that benchmark by report dissertation, early 2016, and two of them—in Oregon and Ohio—were among the four CO-OPs that had failed by July 2016.

Of the remaining six CO-OPs, five had membership in excess of 25,000 people as of mid-2015. CMS recognized that, in a competitive marketplace, CO-OPs would face challenges. The agency acknowledged that more than one-third of the CO-OPs would likely fail in the first 15 years. CMS projected a 40 percent default rate for the planning loans and a 35 percent default rate for the solvency loans. But with only five of 23 CO-OPs slated to about still be in business by essay treatise, the end of 2017, the failure rate is 78 percent, after three and a half years of to an essay university, operations.

In terms of recent enrollment totals for the remaining CO-OPs: Common Ground CO-OP had 19,300 members in 2016 Mountain Health CO-OP/Montana Health CO-OP had roughly 15,000 members in treatise Montana in 2016, and added 10,000 new members for writing to an essay 2017. They also have members in Idaho. Essay Report? New Mexico Health Connections membership had grown to research 50,000 by dissertation, 2016 Community Health Options: 44,015 members as of the futur first quarter of essay report dissertation, 2017. In addition, Minuteman Health (which will no longer exist as a CO-OP after the end of 2017) has 37,000 members in Massachusetts and New Hampshire in essay rubric 2017, and Evergreen Health (which is essay dissertation, under an administrative order that is expected to lead to receivership) has 25,000 members in Maryland. A look at the CO-OPs that are facing impending closure. In addition to the four CO-OPs described above that intend to continue to offer coverage in 2018, two other CO-OPs are still operational in 2017, but will no longer exist as CO-OPs in 2018: MASSACHUSETTS and NEW HAMPSHIRE Minuteman Health Inc. ( will close at the end of good mfa programs, 2017 ) Enrollment exceeded 22,500 in essay report treatise the first quarter of ontario essay rubric, 2016, and report, the CO-OP ceased its advertising campaign in an effort to avoid enrolling too many members. The CO-OP had a profitable first quarter of 2016, as opposed to the $3.8 million loss they suffered in the first quarter of 2015. By April 2016, Minuteman’s enrollment had reached about 26,000 people, which was an 85 percent increase over silas coursework, 2015 enrollment.

More than 21,000 of Minuteman’s QHP enrollees are in New Hampshire, and essay dissertation, the state also has more than 3,400 Premium Assistance Program (privatized Medicaid) members with Minuteman coverage. All Minuteman Health enrollees in New Hampshire and essays teratogens, Massachusetts will need to secure new coverage for essay report 2018, as the CO-OP is closing at the end of mfa programs creative writing, 2017. MARYLAND Evergreen Health Cooperative Inc. (group coverage only in 2017; (no longer allowed to sell or renew any policies under an administrative order that is “a preliminary step to an anticipated receivership”) Enrollment was under 30,000 at the end of 2015, and had grown to 40,000 by March 2016. Evergreen had its first-ever profitable quarter in the beginning of 2016, with a net income of $547,000. That’s compared with a loss of $2.3 million in report treatise dissertation the first quarter of 2015. For 2015, Evergreen Health CO-OP lost money, as did all of the appendix paper CO-OPs.

But their loss was the smallest of the 11 remaining CO-OPs, at essay report, $10.8 million. In 2016, Evergreen would have been profitable for the full year, except for the $24 million they had to pay into the risk corridor program for 2015. For 2017, Evergreen had proposed an coursework, average rate increase of just 8 percent, but regulators ultimately approved an average rate increase of more than 20 percent. Evergreen owed CMS $24.2 million in essay treatise risk adjustment funds for 2015, which is silas coursework, more than a quarter of the carrier’s total revenue. They had worked out an arrangement under which they would be acquired by private investors and converted to a for-profit (ie, not a CO-OP) insurance company, but the investors terminated the acquisition in July 2017, leading state regulators to determine that the CO-OP was no longer financially viable. The following CO-OPs had already closed by 2017: ARIZONA CLOSED Meritus Health Partners In a deviation from the norm, Meritus offered year-round enrollment outside the exchange until late summer 2015; tax credits were only available inside the exchange, and report treatise dissertation, regular open enrollment dates applied to plans purchased in the exchange. Meritus was among the worst-performing CO-OPs in terms of 2014 actual enrollment as a percentage of projected enrollment. The HHS report showed just 869 people enrolled through Meritus as of the end of 2014, out of a projected 24,000. Meritus claims that the actual enrollment total at the end of 2014 was higher (3,500) but still well short of the target number. By August 2015, enrollment in Meritus plans had skyrocketed to almost 56,000 people.

But just two days prior to the start of the 2016 open enrollment period, the Arizona Department of Insurance announced that Meritus could no longer sell or renew policies, and that existing plans would terminate at the end of ontario english rubric, 2015. Report Treatise? COLORADO CLOSED Colorado HealthOP – The CO-OP got roughly 13 percent of the exchange market share in essays about 2014 (the second highest of any carrier in the exchange), but they lowered their prices considerably for essay treatise dissertation 2015, and garnered nearly 40 percent of the exchange’s enrollees during the second open enrollment period. For 2015, they had the lowest prices in eight of Colorado’s nine rating areas. Colorado Health OP was also facing a shortfall from the risk corridors program, and immediately began working hard to overcome it. But their efforts were not sufficient, and the Colorado Division of Insurance decertified them from the exchange on October 16, 2015. CONNECTICUT CLOSED HealthyCT – The CO-OP had 15.6 percent of the market share in 2015, but dropped to just under 12 percent for 2016. The CO-OP raised their premiums by an average of 7.2 percent for 2016.

Unlike many other CO-OPs, HealthyCT wasn’t counting on essays teratogens, the risk corridors payout that they were owed for 2014, so the shortfall wasn’t as significant for HealthyCT as it was for some of the other CO-OPs. Report Treatise? Unlike most CO-OPs, HealthyCT also sold coverage in the large group market, so they had a stronger off-exchange presence than carriers that only offer individual and small group plans. HealthyCT also built its own provider network, instead of having to rent an ontario essay rubric, already-established network from another carrier, as many CO-OPs did. But ultimately, the CO-OP succumbed to the $13.4 million bill that they received for treatise dissertation the 2015 risk adjustment program. In July 2016, state regulators ordered HealthyCT to appendix format stop writing new policies or renewing existing policies. The CO-OP’s 13,000 individual market insureds (most of essay treatise, whom had coverage through the state’s exchange) were insured through December 31, 2016, but needed to pick a new plan during open enrollment. The CO-OP’s 27,000 employer-sponsored group enrollees continued to have coverage through the CO-OP until their renewal date in 2017 if their 2016 renewal date was July or earlier. Groups that renewed in August or later had to an introduction to an switch to a different carrier as of their 2016 renewal date. ILLINOIS CLOSED Land of Lincoln Health The CO-OP in Illinois weathered the initial risk corridor storm, as they weren’t counting on a full payment from CMS. But they limited small group enrollments for the last two months of 2015, and they also capping 2016 enrollment at about 65,000 to 70,000 people (roughly a 30 percent increase over their 2015 membership) in order to sustainably manage their growth.

Enrollment for the year had ceased by early January, as the CO-OP had met their membership target. During the first quarter of 2016, Land of dissertation, Lincoln lost $7.1 million, up from the $5.3 million they lost in the first quarter of 2015. An AP analysis of ten of the remaining 11 CO-OPs found that all of them lost money in 2015, but Land of Lincoln Health lost the most, at $90.8 million. Verbe Futur? Nevertheless, the CO-OP is on the hook for a $31.8 million payment for report treatise 2015 risk adjustment. In late June, state regulators ordered Land of Lincoln to withhold payment until if and when the CO-OP receives the $73 million they were supposed to get in conjugaison 2015 for the 2014 risk corridors program. This move was made in an effort to keep the essay CO-OP solvent, but it was unsuccessful. On July 12, regulators in Illinois announced that they were beginning the process of conjugaison verbe futur, shutting down Land of Lincoln Health; the CO-OP will close on essay dissertation, September 30, 2016. English Rubric? A special enrollment period will allow the CO-OP’s 49,000 enrollees to pick a new plan. If a plan selection is essay treatise dissertation, made between August 2 and September 30, coverage under the new plan will take effect October 1, with no gap in ontario english rubric coverage.

If a plan selection is made between October 1 and November 29, normal effective date rules will apply and there will be a gap in coverage. IOWA and NEBRASKA CLOSED CoOportunity Health (Iowa and report treatise dissertation, Nebraska) – EDIT, 1/5/15, and 7/30/2015 : CoOportunity Health was taken over by Iowa state regulators in late December 2014. Once federal funding ran out, it became clear that the carrier didn’t have enough money to remain viable, as reserves had dropped to writing about $17 million by December. Report Dissertation? At the verbe time, HHS said that the other 22 CO-OPs appeared to still be financially viable early in 2015. CoOportunity had raised their rates considerably for 2015, although they covered about 120,000 members in Iowa and Nebraska. Most existing policy holders transitioned to essay report treatise other carriers by February 15, but there were still about teratogens 2,000 members as of mid-February. Early in report treatise 2015, there was some hope that regulators would be able to successfully rehabilitate the carrier. Writing? But by treatise, February 18, the appendix paper Insurance Division announced that they would begin the report treatise process of liquidating the carrier before the end of the month, and the remaining insureds had to transition to other carriers by March 1. KENTUCKY CLOSED Kentucky Health Care Cooperative Near the conjugaison essayer futur end of the 2014 open enrollment period, Kentucky Health Cooperative had garnered 75 percent of the exchange enrollments in essay report Kentucky . By the end of 2014, Kentucky Health Cooperative was covering 55,852 people in the state. Good Mfa Programs? The CO-OP had planned to expand into West Virginia for 2015, but backed out just a week before open enrollment over worries that their infrastructure wasn’t ready for essay the new influx of members. They had planned to move forward with their expansion to appendix paper West Virginia in 2016, but the West Virginia Insurance Commissioner’s office confirmed in early September 2015 that the report treatise dissertation Kentucky CO-OP no longer had plans to expand into teratogens West Virginia. As of June 2015, Kentucky Health Cooperative still had more than 55,000 members, despite the fact that their premiums increased by an average of essay treatise, 15 percent in 2015.

But Kentucky Health Cooperative also had the distinction of being the CO-OP with the most red ink in 2014, losing $50.4 million by verbe futur, the end of 2014 (although losses had diminished considerably in 2015; by the end of the first half of the report treatise dissertation year, losses totaled just $4 million). The losses from 2014 would have been offset by the risk corridors payment if it had been paid as owed ($77 million). Good? Instead, the CO-OP was going to essay report receive less than $10 million from the risk corridors program, and that simply wasn’t enough to sustain them. Kentucky Health CO-OP announced in early October that they would cease operations at the end of 2015. LOUISIANA CLOSED Louisiana Health Cooperative Inc. – EDIT, 7/30/2015: On July 24, the creative writing Louisiana Department of Insurance announced that the CO-OP would be winding down its operations this year, and would not participate in the upcoming open enrollment for 2016. The existing 17,000 enrollees can remain with the carrier for the rest of 2015, and there are still enough cash reserves to cover claims for the rest of the year. MICHIGAN CLOSED Consumers Mutual Insurance of Michigan Nearly 80 percent of the CO-OP’s enrollees in 2015 were off-exchange. Michigan’s CO-OP was the last to announce failure in 2015, doing so on November 2, the day after open enrollment began for 2016 coverage. Essay Treatise Dissertation? NEVADA CLOSED Nevada Health Cooperative – In late August 2015, officials at Nevada Health CO-OP announced – amid mounting financial losses and essay university, “challenging market conditions” – that the essay report dissertation carrier would be ceasing operations by the end of the appendix paper year. The CO-OP had about a third of the report treatise dissertation individual enrollments in the Nevada exchange for appendix paper format 2015, but they had to switch to another carrier for 2016.

NEW JERSEY CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey (Freelancer’s CO-OP) – The CO-OP ended 2014 with 4,254 members. By July 2015, the CO-OP’s enrollment had exceeded 60,000 people, thanks to report new plan designs and lower premiums. Rate increases for 2016 ranged from 9 percent to good mfa programs 18 percent. For 2017, Health Republic of NJ proposed an average rate increase of treatise dissertation, just 8.5 percent, but ultimately the carrier was placed in rehabilitation in mid-September, and had to stop offering new plans at creative, that point. State regulators initially said that it was possible the CO-OP could return to the market in 2018, but that ultimately was not the case, and an order of essay report treatise dissertation, liquidation was filed in February 2017). All existing Health Republic plans in New Jersey terminated on December 31, 2016. NEW YORK CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of New York – The CO-OP enrolled 19 percent of the writing to an essay university people who purchased plans through NY State of essay dissertation, Health (the state-run exchange) during the 2014 open enrollment period. Their membership had grown to about 112,000 by April 2014, and 155,000 by the end of 2014 – far surpassing their initial 2014 goal of 30,000 members. In 2015, they again garnered 19 percent of treatise dissertation, NY State of Health’s private plan enrollees, and had total enrollment of about 200,000 people by appendix paper, the time regulators announced in September 2015 that the dissertation CO-OP would be closing.

There were 16 carriers offering plans through NY State of Health, and only one had slightly higher market share than the CO-OP. Mfa Programs Writing? But Health Republic of essay treatise, NY lost $35 million in 2014, and $52.7 million in the first half of 2015; their high enrollment was not a financial panacea – they enrolled far more people than expected, but that ultimately translated into ontario english essay rubric losses that far exceeded projections. On September 25, state and federal regulators, along with NY’s state-run exchange, announced that they had ordered Health Republic to stop issuing new policies and prepare to terminate existing individual plans at the end of 2015. It was subsequently determined that the CO-OP was simply losing too much money to continue as a viable insurer, and coverage was terminated on November 30. OHIO InHealth Mutual CLOSED InHealth Mutual enrolled just 11 percent of their target membership for 2014. But that was partly because the essay treatise dissertation carrier got licensed too late in 2013 to be sold on So instead, InHealth Mutual mainly sold off-exchange small group plans in 2014. But for the 2015 open enrollment period, InHealth Mutual was available through the exchange, and enrollment had more than doubled to conjugaison verbe essayer 16,000 by mid-January. Essay Report Treatise Dissertation? However, during the first six months of 2015, InHealth reported $9.1 million in net losses.

Ultimately, state regulators announced in late May 2016 that the CO-OP would be liquidated, and that the current 21,800 enrollees would have a 60 day special enrollment period during which they would be able to switch to futur a different carrier. Enrollees who remained with InHealth Mutual had coverage through the end of 2016, but it was through the state guaranty fund, which means it had a cap of essay report treatise, $500,000 and would subject the ontario english rubric enrollees to the ACA’s penalty for not having minimum essential coverage. OREGON CLOSED Health Republic Insurance of report treatise, Oregon Health Republic’s failure was blamed in large part on the risk corridor shortfall, as was the case with many of the CO-OPs that failed in late 2015. In February 2016, Health Republic of Oregon announced that they were suing the good mfa programs creative writing federal government over the risk corridor shortfall. Their hope is to essay make the coursework suit a class action case so that other insurers who were shorted by the risk corridor program can join in the lawsuit. OREGON CLOSED Oregon’s Health CO-OP Oregon Health CO-OP is officially called “Community Care of Oregon”.

It had just 1,582 members at the end of report treatise, 2014. By January 2015, their membership had grown to 10,000 people, and by April 2015, they said they were on track to hit 20,000 by the end of the year, and conjugaison futur, had “healthy financial reserves.” But they were expecting to receive $5 million via the 2015 risk adjustment program, and ended up owing $900,000 instead. That pushed the CO-OP into insolvent territory, and the state announced on July 8 that they were placing the essay CO-OP in essays about receivership. All Oregon Health CO-OP plans terminated on treatise dissertation, July 31, 2016. The CO-OP had 20,600 members—11,800 in the individual market, and silas marner, 8,800 in the small group market. Individuals had a special enrollment period beginning July 11 to enroll in a new plan, with coverage effective August 1. To get an August 1 effective date, members had to pick a new plan by July 31. Small groups worked with brokers or carriers to secure a new plan with an August 1 effective date. The state also worked out an arrangement to ensure that CO-OP members get credit for their out-of-pocket spending during the first seven months of 2019, even after transferring to report treatise dissertation a new carrier starting in August. SOUTH CAROLINA CLOSED Consumer’s Choice Health Insurance Company Consumers Choice had the same CEO as neighboring Tennessee’s Community Health Alliance Mutual Insurance Company, which also closed at the end of conjugaison verbe essayer futur, 2015. Consumer’s Choice had 67,000 members in 2015. TENNESSEE CLOSED Community Health Alliance Mutual Insurance Company (Tennessee) – Community Health Alliance had just 2,287 members at the end of 2014 – out of a projected 25,000 – and experienced a loss of dissertation, $22 million in 2014.

But they lowered their premiums for 2015 and experienced a surge in enrollment (35,761 members as of May 2015). Enrollment grew so quickly during the 2015 open enrollment period that Community Health Alliance suspended enrollment in their plans as of January 15, noting that they had already met their enrollment goal for the year. They proposed a 32.6 percent rate increase for essays teratogens 2016, although regulators ultimately increased it to 44.7 percent in order to preserve the CO-OP’s viability. The CO-OP had planned to essay treatise dissertation resume selling coverage during the 2016 open enrollment period, but regulators announced in mid-October 2015 that the carrier would instead be closing at the end of the year, and all members would need to transition to another carrier for 2016. Writing To An? UTAH CLOSED Arches Mutual Insurance Company Arches insured roughly a quarter of Utah’s exchange enrollees in 2015. The CO-OP’s on-exchange enrollment was about 32,000 people, all of whom had to find alternate plans for 2016. In July 2015, HHS released financial and enrollment data for the 23 CO-OPs, as of December 2014. The outlook based on the report was not particularly great: all but one of the CO-OPs operated at essay report treatise, a loss in ontario english rubric 2014, and 13 of the CO-OPs fell far short of their enrollment goals for 2014. The audit called into question the CO-OPs’ ability to repay the essay report loans that they received from the federal government under Obamacare.

The risk corridor shortfall has been directly implicated in the failure of CO-OPs in essays Kentucky, Tennessee, Colorado, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, Arizona, and Michigan. Essay Dissertation? There is no way around the fact that such a significant financial blow is hard to overcome, particularly for verbe essayer futur carriers that were new to the market in 2014. Essay Report Dissertation? Eight CO-OPs failed in the weeks following the risk corridor shortfall announcement. Those eight CO-OPs were in serious financial jeopardy as a result of the risk corridor shortfall and essays about teratogens, other factors, and state Insurance Commissioners made the difficult decision to shut them down prior to report the start of open enrollment, or shortly thereafter. It’s much less complicated to wind down operations in an orderly fashion in the last couple months of a year than it is to have a carrier become financially insolvent mid-year. That, coupled with the mfa programs late announcement regarding the treatise risk corridors shortfall, explains the rash of CO-OP failures announced in late 2015 (It should be noted that it’s not just CO-OPs feeling the pain from the risk corridor shortfall; in Wisconsin, Anthem exited the exchange market in three counties and scaled back operations in 34 other counties, partially as a result of the risk corridor shortfall. And in Wyoming, WINhealth has exited the individual market because of the risk corridor shortfall; in Alaska and writing an introduction to an, Oregon, Moda nearly exited the market, due in large part to the risk corridor shortfall.) But with 12 out of 23 CO-OPs going under in 2015, it wasn’t surprising that the mood in report dissertation late 2015 was relatively pessimistic regarding the verbe CO-OP model. In his press release about the demise of report, Arches Health Plan, Utah Insurance Commissioner Todd E. Kiser noted that “ It is regrettable that the co-op model has not worked across the country .” That didn’t bode well for the remaining 11 CO-OPs, and ultimately only four of them intend to good mfa programs offer coverage for 2018. All 11 of the remaining CO-OPs suffered losses in 2015, amounting to a total of about $400 million (Evergreen lost the report least, at $10.8 million; Land of Lincoln lost the most, at $90.8 million).

The bulk of the losses were in appendix research paper format the fourth quarter, indicating that consumers are trying to essay report treatise dissertation get as much value as possible from their coverage before the appendix research end of the plan year. Essay Dissertation? So although a few of the research format remaining CO-OPs are in treatise the black so far in 2016, their profits are very modest, and english essay, it’s unclear how the rest of the treatise year might go. The fact that lawmakers decided at the end of 2014 to retroactively require the risk corridors program to be budget-neutral was a significant blow to essays about teratogens the CO-OPs. The CO-OPs – along with the rest of the report dissertation carriers – had set their premiums for 2014 (and by that time, for 2015 as well) with the good mfa programs creative writing expectation that risk corridors payments would mitigate losses if they experienced higher-than-expected claims. Clearly, that has not panned out, and it certainly put the CO-OPs in a tough spot. To clarify, HHS said in 2013 that the risk corridor program would NOT be budget-neutral, and that federal funds would be used to make up any short-falls; carriers set their rates for 2014 based on that.

But then in 2014, HHS announced in 2014 that they had made several adjustments to the risk corridor program, and that they projected “that these changes, in combination with the changes to the reinsurance program finalized in this rule, will result in net payments that are budget neutral in 2014. We intend to report implement this program in a budget neutral manner, and may make future adjustments, either upward or downward to this program (for example, as discussed below, we may modify the ceiling on allowable administrative costs) to the extent necessary to achieve this goal.” But this was after rates for 2014 were long-since locked in, and enrollment nearly complete. At the essays end of 2014, congress passed the Cromnibus Bill, requiring risk corridors to be budget neutral, with no wiggle room for HHS. We do have to keep in mind, however, that CMS knew from the get-go that some CO-OPs would fail. Essay Dissertation? They expected at least a third of them to fail in the first 15 years, and that was long before the risk corridors program was retroactively changed to be budget neutral. What are CO-OPs and how are they different? Consumer Operated and futur, Oriented Plans (CO-OPs) were created under a provision of the report dissertation Affordable Care Act. Appendix Research Paper Format? CO-OP plans were proposed by Senator Kent Conrad (D-ND) when the original public plan option was jettisoned during the health care reform debate.

Lawmakers added the CO-OP provision to the Affordable Care Act to placate Democrats who had pushed for report treatise dissertation a government-run, Medicare-for-all type of health insurance program. At the time, progressives who preferred a public option derided CO-OPs as a poor alternative because they can’t utilize the efficiencies of scale that would come with Medicare For All, nor do they have the market clout that a single payer system would have when negotiating reimbursement rates with providers. But supporters noted that because CO-OPs are neither government agencies nor commercial insurers, they can put patients first, without having to focus on investors or Congressional politics. Instead of paying shareholders, CO-OP profits are reinvested in the plan to lower premiums or improve benefits (in 2014, only one CO-OP, Maine Community Health Options, had revenue that exceeded claims and administrative expenses – but the reinvestment of profits is the plan for all CO-OPs, once they become profitable). And customers’ health insurance needs and concerns become a top priority because the CO-OP’s customers/members elect their own board of directors. And a majority of silas marner coursework, these directors must themselves be members of the report treatise dissertation CO-OP. CO-OPs are private, nonprofit, state-licensed health insurance carriers. Their plans can be sold both inside and outside the conjugaison verbe health insurance exchanges, depending on treatise dissertation, the state, and can offer individual, small group, and large group plans. Good Creative Writing? But they’re are limited to having no more than a third of their policies in the large group market (a more lucrative market than individual or small group).

Lawmakers had originally planned to provide $10 billion in grants to get the CO-OPs up and running in essay treatise dissertation every state. But insurance industry lobbyists and fiscal conservatives in Congress succeeded in ontario essay rubric reducing the total to $6 billion, and turning it into loans – with relatively short repayment schedules – instead of essay report treatise dissertation, grants (and CO-OPs are not permitted to use federal loan money for marketing purposes). Then, during budget negotiations in 2011, those loans were cut by another $2.2 billion. And in 2012, during the fiscal cliff negotiations, CO-OP funding was reduced even further – and applications from 40 prospective CO-OPs were rejected. To be approved to establish a CO-OP, applicants underwent background checks that included public records searches at the local, state, and national level as well as searches of federal debarment databases. Loan recipients are subject to strict monitoring, audits, and reporting requirements for the length of the loan repayment period plus 10 years. Ultimately, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) awarded about marner coursework $2.4 billion in essay dissertation loans to 23 CO-OPs across the country (there were 24 CO-OPs, but Vermont Health CO-OP never became operational. CMS retracted their loan in September 2013 – before the exchanges opened for the first open enrollment – because there were doubts that the program could be viable with Vermont’s impending switch to single-payer healthcare in 2017; ironically, Vermont pulled the plug on their single payer vision in late 2014). Focus on english essay rubric, cost savings and reinvested profits.

How do CO-OPs increase cost efficiencies? CMS has laid out guidelines for essay report treatise CO-OPs to use “private purchasing councils” through which CO-OP carriers can use collective purchasing power to obtain lower costs on a variety of items and services, including claims administration, accounting, health IT, or reinsurance. But private purchasing councils are allowed to use their collective purchasing power to negotiate rates or network arrangements with providers and health care facilities, as antitrust issues could otherwise arise. But the Kaiser Family Foundation notes that CO-OPs can emphasize Patient Centered Medical Home models to keep costs down. (the PCMH model allows physicians to use health information technology and care managers to provide a full spectrum of care that’s coordinated among each patient’s various providers. Futur? The goal is to keep patients healthy – and essay treatise, out of the silas hospital – by using best practices and evidence based medicine. If PCMH doctors are successful, they qualify for essay report dissertation bonuses). CO-OPs generally emphasize preventive care in an effort to keep their members healthy. A challenge for CO-OPs has been developing their provider networks. At least 15 CO-OPs are renting networks from conjugaison verbe futur, other insurers, which adds to their administrative expenses. Dissertation? In Maine, Community Health Options (the one profitable CO-OP in 2014) built its own provider network from the ground up, a move that CEO Kevin Lewis notes as one of the reasons CHO has been successful. English? CO-OPs also have the option to hire doctors directly, rather than contract with them through provider networks (the upside for report treatise the doctors is that the silas marner CO-OP then handles the treatise dissertation administrative details, and the doctor can focus on healthcare instead).

Will the essay rubric few remaining CO-OPs survive? It’s too soon to essay treatise tell. In many states, the CO-OPs started out in a David and Goliath situation, competing with carriers that have dominated the health insurance landscape for years. There are some promising signs from some CO-OPs that may ultimately survive long-term. And even among the CO-OPs that struggled early on, long-term sustainability is possible. Premiums that carriers – including CO-OPs – set for good creative writing 2014 and 2015 were little more than educated guesses from actuaries, since there was very little in the way of actual claims data on which to rely (there was no data at all when the 2014 rates were being set, and only a couple months of essay dissertation, early data available when 2015 rates were being set). Once the CO-OPs had more than a year of claims history in silas the books, they were able to be more accurate in pricing their policies for report treatise 2016, and research paper format, that will again be the case for 2017.

CO-OP supporters had hoped that the new carriers would disrupt existing markets, driving down premiums and shaking up the market share among commercial insurers. Although CO-OPs struggled financially in their first year, average premiums market-wide were lower in both 2014 and essay report dissertation, 2015 in to an states that have CO-OPs than in states without CO-OPs. A GAO report found that average CO-OP premiums in 2014 and 2015 in most states tended to essay report be lower than the average premiums across all carriers in silas coursework those states. And enrollment in CO-OPs increased at a much faster pace than overall enrollment growth (across all carriers) from 2014 to 2015. CMS acknowledged from the start that not all of the CO-OPs would be likely to succeed – just as a crop of essay treatise, new for-profit health insurance carriers wouldn’t all be expected to succeed. But over the next few years, the remaining CO-OPs will have an opportunity to refine their business models, reinvest any profits they make, and grow their enrollment – especially as grandmothered plans cease to exist by about teratogens, the end of essay, 2018, increasing the number of people who need to purchase ACA-compliant plans. The retention of grandmothered plans has benefited health plans that were already in rubric place prior to 2014, since enrollees on grandmothered plans had to go through underwriting to obtain their coverage; on essay report dissertation, the other hand, new insurers like CO-OPs have had to contend with a population that’s less healthy than expected, partly because people with grandmothered plans have not yet all transitioned to ACA-compliant plans. Writing An Introduction To An University? In short, it’s too soon to treatise dissertation know how the CO-OPs will fare. With only four remaining as we head into the open enrollment period for 2018 coverage, the odds certainly haven’t seemed to be in their favor.

But some of them may experience long-term success and become integral parts of the health insurance landscape. In July 2015, Louisiana Health Cooperative announced that it would cease operations as of the about teratogens end of 2015. LHC was the second CO-OP to essay fail; CoOpportunity, which served Nebraska and essays about, Iowa, received liquidation orders from essay report dissertation, state regulators in February. At the end of August, the Nevada Health CO-OP announced they would also close at the end of 2015. And in September, New York officials announced that Health Republic of essays about teratogens, New York, the nation’s largest CO-OP, would begin winding down operations immediately, and that individual Health Republic of NY policies would terminate at the end of 2015. On October 1, 2015 the federal government notified health insurance carriers across the country that risk corridors payments from 2014 would only amount to essay dissertation 12.6 percent of the total owed to the carriers. The program is budget neutral as a result of the 2015 benefit and payment parameters released by HHS in March 2014. And the “Cromnibus bill” that was passed at the end of 2014 eliminated the writing to an university possibility of the risk corridors program being anything but budget neutral, despite the essay treatise fact that HHS had said they would adjust the program as necessary going forward. But very few carriers had lower-than-expected claims in 2014. So the payments into the risk corridors program were far less than the amount owed to carriers – and the result is that the carriers essentially get an IOU for a total of verbe futur, $2.5 billion that may or may not be recouped with 2015 and 2016 risk corridors funding (risk corridors still have to be budget neutral in 2015 and 2016, so if there’s a shortfall again, carriers would fall even further into report dissertation the red).

Many health insurance carriers – particularly smaller, newer companies – are facing financial difficulties as a result of the appendix paper format risk corridors shortfall. CO-OPs are particularly vulnerable because they’re all start-ups and tend to essay treatise dissertation be relatively small. All of the CO-OPs that have announced closures since October 1 have attributed their failure to good mfa programs the risk corridor payment shortfall. On October 9, Kentucky Health CO-OP announced that their risk corridors shortfall was simply too significant to overcome. (The CO-OP was supposed to receive $77 million, but was only going to get $9.7 million as a result of the shortfall.) The CO-OP will not offer plans for 2016, and their 2015 policies will terminate at dissertation, the end of the year. This means about conjugaison verbe futur 51,000 people in Kentucky will have to shop for new coverage for 2016, as they will not be able to keep their Kentucky Health CO-OP plans. And then on October 14, Tennessee regulators announced that Community Health Alliance would also close at report dissertation, the end of the year. Verbe Futur? CHA stopped enrolling new members in January 2015, but it had planned to sell policies during the 2016 open enrollment period, albeit with a 44.7 percent rate increase.

Ultimately, the risk of the CO-OP’s failure in 2016 was too great, and it will wind down operations by the end of the year instead. Two days later, on October 16, Colorado Health OP was decertified from the treatise exchange by the Colorado Division of Insurance, resulting in the CO-OP’s demise; Colorado Health OP’s 80,000 individual members will all need to transition to new carriers for good creative writing 2016. Almost immediately after that, Oregon’s Health Republic Insurance, also a CO-OP, announced that it would not offer 2016 plans, and would wind down its operations by the end of 2015. Essay Dissertation? Health Republic currently has 15,000 members. On October 22, The South Carolina Department of Insurance announced that Consumers Choice would voluntarily wind down its operations by year-end, and would not sell plans for 2016. Consumers Choice was run by the same CEO – Jerry Burgess – as Community Health Alliance in Tennessee. 67,000 Consumers Choice members will need to switch to a new carrier for 2016.

The South Carolina Department of Insurance has put together a series of FAQs for impacted plan members. On October 27, the writing essay university Utah Insurance Department announced that they are placing Arches Health Plan in receivership, and the carrier will wind down operations by essay report dissertation, the end of the year. Arches Health Plan garnered roughly a quarter of Utah’s exchange market share in 2015, but those enrollees will need to switch to a new carrier for writing an introduction to an university 2016. On October 30, just two days before the start of the 2016 open enrollment period, the Arizona Department of Insurance announced that Meritus would cease selling and renewing coverage, and existing plans would terminate at the end of 2015. removed Meritus plans from the exchange website, and essay treatise, current enrollees – who comprise roughly a third of the private plan enrollees in the Arizona exchange – will need to obtain new coverage for 2016. Meritus was unique in that they allowed people to enroll off exchange year-round up until late-summer 2015. They were also among very few CO-OPs that had requested a rate increase of less than ten percent for 2016. Open enrollment began on November 1, and coverage was still available at that point from the remaining 12 CO-OPs.

But on November 2, it became clear that Consumers Mutual of Michigan was in financial trouble. Silas Marner? The carrier announced that they would not offer plans in the exchange in 2016, although at that point, there was still a possibility that they would continue to offer plans outside the exchange. Essay Report Treatise? But on format, November 4, they announced that they would wind down their operations by the end of the year, and all 28,000 members would need to report treatise dissertation find new coverage for 2016. In May 2016, state regulators in Ohio announced that InHealth Mutual would shut down and that members would have a 60 day special enrollment period to select a new plan. In July 2016, state regulators in Connecticut announced that HealthyCT would shut down at the end of 2016 (employer groups were able to keep their coverage through the renewal date in 2017, as long as the plan’s renewal date in an introduction essay 2016 was July or earlier). In July 2016, state regulators in Oregon announced that Oregon Health CO-OP would shut down at the end of July 2016. In July 2016, state regulators in Illinois announced that they were beginning the process of taking over Land of dissertation, Lincoln Health and winding down the CO-OP’s operations. A special enrollment period was created for the CO-OP’s 49,000 enrollees. In September 2016, state regulators in New Jersey placed Health Republic Insurance of New Jersey into conjugaison rehabilitation, and the CO-OP ceased selling new plans. Health Republic’s existing plans terminated at report dissertation, the end of 2016.

In June 2017, Minuteman Health announced that they would no longer offer coverage as a CO-OP after the end of 2017. At that point, they intended to transition to a for-profit insurance company (Minuteman Insurance Company). However, they were unable to raise enough capital by the August 2017 deadline for securing a license for 2018, and will thus not re-open as a for-profit insurer. Minuteman Health is in receivership, and essay university, enrollees will need to obtain new coverage during open enrollment in the fall of 2017. In July 2017, Maryland regulators issued an administrative order blocking Evergreen Health from selling or renewing any plans (they only had group plans in force at that point, having terminated individual market plans at report dissertation, the end of 2016). The order notes that it’s expected that the process will culminate in receivership. Louise Norris has been writing about health insurance and healthcare reform Read more. RT @LouiseNorris: 1. Avg rate increase in Nevada 31.6%, but for the only returning carrier in the exchange, it's 36.8%…

After subsidy, Minnesota health exchange insurance rates largely stable or dropping for 2018 | from @kpottermn… RT @LouiseNorris: If initiative is approved, they have until April to get enough signatures to get it on the ballot. Spread the appendix word! https… Copyright ©1994-2017, llc, 5353 Wayzata Boulevard, Suite 300, St. Louis Park, MN 55416. For quote requests or help in purchasing insurance, call toll-free 1-855-367-0132. or use our quote form.

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essay on democritus Democritus of Abdera lived from about 460 to 370 B.C. Essay Report. Along with Leucippus, an writing an introduction to an university older philosopher whose dates are uncertain, he is the founder of the atomic philosophy of nature. Atomism is the most influential of the philosophies of nature to report treatise be developed prior to the time of Socrates (d. 399 B.C.). With Socrates the interest of english essay rubric philosophy shifts for awhile away from nature. Essay Report Dissertation. After Aristotle's death the atomist philosophy is to an university revived, with some modifications, by Epicurus. In the Roman period it was popularized in its Epicurean form in Lucretius' lengthy poem On the Nature of the Universe. Report Treatise. In the seventeenth century (i.e., before the development of what can be recognized as modern chemistry), something like ancient atomism was revived in the philosophy of silas marner Pierre Gassendi. Immediately following is your instructor's reconstruction of the Democritean philosophy, based on the surviving fragments of Democritus himself. The fragments are citations and paraphrases of Democritus' writings found in various ancient authors.

We do not possess any complete text from essay report, Democritus. The interested student is invited to look up the research extant fragments of Democritus in any collection of the writings of the Pre-socratics. See For Further Reading at the end of this essay. I. Background: Early Natural Philosophy. From the beginning of essay treatise dissertation natural philosophy people have wondered about the ultimate cause or nature of the physical world. Sometimes the inquiry has taken them in the direction of a controlling power, a single divine force or principle which governs the multiplicity and changes which can be observed by the senses. At other times inquirers have been led to ask about the components or parts of the bodies that seem to make up the conjugaison essayer futur physical world.

How many of them are there? Can they be classified into kinds on the basis of similarities? How do they interact with one another? How minutely can they be divided? If there is a limit to report their divisibility, what are the verbe essayer futur ultimate bodies like? Early thinkers about nature were impressed by the apparent pervasiveness of essay report treatise opposites or contraries in creative, nature, for instance, hot and cold, up and down, wet and dry. Report. For any such pair, the first is not the second, and vice-versa.

For each member of each pair, it is itself, and is not its opposite. Yet motion or change seems to be pervasive as well; short things grow tall; wet things become dry; big things shrink to small ones (for example, cut grass left in the sun). For any part or segment of such processes, being is mixed with not-being. For instance, at any interval in a process of growth (becoming large from having been small [not-large], being-larger seems to be mixed with not-being-larger. Heraclitus (ca. 500 B.C.) is a philosopher who takes such observations to heart; for him, reality is characterized throughout by the unity of opposites. Everything that is, is also its opposite. As he puts it poetically, the road up and the road down are one and appendix, the same.

Yet the report atomists, who prefer a more logical and less poetic way of speaking, do not agree with him. Ontario English Essay Rubric. Where existence or reality is report treatise concerned, there must be something that fully and english essay, unambiguously exists, with no admixture of nonbeing. It is one thing to talk about report small things not being large, or wet things not being dry, or Homer (who lived earlier than Hesiod) not being later than Hesiod. Yet when it comes to existence, in the unqualified sense, some things must exist absolutely. Something must be absolutely before we can truly speak of its not being in a qualified sense (for instance, not-hot, not-cold, not older, not-younger). Atomists hold that the absolute existents are the ultimate parts or components of visible bodies, though these absolute existents can exist separately from these visible bodies. These existents are completely full or solid; they contain no gaps, no holes, no empty places. They cannot be subdivided, cut, cracked, split, or penetrated; for this would imply that nonbeing has gained a foothold in them. These absolute existents are called atoms, from the Greek word atomon , which means that which cannot be divided. Atoms do not come into being or pass away; for good, if they come into being (or pass away), then they would have to essay report treatise partially exist and partially not exist; but partial existence makes no sense for teratogens, ultimate things. The parts of atoms do not move relative to one another. (Of course, atoms do not have parts if by parts we mean components that can be detached from one another, but we can think of atomic parts if we can think of the left and right sides of an indissoluble solid.) These parts could move relative to one another only if the atoms were not completely solid.

However, atoms are completely solid. Thus, atoms are entirely inflexible. I. The atomist philosophy would be extremely simple if it could limit itself to saying that ultimately only the atoms exist (with visible bodies gaining their [dependent] existence from the atoms that make them up). Now, what would reality be like if only atoms existed? Reality would be filled up, in every direction, with atoms. At the limit of one atom, there would be another atom; there would, in fact, be no point on treatise dissertation any surface of rubric any atom that failed to touch the surface of a neighboring atom. Essay Report. Each atom would be hemmed in on all sides by others.

No atom could move relative to essays teratogens other atoms. In fact, no change of any sort would be possible. If this were so, it might even make sense to say that there is just one atom, infinitely large in all directions, for there would be no gaps between the essay report treatise parts of this monstrous solid, and these parts could never come apart. If this were true, philosophy would find itself in the position of Melissus of Samos,[1] according to whom there is just one thing, which is indivisible, while change, motion, and plurality--the existence of more than one thing--are illusions. However, Democritus' predecessor, the atomist Leucippus, indicated a way out. Atomists can keep the doctrine of the paper atoms, together with the essay treatise dissertation testimony of the senses regarding the existence of change and plurality, provided that they are willing to admit some role for not-being. To clarify this point, let it be said that atomists do not wish to admit all sorts of not-being. The only ultimate kind of not-being they admit is the void, that is, empty extension which stretches upwards, downwards, forwards and backwards, to appendix research paper the left and to the right (from whatever position one chooses to essay treatise measure) infinitely, without end. Of course, it is not entirely empty, because in it there are the dense, indestructible atoms. To An Essay. Apart from these atoms (and the report larger compound bodies of which the atoms are sometimes parts), there is nothing but the english rubric infinite void.

Leucippus and Democritus maintain the existence of atoms and the void in part because, thanks to essay report treatise notions of atoms and the void, philosophers are able to explain, or give a rational account ( logos ) of, the observable world-order ( kosmos ), of how things come into being and pass away. What ultimately is, atomists say, is the atoms, and the not-being called the ontario essay void also is. Neither of these come into essay treatise dissertation, being or pass away. Since they exist in a basic sense, they cannot cease to paper be; they are everlasting. These atoms are too small to be visible to treatise the naked eye, but from them composite bodies, aggregates of atoms, come to be. These composites are frequently large enough to be visible--we ourselves are composites of atoms. Composites grow through the addition of atoms to those that provide an initial core; they pass away through the separation of atoms from the composite. You may think it absurd to suppose the existence of entities which even atomists, who proclaim their existence, admit to be so small that they cannot be perceived individually. But when you look out of a sturdy building and to an essay university, see trees swaying, you do not deny the existence of the wind, though you cannot perceive it directly.

The reason is that you observe its effects, for example, in the swaying of trees.*(2) Atoms too are revealed through their effects. You will admit that wet clothes hanging in the sun gradually become dry; imperceptibly, the water leaves them. Atomists say that this occurs because atoms leave the clothes one at treatise, a time, and individually they are not visible. (The other alternative would seem to mfa programs writing be that the water simply ceases to be--a point which seems absurd; for essay report treatise dissertation, if water could simply cease to be, why has not the whole world turned to ontario english rubric desert by now?)* Atomism teaches that all visible objects, which are composites or collections of linked atoms, have within them a good amount of void, though some have more than others. Perhaps you find it difficult to treatise dissertation accept that hard objects are actually partially composed of void. But you will admit that sounds travel through walls that look solid; heat will travel through metals; light will travel through glass. This would not be possible, atomists maintain, unless these were full of pores, that is, small quantities of void between the atoms of the composites. Teratogens. Atoms that cause our sensation of heat are able to get through metals, atoms that cause our sensation of color are able to essay treatise pass through glass, and writing to an university, so forth.* And how do you explain why a block of wood and an equally large hunk of treatise dissertation lead have different weights?

The answer, according to english essay the atomists, must be that these objects have different quantities of void within them.* How many kinds of atoms are there? If atoms were of essay report dissertation just one kind, that is, if they all had the same shape and verbe essayer, size, then we would not experience the variety of nature which we actually do experience. Different effects require different causes. Report Treatise Dissertation. Our experiences are the effects of which the atoms--their shapes, sizes, arrangements and movements--are the causes.

Some interesting differences in experience are the direct result of differences in kind of atoms--in their size and/or shape. For example, sweet tastes are caused by round atoms, of a good size. Sour tastes are caused by atoms that are bulky, jagged, and many-angled, without curves. Pungent tastes are caused by atoms that are round, fine, angular and crooked. Salty tastes are caused by angular atoms which are of a good size, twisted, with two sides equal. Bitter tastes arise from atoms that are curved and smooth but very crooked and small in size. Oily tasting things consist of atoms that are fine, round and small. [Source: Robinson, An Introduction to Early Greek Philosophy (1968), p. 200] Each kind of atoms--by kind of atoms is meant a group of futur atoms alike in shape and size--must include a very large number of atoms. For example, if there were not a virtually endless supply of the atoms which cause us to see surfaces as green in color or to taste foods as sweet, our visions of green things and tastes of treatise sweet things would be far more limited than they actually are.* Besides differing in kind, atoms also differ in how they are ordered and turned relative to one another. Silas Coursework. One can illustrate the point using as examples letters of the alphabet.

A large A and a smaller A differ in size. Essay Report. A and H differ in shape. AN and NA differ in ordering. Z and N differ in turning. Some of the differences we experience arise not from differences in the shapes or sizes of the atoms encountered, but in how they are combined (in what order) or in how they are turned. [Source: Aristotle, Metaphysics 985b4-b18] Some people believe that living beings, or animals, or perhaps just human beings, are distinct from other composite bodies -- they claim that besides the minute bodies that make up any visible body, these beings, or some of them, possess something that survives death.

The atomist view is that this is unlikely. Conjugaison Verbe Essayer Futur. Animals, of course, do possess something which rocks lack--they possess life and breath; but in the atomist view this soul is nothing more than a special very small, fast-moving group of atoms that operate within the living being and help it sense and act upon its environment. Human beings, of essay report dissertation course, have the power of thought, but in the atomist view thought is nothing but a special way of being alive and an animal. Every animal contains a complex system of conjugaison verbe essayer tiny tubes. These extend between the sense organs, on or near the exterior of the body, and the mind, or center of consciousness, probably in report dissertation, the chest area. How sensation occurs can be explained as follows: Atoms from external objects strike the sense organ and push into movement small soul atoms in tubes near the research paper format organs; these small atoms jog their further neighbors into movement, and these in turn jog their neighbors; the motions travel very quickly through the tiny tubes, eventually arriving at the mind, or center of consciousness.* How mental decisions cause physical motions can be explained as follows: The decisions of the mind, by which our ideas of what we wish to do cause our limbs to move or our lips to speak, are in themselves nothing but special movements of treatise dissertation atoms in ontario english essay, the center of consciousness. Motion from these atoms is treatise communicated to the muscles in the body's remote members through tubes similar to, or the very same as, those involved in perception, only in the reverse direction.* Because, for atomism, the good creative writing soul or life of an animal is nothing but a collection of essay treatise dissertation atoms that exist and operate together only research, if they are encased in essay treatise dissertation, a body, the soul cannot survive the destruction of the writing an introduction to an university body.

When the soul is destroyed, it is report treatise dissertation broken up, and as that happens, the atoms that once made up the soul scatter just as water in appendix research paper, a jar will scatter when the jar is broken. Essay Dissertation. Because the english body passes away, the soul does also. Of course, the atoms of which the soul and essay report dissertation, body are composed do not cease to be--no atom comes into being or passes away--but atoms individually are not alive (how could anything totally inert be alive?), so there is no place for immortality in format, the philosophy of atomism. Atomists teach that there are two kinds of essay dissertation knowledge, genuine and about, illegitimate. Genuine knowledge tells us about the essay treatise dissertation atomic structure of essayer things, and essay, concerns the size, shape, arrangement and turning of the good atoms. Yet what most mortals take to be knowledge is nothing of the sort; they speak of colors, smells, tastes, and so on--the experiences which are revealed to our senses. But our senses by themselves reveal nothing of the true reality which underlie them. According to atomists, among the atoms and the void, there are no colors, smells, sounds, tastes: these are experiences born of the impact of treatise atoms upon our senses (themselves aggregates of atoms). We all know that if our senses are altered, as occurs when a sick person becomes healthy, the conjugaison verbe essayer same external stimulus produces a different experience. Therefore, the senses, without the true interpretation provided by the atomist philosophy, tell us nothing about report treatise dissertation reality. They give us only an illegitimate knowledge.

Democritus would not deny that it is of some use for mortals to have illegitimate knowledge, to think, for example, that something is essays about hot even though they may have no idea about the nature of the atoms that cause this sensation. Yet philosophers like him do not seek knowledge for the sake of utility; they seek to report treatise dissertation know for silas, the pure joy of understanding. 1. The philosophy of Melissus of Samos is a variation of the Eleatic philosophy whose original source is Parmenides (b. ca. 515, d. after 450 B.C.), a much more profound (and difficult) thinker. 2. Arguments in report treatise, the asterisked paragraphs have as their textual basis Lucretius' lengthy work in appendix, the atomist tradition deriving from report dissertation, Epicurus.

I have felt justified in attributing them to the philosophy of Democritus because they seem to pertain to the parts of the theory shared by Democritus and good creative writing, the Epicureans. In my view, Democritus might have made these arguments, but I cannot claim as a matter of historical knowledge that he did. Allen, R. E., ed. Greek Philosophy: Thales to Aristotle . New York: The Free Press, 1991. Contains many of the surviving original fragments of the Presocratics, including Democritus. Brumbaugh, R. S. The Philosophers of Greece . Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981. Chapter 9.

Guthrie, W.K.C. Report Treatise. The Greek Philosophers: From Thales to Aristotle . Essays About Teratogens. New York: Harper and Row, 1960. Chapter 3. Hussey, Edward. The Presocratics . New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972. Chapter 7. Lloyd, G. E. Essay Report Treatise Dissertation. R. Research. Leucippus and Democritus. Encyclopedia of Philosophy , vol. 4, pp. 446-451. Essay Treatise Dissertation. (Available in conjugaison, Reference Room, at WKU Library.) McKirahan, Richard D. Philosophy Before Socrates . Indianapolis: Hackett, 1994.

Chapter 16. Ring, Merrill. Beginning with the essay dissertation Presocratics . Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1987. Chapter 10. This web version of The Atomism of Democritus is based on an article designed for good, use by Introduction to Philosophy students.

Its most recent substantial revision was no later than July 1995.