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brutus essay 10 The nature and by developing research paper extent of the judicial power of the United States, proposed to be granted by this constitution, claims our particular attention. Much has been said and written upon the subject of this new system on both sides, but I have not met with any writer, who has discussed the judicial powers with any degree of on obstacles overcome, accuracy. And yet it is obvious, that we can form but very imperfect ideas of the manner in which this government will work, or the effect it will have in changing the internal police and mode of distributing justice at present subsisting in the respective states, without a thorough investigation of the powers of the judiciary and of the joseph a short, manner in which they will operate. This government is a complete system, not only for making, but for executing laws. And the courts of law, which will be constituted by it, are not only to decide upon the constitution and the laws made in pursuance of it, but by great depression, officers subordinate to them to educate joseph by developing a short research, execute all their decisions. The real effect of this system of government, will therefore be brought home to the feelings of the people, through the medium of the judicial power. It is, moreover, of thesis standards, great importance, to examine with care the nature and extent of the judicial power, because those who are to be vested with it, are to be placed in a situation altogether unprecedented in a free country. They are to be rendered totally independent, both of the people and the legislature, both with respect to their offices and salaries. No errors they may commit can be corrected by educate joseph by developing research, any power above them, if any such power there be, nor can they be removed from office for making ever so many erroneous adjudications. The only causes for which they can be displaced, is, conviction of treason, bribery, and high crimes and papers misdemeanors.
This part of the plan is educate joseph a short research, so modelled, as to authorise the courts, not only to great essay, carry into execution the powers expressly given, but where these are wanting or ambiguously expressed, to supply what is wanting by their own decisions. That we may be enabled to form a just opinion on this subject, I shall, in educate by developing a short research paper considering it, 1st. Science? Examine the nature and educate joseph by developing research extent of the judicial powers #151; and. 2d. Enquire, whether the courts who are to exercise them, are so constituted as to afford reasonable ground of university, confidence, that they will exercise them for the general good. With a regard to the nature and extent of the judicial powers, I have to regret my want of educate joseph by developing, capacity to give that full and minute explanation of them that the subject merits. To be able to do this, a man should be possessed of caused great depression, a degree of law knowledge far beyond what I pretend to.
A number of hard words and technical phrases are used in this part of the paper, system, about the meaning of which gentlemen learned in the law differ. Its advocates know how to avail themselves of these phrases. In a number of instances, where objections are made to the powers given to the judicial, they give such an explanation to the technical terms as to standards, avoid them. Educate Joseph A Short Paper? Though I am not competent to give a perfect explanation of the powers granted to this department of the short essay on discipline life, government, I shall yet attempt to trace some of the leading features of it, from which I presume it will appear, that they will operate to joseph a short research paper, a total subversion of the state judiciaries, if not, to the legislative authority of the speech thesis, states. In article 3d, sect. 2d, it is said, The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution, the laws of the joseph paper, United States, and science paper treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority, c. The first article to which this power extends, is, all cases in law and by developing research equity arising under this constitution.
What latitude of construction this clause should receive, it is not easy to say. Short On Discipline Life? At first view, one would suppose, that it meant no more than this, that the courts under the general government should exercise, not only the powers of courts of educate by developing a short research, law, but also that of courts of equity, in the manner in which those powers are usually exercised in the different states. But this cannot be the meaning, because the next clause authorises the auburn university papers, courts to take cognizance of all cases in law and equity arising under the joseph by developing research, laws of the thesis, United States; this last article, I conceive, conveys as much power to educate joseph by developing research, the general judicial as any of the state courts possess. The cases arising under the constitution must be different from those arising under the laws, or else the two clauses mean exactly the short, same thing. The cases arising under the constitution must include such, as bring into question its meaning, and will require an explanation of the nature and extent of the powers of the different departments under it. This article, therefore, vests the judicial with a power to resolve all questions that may arise on any case on the construction of the constitution, either in law or in by developing a short paper equity.
1st. They are authorised to determine all questions that may arise upon the meaning of the constitution in law. This article vests the courts with authority to give the constitution a legal construction, or to explain it according to the rules laid down for construing a law. #151; These rules give a certain degree of latitude of explanation. According to this mode of construction, the courts are to give such meaning to the constitution as comports best with the common, and generally received acceptation of the words in which it is expressed, regarding their ordinary and popular use, rather than their grammatical propriety. Where words are dubious, they will be explained by the context. The end of the clause will be attended to, and the words will be understood, as having a view to it; and the words will not be so understood as to bear no meaning or a very absurd one. 2d. Speech Act Analysis Thesis? The judicial are not only to educate by developing, decide questions arising upon the meaning of the constitution in law, but also in equity. By this they are empowered, to explain the constitution according to the reasoning spirit of it, without being confined to the words or letter.
From this method of short, interpreting laws (says Blackstone) by the reason of a short, them, arises what we call equity; which is thus defined by life, Grotius, the correction of that, wherein the law, by educate joseph by developing research paper, reason of its universality, is standards, deficient; for since in laws all cases cannot be foreseen, or expressed, it is necessary, that when the decrees of the law cannot be applied to particular cases, there should some where be a power vested of defining those circumstances, which had they been foreseen the legislator would have expressed; and these are the cases, which according to Grotius, lex non exacte definit, sed arbitrio boni viri permittet. The same learned author observes, That equity, thus depending essentially upon each individual case, there can be no established rules and fixed principles of equity laid down, without destroying its very essence, and reducing it to a positive law. From these remarks, the authority and business of the courts of law, under this clause, may be understood. They will give the sense of every article of the constitution, that may from time to time come before them. Educate Joseph Paper? And in their decisions they will not confine themselves to any fixed or established rules, but will determine, according to thesis standards, what appears to them, the reason and joseph by developing paper spirit of the constitution. The opinions of the supreme court, whatever they may be, will have the force of law; because there is thesis standards, no power provided in the constitution, that can correct their errors, or controul their adjudications. From this court there is no appeal. And I conceive the legislature themselves, cannot set aside a judgment of this court, because they are authorised by the constitution to decide in the last resort. A Short? The legislature must be controuled by the constitution, and not the research paper, constitution by them. They have therefore no more right to set aside any judgment pronounced upon the construction of the constitution, than they have to joseph by developing a short research, take from the president, the chief command of the army and navy, and commit it to some other person.
The reason is plain; the judicial and executive derive their authority from the same source, that the legislature do theirs; and therefore in all cases, where the constitution does not make the one responsible to, or controulable by the other, they are altogether independent of each other. The judicial power will operate to effect, in the most certain, but yet silent and imperceptible manner, what is evidently the tendency of the essays on obstacles, constitution: #151; I mean, an entire subversion of the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the individual states. Every adjudication of the supreme court, on any question that may arise upon the nature and extent of the general government, will affect the limits of the state jurisdiction. In proportion as the former enlarge the exercise of educate research, their powers, will that of the latter be restricted. That the judicial power of the United States, will lean strongly in favour of the general government, and great essay will give such an explanation to the constitution, as will favour an extension of its jurisdiction, is educate a short research paper, very evident from a variety of considerations. 1st. The constitution itself strongly countenances such a mode of standards, construction.
Most of the articles in this system, which convey powers of any considerable importance, are conceived in general and indefinite terms, which are either equivocal, ambiguous, or which require long definitions to unfold the extent of their meaning. The two most important powers committed to any government, those of raising money, and of raising and keeping up troops, have already been considered, and shewn to be unlimitted by any thing but the discretion of the legislature. Educate Joseph By Developing Research Paper? The clause which vests the power to pass all laws which are proper and necessary, to carry the powers given into execution, it has been shewn, leaves the legislature at liberty, to do every thing, which in their judgment is best. It is said, I know, that this clause confers no power on the legislature, which they would not have had without it #151; though I believe this is not the fact, yet, admitting it to be, it implies that the constitution is not to receive an explanation strictly, according to its letter; but more power is implied than is expressed. And this clause, if it is to be considered, as explanatory of the extent of the powers given, rather than giving a new power, is to be understood as declaring, that in construing any of the articles conveying power, the spirit, intent and design of the clause, should be attended to, as well as the words in their common acceptation. This constitution gives sufficient colour for adopting an equitable construction, if we consider the great end and design it professedly has in view #151; these appear from its preamble to be, to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and posterity.
The design of this system is here expressed, and it is proper to give such a meaning to the various parts, as will best promote the accomplishment of the end; this idea suggests itself naturally upon reading the preamble, and on obstacles overcome will countenance the by developing, court in act analysis thesis giving the joseph by developing a short research, several articles such a sense, as will the most effectually promote the ends the constitution had in view #151; how this manner of explaining the school research, constitution will operate in practice, shall be the joseph by developing research paper, subject of future enquiry. 2d. Not only will the constitution justify the courts in inclining to this mode of explaining it, but they will be interested in using this latitude of interpretation. Every body of men invested with office are tenacious of power; they feel interested, and hence it has become a kind of maxim, to short essay on discipline in student, hand down their offices, with all its rights and privileges, unimpared to their successors; the educate by developing paper, same principle will influence them to extend their power, and increase their rights; this of itself will operate strongly upon research papers, the courts to by developing, give such a meaning to the constitution in all cases where it can possibly be done, as will enlarge the sphere of their own authority. Every extension of the power of the general legislature, as well as of the judicial powers, will increase the act analysis, powers of the courts; and the dignity and educate a short research paper importance of the judges, will be in proportion to the extent and magnitude of the powers they exercise. I add, it is highly probable the emolument of the judges will be increased, with the increase of the business they will have to caused depression essay, transact and its importance. From these considerations the judges will be interested to extend the powers of the courts, and to construe the constitution as much as possible, in educate by developing paper such a way as to favour it; and that they will do it, appears probable. 3d.
Because they will have precedent to plead, to justify them in it. It is well known, that the courts in standards England, have by their own authority, extended their jurisdiction far beyond the limits set them in a short their original institution, and by the laws of the land. The court of exchequer is a remarkable instance of this. It was originally intended principally to recover the king's debts, and to order the revenues of the crown. It had a common law jurisdiction, which was established merely for the benefit of the king's accomptants.
We learn from Blackstone, that the proceedings in this court are grounded on a writ called quo minus, in which the plaintiff suggests, that he is the king's farmer or debtor, and overcome that the defendant hath done him the educate joseph a short research, damage complained of, by which he is essay, less able to pay the king. Research Paper? These suits, by the statute of Rutland, are expressly directed to be confined to such matters as specially concern the king, or his ministers in the exchequer. School Research? And by the articuli super cartas, it is enacted, that no common pleas be thenceforth held in research the exchequer contrary to the form of the great charter: but now any person may sue in the exchequer. The surmise of being debtor to the king being matter of form, and overcome mere words of course; and the court is open to a short research paper, all the nation. When the courts will have a precedent before them of a court which extended its jurisdiction in opposition to caused essay, an act of the legislature, is a short, it not to be expected that they will extend theirs, especially when there is short essay on discipline, nothing in the constitution expressly against it? and they are authorised to construe its meaning, and are not under any controul?
This power in the judicial, will enable them to mould the research, government, into almost any shape they please. #151; The manner in which this may be effected we will hereafter examine.
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Interim Budget 2014-15: Full text of Chidambaram's speech. Finance Minister P Chidambaram presented Interim Budget 2014 in Lok Sabha on Monday, expressing concerns confronting the economy today and joseph a short paper how his government has navigated so far to address the challenges. Read the full text of his speech: I rise to present the Interim Budget for 2014-15. The Current Economic Situation. 2. As I prepared to write this speech, I found that whether it is thesis, a regular Budget for the full year or an interim Budget, some things remain the same. For example, our goals are the same and the global context is the same. As I said last year, we are not unaffected by what happens in the rest of the world.
Since September 2008, the state of the world economy has been the most decisive factor impacting the fortunes of by developing research every developing country. Hence, it is pertinent to say a few words on the global economy as well as on the global risks. 3. World economic growth was 3.9 percent in 2011, 3.1 percent in 2012 and 3.0 percent in 2013. Those numbers tell the story. Among India's major trading partners, who are also the major sources of our foreign capital inflows, the United States has just recovered from a long recession; Japan's economy is responding to the stimulus; the Eurozone, as a whole, is reporting a growth of 0.2 percent; and China's growth has slowed from 9.3 percent in 2011 to 7.7 percent in school science topics 2013. 4. The Global Risks 2014 report has mapped 31 global risks.
Of highest concern are ten risks that include fiscal crisis, structurally high unemployment or underemployment, income disparity, governance failure, food crisis, and political and social instability. By Developing Paper? The challenges that we face are common to all emerging economies. 2012 and 2013 were years of turbulence. Only a handful of essays on obstacles overcome countries were able to keep their head above the water, and among them was India. I shall presently give you an account of how we navigated the educate by developing a short, Indian economy through this turbulent period. Challenges and Goals. 5. Within days of my return to the Ministry of Finance, I had declared that our objectives were fiscal consolidation, price stability, self-sufficiency in act analysis food, reviving the growth cycle, enhancing investments, promoting manufacturing, encouraging exports, quickening the educate joseph by developing a short research paper, pace of implementation of projects, and finding practical solutions to certain stressed sectors such as petroleum, power, coal, highways and textiles. STATE OF THE ECONOMY. The Twin Deficits and Inflation. 6. Let me begin with the good news. The fiscal deficit for high paper 2013-14 will be contained at 4.6 percent of GDP, well below the red line that I had drawn last year.
More importantly, the Current Account Deficit, that threatened to exceed last year's CAD of USD 88 billion, will be contained at USD 45 billion, and I am happy to educate joseph by developing a short research inform the House that we expect to add about USD 15 billion to the foreign exchange reserves by the end of the financial year. Analysts and rating agencies had acknowledged our efforts some months ago and no longer speak about a downgrade. I hope that domestic experts will now agree that the UPA Government meant what it said when it put fiscal stability at the top of the agenda. Going forward, I appeal to all political parties to join me in the pledge that we shall not - we shall never - do anything that will affect the stability of the foundations of India's economy. 7. Last year, when I read the Budget speech, WPI headline inflation stood at 7.3 percent and core inflation at 4.2 percent. Great Essay? Through the year, inflation saw its ups and downs. At the end of January 2014, WPI inflation was 5.05 percent and core inflation 3.0 percent.
Both the paper, Government and the RBI have acted in tandem. While our efforts have not been in vain, there is still some distance to go. Food inflation is still the main worry, although it has declined sharply from a high of 13.6 percent to 6.2 percent. 8. We are proud of the stellar performance of the agriculture sector. Foodgrain production in school research 2012-13 was 255.36 million tonnes and the estimate for joseph by developing the current year is 263 million tonnes. Estimates of production of sugarcane, cotton, pulses, oilseeds and quality seeds point to new records. Agriculture exports in 2012-13 stood at USD 41 billion versus imports of USD 20 billion. In 2013-14, agriculture exports are likely to cross USD 45 billion. Agricultural credit is likely to high science touch `735,000 crore, exceeding the target of Rs 700,000 crore. Agricultural GDP growth increased to by developing a short 3.1 percent in caused great depression essay the five year period of.
UPA-I and further to 4.0 percent in the first four years of UPA-II. In the current year, agricultural GDP growth is joseph by developing, estimated at 4.6 percent. 9. Even after the slowdown, the savings rate was 31.3 percent in 2011-12 and 30.1 percent in 2012-13. The corresponding investment rate was 35.5 percent and 34.8 percent, respectively, indicating there was no steep decline in investment, except in mining and manufacturing. If the incremental capital output ratio (ICOR) had remained more or less the same, the outcome should have been a growth rate higher than the 6.7 percent and the 4.5 percent reported so far by overcome the CSO for the two years, but that did not happen. It was obvious that projects were not achieving commercial operation date (COD) and by developing research paper there were too many obstacles on the path of implementation. At a time when it appeared that a number of projects would fail because of the essays overcome, logjam, Government took the bold step to set up the Cabinet Committee on Investment and the Project Monitoring Group. Thanks to the swift decisions taken by them, by joseph a short paper the end of January, 2014, the way was cleared for thesis standards completing 296 projects with an estimated project cost of `660,000 crore.
10. Exports have recovered sharply, and the recovery must be seen in the context of growth of global trade declining from 6.1 percent in 2011 to joseph a short research paper 2.7 percent in 2013. India's merchandise exports reached a level of USD 300.4 billion in caused depression 2012-13 registering a negative growth of 1.8 percent over the previous year. Though 2013-14 began on a pessimistic note, I am happy to inform the House that the year will end with estimated merchandise exports of USD 326 billion, indicating a growth rate of 6.3 percent. Educate By Developing Paper? However, imports are down, and this does not augur well for either manufacturing or domestic trade. Our aim must be robust growth in both exports and imports, with trade in balance over a period of time. 11. Manufacturing is the in student life, Achilles' heel of the Indian economy. Educate By Developing Research Paper? The deceleration in thesis standards investment in manufacturing is particularly worrying.
Consequently, there is no uptick yet in manufacturing. The National Manufacturing Policy has set the goal of increasing the a short, share of manufacturing in GDP to short in student life 25 percent and to educate research create 100 million jobs over a decade. Eight National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZ) have been announced along the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor and short in student life nine projects have been approved by the DMIC Trust. Five NIMZs outside DMIC have also been given in-principle approval. Three more corridors connecting Chennai and Bengaluru, Bengaluru and Mumbai, and Amritsar and Kolkata are under different stages of preparatory work. Additional capacities are being installed in educate major manufacturing industries such as steel, cement, refinery, power and electronics.
Several measures have been taken to promote micro, small and medium enterprises including notifying a public procurement policy, establishing technology centres and common facility centres, and launching the Khadi mark. 12. School Topics? We have given a big push to infrastructure and capacity addition in infrastructure industries. In 2012-13 and in the nine months of the current financial year, we have added 29,350 megawatts of power capacity, 3,928 kilometres of educate joseph by developing a short research paper national highways, 39,144 kilometres of rural roads under PMGSY, 3,343 kilometres of new railway track, and 217.5 million tonnes of capacity per annum in our ports. Besides, 19 oil and gas blocks were given out for short essay on discipline life exploration and 7 new airports are under construction. We have also facilitated Infrastructure Debt Funds to provide take-out finance for infrastructure projects and ease the pressure on the banking system. 13. By Developing A Short? Risks to essays overcome capital flows were accentuated due to volatile global conditions and the indication, in May 2013, of a reduction in asset purchases by the US Federal Reserve. The rupee came under pressure. Government, RBI and SEBI undertook a number of measures to facilitate capital inflows and stabilise the foreign exchange market. Among emerging economy currencies, the rupee was affected least when the actual reduction took place in December 2013 and January 2014.
GDP Growth - Decline and Rise. 14. Hon'ble Members will recall that the slowdown began in 2011-12. In nine quarters, the by developing a short, GDP growth rate declined from 7.5 percent in Q1 of thesis 2011-12 to 4.4 percent in Q1 of 2013-14. Thanks to the numerous measures that I have narrated, I was confident that the decline will be arrested and the growth cycle will turn in the second quarter. I believe I have been vindicated. Growth in Q2 of 2013-14 has been placed at educate joseph research paper, 4.8 percent and growth for the whole year has been estimated at 4.9 percent. This means that growth in Q3 and Q4 of 2013-14 will be at least 5.2 percent. 15. I can confidently assert that the economy is more stable today than what it was two years ago.
The fiscal deficit is declining, the current account deficit has been contained, inflation has moderated, the quarterly growth rate is on act analysis thesis, the rise, the exchange rate is stable, exports have increased, and hundreds of projects have been unblocked. 16. Madam Speaker, all this is the result of hard work. I may add, among other mentors, my mother and Harvard taught me the value of hard work. UPA's Record of Growth. 17. Over the by developing research paper, last ten years, the UPA Governments have gently nudged India and Indians into accepting that growth is an imperative; that it must be made more inclusive and converted into development; and thesis standards that the growth model, in order to be sustainable, must address other concerns such as environment, inter-generational equity, indebtedness, ownership and by developing research control of resources, financing etc. 18. Caused Depression Essay? The UPA Governments' record on by developing a short paper, growth is unparalleled. 19. Ten years ago, we produced 213 million tonnes of food grains; today, we produce 263 million tonnes of food grains.
Ten years ago, the installed power capacity was 112,700 MW; today, it is 234,600 MW. Ten years ago, coal production was 361 million tonnes per year; today, we produce 554 million tonnes per speech thesis, year. Ten years ago, there were 51,511 km of rural roads under PMGSY; today, we have 389,578 km. Ten years ago, the Central Government's expenditure on educate, education was Rs 10,145 crore; this year, we allocated Rs 79,451 crore. Act Analysis? Ten years ago, the Central Government spent Rs 7,248 crore on health; this year, it will spend Rs 36,322 crore. I could multiply the examples, but what I have given will suffice.
20.Madam Speaker, I reject the argument of policy paralysis. Just as there are business cycles, there is a cycle around the trend growth rate of an economy. Over a period of 33 years, the trend growth rate in educate joseph by developing research paper India has been 6.2 percent. Average annual GDP growth during the period 1999-2004 was 5.9 percent, that is below the trend rate. Caused Essay? In the by developing research paper, next five year period 2004-2009, it was 8.4 percent and, in caused great depression the period 2009-2014, going by the CSO's estimate, it will be 6.6 percent. By Developing Research Paper? UPA-I and UPA-II have delivered above the trend growth rate. 21. Let history be the judge of the last ten years. REPORT CARD OF 2013-14.
22. I owe a duty to my colleagues to report on some of the major achievements in the current financial year that concerns the speech, economy of the country and the welfare of the people. We are not simply looking back, we are actually looking forward, and therefore I shall also report on the initiatives that are being taken by my colleagues. 23. Government took several notable decisions including some that were described as courageous and long overdue. Sugar was fully decontrolled. A gradual correction of diesel prices was started.
Railway fares were rationalised for the first time in a decade. Applications were invited for by developing a short research paper issue of new bank licences. DISCOMS, mostly sick, are being restructured with generous Central assistance. 24. Short Essay In Student? 12.8 lakh land titles covering 18.80 lakh hectare were distributed under the Scheduled Tribes and educate joseph by developing a short paper Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act. 25. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act was notified on 1.1.2014, finally putting to rest an oppressive colonial law of 1894. 26. The National Food Security Act was passed assuring foodgrain to 67 percent of the population.
27. The new Companies Act replaced a law of caused essay 1956 vintage. 28. The PFRDA Act was passed placing the New Pension System on a statutory basis and establishing a statutory regulator. 29. Centrally Sponsored Schemes were restructured into 66 programmes for greater synergy. Funds under these programmes will be released as Central assistance to State plans, thus giving States greater authority and responsibility.
As a result, Central assistance to plans of States and Union Territories will rise substantially from Rs 136,254 crore in BE 2013-14 to `338,562 crore in 2014-15. 30. Public sector enterprises will achieve a new record in by developing a short capital expenditure of Rs 257,641 crore in school topics 2013-14. 31. Educate A Short Research? About 50,000 MW of on discipline in student life thermal and hydel power capacity is under construction after receiving all clearances and approvals. 78,000 MW of power capacity has been assured coal supply. 32. The FDI policy was liberalized to educate joseph by developing a short attract larger investments in telecommunication, pharmaceuticals, civil aviation, power trading exchanges and speech multi-brand retail. 33. Educate Joseph A Short? Approval was granted to establish two semi-conductor wafer fab units that will be the bedrock of the electronics hardware industry.
34. The IT modernisation project of the Department of Posts, with an outlay of Rs 4,909 crore, will be operational by 2015 in all 155,000 locations. 35. The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Unit I achieved criticality and is generating 180 million units of essays overcome power. The 500 MW prototype fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam is nearing completion. Seven nuclear power reactors are under construction with the aim of educate joseph by developing research paper achieving an installed capacity of short essay 10,080 MW by the end of the Twelfth Plan. 36. After exceeding the target and achieving 1,684 MW of joseph by developing grid connected solar power, the National Solar Mission entered the second phase on 1.4.2013. It is proposed to take up four ultra mega solar power projects each with a capacity of over 500 MW in 2014-15. 37. Ministry of MSME will create the essay life, 'India Inclusive Innovation Fund' to promote grassroot innovations with social returns to support enterprises in the MSME sector.
I propose to make an initial contribution of `100 crore to the corpus of the educate joseph by developing research paper, Fund. Social Sector Initiatives. 38. In order to speech act analysis promote entrepreneurship among the scheduled castes and to provide concessional finance to them, IFCI will set up a Venture Capital Fund for Scheduled Castes. Educate Joseph By Developing A Short Research Paper? I propose to provide an initial capital of `200 crore, which can be supplemented every year. 39. The restructured ICDS has been implemented in 400 districts and will be rolled out in the remaining districts from 1.4.2014. 40. Speech Thesis? Government has approved the educate by developing, National Agro-Forestry Policy 2014 which has multiple objectives including employment, productivity, conservation and adaptation. 41. A mechanism for caused depression marketing minor forest produce has been introduced, and the Budget has allocated Rs 444.59 crore to continue the scheme in 2014-15.
42. A new plan scheme with an by developing a short research, allocation of `100 crore has been approved to promote community radio stations. 43. Caused Great Essay? Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has delivered new technologies to the people: the educate joseph by developing a short research, JE vaccine, a diagnostic test for Thalassaemia, and a Magnivisualizer for detection of cervical cancer. Additional Central Assistance to some States. 44. The North Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand deserve special attention. Essays On Obstacles? In addition to funds allocated in the current year, I propose to educate paper release a sum of Rs 1,200 crore as Additional Central Assistance to these States before the end of the year. 45. India joined a handful of countries when it launched the standards, Mars Orbiter Mission. We now have the capability in launch vehicle technology, cryogenics, and navigation, meteorological and communication satellites, and are largely self-reliant.
Several flight tests, navigational satellites and space missions are planned for 2014-15. Redeeming Our Promises. 46. Last year, I had made three promises and joseph a short paper I had asked Hon'ble Members to keep before them the faces of the girl child, the young student, and the poor. Speech Act Analysis Thesis? To ensure the dignity and safety of women, I promised the Nirbhaya Fund and put `1000 crore into the Fund. So far, we have approved two proposals that will receive support from the Fund. In order to make it clear that the Fund will be a permanent fund, I intend to declare the grant of Rs 1000 crore as non-lapsable. And in order to support more proposals, I propose to contribute to the Fund another sum of Rs 1000 crore next year. 47. Secondly, I had promised an educate by developing research paper, ambitious programme to caused great skill millions of educate by developing paper young men and women and had tasked the National Skill Development Corporation to thesis standards implement the programme.
The National Skill Certification and Monetary Reward Scheme was launched in August 2013 and educate paper has been widely hailed as a success. At last count, 24 Sector Skill Councils, 442 Training Partners and 17 Assessment Agencies had joined the programme. 204 job roles have been finalised. 168,043 youth had enrolled and 77,710 have completed their training. Hon'ble Members will recall that I had set apart Rs 1,000 crore for the scheme. The whole of that amount will be transferred to the NSD Trust and I propose to transfer another sum of life Rs 1,000 crore next year to enable the joseph research, Trust to scale up the programme of NSDC rapidly. I may add that NSDC actually complements the initiatives of several ministries which steer skill development programmes such as UDAAN in Jammu and Kashmir.
48. Thirdly, I had promised that the Direct Benefit Transfer scheme would be rolled out papers, throughout the country. The scheme is educate joseph a short paper, barely a year old. Money is being transferred to beneficiaries under 27 identified schemes, including the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP). A total of great 54,20,114 transactions have been put through until 31.1.2014 and Rs 628 crore has been transferred. Another sum of by developing a short paper Rs 3,370 crore has been transferred to 2.1 crore LPG beneficiaries. The latter scheme has been put on hold for the time being pending resolution of some difficulties that have been pointed out. However, let me reiterate that the Government remains fully committed to Aadhaar under which 57 crore unique numbers have been issued so far and to opening bank accounts for all Aadhaar holders in order to promote financial inclusion.
Who needs Aadhaar? It is those who are at the bottom of the pyramid, the poor, the migrant workers, the homeless, and the oppressed who need Aadhaar, and we will ensure that they get Aadhaar. I have no doubt that in course of time even critics of school research topics Aadhaar will realise that Aadhaar is a tool of empowerment. OVERVIEW OF THE INTERIM BUDGET. Plan and Non-Plan Expenditure. 49. I shall now give an overview of the interim Budget.
In some years, we over-provide in the Budget. Educate Joseph? In those years savings are inevitable. Besides, if there is lower-than-expected-growth there will be lower-than-estimated-revenues as well. Great Depression? 2013-14 has been one such year. By Developing Research Paper? I am afraid, we will not be able to spend the budgeted plan expenditure, but non-plan expenditure will exceed the budget by a small amount. 50. In order to sustain the pace of plan expenditure, I have decided to keep plan expenditure in 2014-15 at auburn university research papers, the same level at which it was budgeted in 2013-14. I have provided Rs 555,322 crore for plan expenditure.
I am glad to joseph by developing paper inform the House that all the ministries/departments that run key flagship programmes of the UPA Government have been provided adequate funds. In all the following cases, I have provided in 2014-15 an amount equal to or higher than in the BE of 2013-14 and irrespective of the revised estimates for the year: Ministry of Minority Affairs Rs 3,711 crore. Ministry of Tribal Affairs Rs 4,379 crore. Ministry of overcome Housing Poverty Alleviation Rs 6,000 crore. Ministry of Social Justice Empowerment Rs 6,730 crore. Ministry of Panchayati Raj Rs 7,000 crore. Ministry of Drinking Water Sanitation Rs 15,260 crore.
Ministry of Women Child Development Rs 21,000 crore. Ministry of Health Family Welfare Rs 33,725 crore. Ministry of Human Resource Development Rs 67,398 crore. Ministry of Rural Development Rs 82,202 crore. 51. My colleague, the Minister of Railways, presented the Railway Budget a few days ago. Budgetary support to by developing a short Railways has been increased from Rs 26,000 crore in BE 2013-14 to Rs 29,000 crore in 2014-15. Railways need to mobilise huge resources through market borrowing and private public partnership (PPP) schemes. It is proposed to identify new instruments and new mechanisms to raise funds for railway projects. SC Sub-Plan and Tribal Sub-Plan,
Gender Budget and Child Budget. 52. Hon'ble Members will be happy to university research papers know that I propose to by developing paper allocate Rs 48,638 crore to the scheduled caste sub-plan and Rs 30,726 crore to the tribal sub-plan. School Paper Topics? They will also be happy to find that the gender budget has Rs 97,533 crore and the child budget has Rs 81,024 crore. 53. I am confident that there will be no cause for complaint. If there are any shortcomings, they can be addressed when the regular budget is presented. There is educate joseph by developing a short, enough flexibility in on obstacles overcome the expenditure budget to make necessary changes in the allocations within the overall resource envelope. 54. Non-plan expenditure in 2014-15 is estimated at Rs 12,07,892 crore. Of this, the educate joseph by developing a short research paper, expenditure on subsidies for food, fertilizer and fuel will be Rs 246,397 crore.
This is slightly more than the revised estimate of Rs 245,452 crore in 2013-14. For fuel subsidy, I have provided Rs 65,000 crore. We have, this year, absorbed the rollover of Rs 45,000 crore from the fourth quarter of 2012-13 and we will rollover only caused, `35,000 crore from the fourth quarter of this year into the next year. Rs 115,000 crore has been allocated for food subsidy keeping in mind our Government's firm and irrevocable commitment to joseph by developing research implement the National Food Security Act throughout the country. 55. Act Analysis Thesis? The allocation for defence has been enhanced by 10 percent from Rs 203,672 crore in BE 2013-14 to Rs 224,000 crore in 2014-15. One Rank One Pension. 56. Hon'ble Members are aware of the by developing a short paper, long standing demand of the Defence Services for One Rank One Pension (OROP).
It is an emotive issue, it has legal implications, and it has to caused depression essay be handled with great sensitivity. During the tenure of the UPA Governments, changes in by developing a short the pension rules applicable to the defence services were notified on three occasions in essays overcome 2006, 2010 and 2013. Educate Joseph Research Paper? As a result, the gap between pre-2006 retirees and post-2006 retirees has been closed in four ranks (subject to caused some anomalies that are being addressed): Havildar, Naib Subedar, Subedar and educate joseph by developing a short research paper Subedar Major. Act Analysis? There is still a small gap in the ranks of Sepoy and Naik and by developing research a gap in the ranks of Major and above. We need a young fighting force, we need young jawans, and we need young officers. We also need to take care of thesis those who served in the defence forces only for a limited number of years. Government has therefore decided to walk the last mile and close the joseph by developing, gap for all retirees in all ranks. I am happy to announce that Government has accepted the principle of One Rank One Pension for the defence forces. This decision will be implemented prospectively from the financial year 2014-15.
The requirement for 2014-15 is estimated at Rs 500 crore and, as an earnest of the UPA Government's commitment, I propose to transfer a sum of Rs 500 crore to the Defence Pension Account in essay life the current financial year itself. Central Armed Police Forces. 57. A modernisation plan at a cost of Rs 11,009 crore has been approved to by developing a short research strengthen the capacity of Central Armed Police Forces and to provide them state-of-the-art equipment and technology. Funds have been provided in the current financial year and for the next year. 58. Essays Overcome? Hon'ble Members, the announcements that I made concerning the financial sector in the Budget speech of February 2013 have been, or are being, implemented. In 2014-15, I propose to by developing research paper provide Rs 11,200 crore for capital infusion in public sector banks. They have opened 5,207 branches so far, against the target of standards 8,023 branches, and are near the goal of installing an ATM at by developing a short research paper, every branch.
The Bharatiya Mahila Bank was inaugurated on 19.11.2013. Rs 6,000 crore was provided to the Rural Housing Fund and Rs 2,000 crore to the Urban Housing Fund. 59. Banks are under strain owing to essay rising non-performing assets. Bankers have assured me that as the economy turns they will be able to contain the educate joseph research paper, NPAs, recover more loans, and high research paper topics build healthier balance sheets. 60.
Meanwhile, I cannot fail to by developing a short research paper acknowledge the yeomen service rendered by our banks in reaching Government's policies and programmes to the people. This year, banks will exceed the target of Rs 700,000 crore of agricultural credit. I am therefore encouraged to set a target of Rs 800,000 crore for 2014-15. Hon'ble Members will recall that an interest subvention scheme was introduced in caused 2006-07. Educate A Short Research Paper? There is a subvention of 2 percent and an incentive of 3 percent for prompt payment, thus reducing the effective rate of auburn research interest on educate joseph a short research paper, farm loans to 4 percent. So far, Rs 23,924 crore has been released under the scheme. I propose to continue the scheme in 2014-15.
Credit to Minority Communities. 61. Caused Great Depression? Ten years ago, the minorities had 14,15,000 bank accounts in 121 districts of India where there is a concentration of minorities. At the by developing research, end of March, 2013, they had 43,52,000 accounts and the volume of lending had soared from Rs 4,000 crore to Rs 66,500 crore. Loans to minority communities in the whole country stood at Rs 211,451 crore at school science topics, the end of December 2013. Self Help Groups. 62. Educate Joseph By Developing Paper? Ten years ago, only great essay, 9,71,182 women Self-Help Groups had been credit linked to educate by developing banks. At the end of December 2013, 41,16,000 women SHGs had been provided credit and the outstanding amount of credit was Rs 36,893 crore. 63. Ten years ago, only a few thousand students - mostly the well-connected - got education loans.
At the end of December 2013, public sector banks had 25,70,254 student loan accounts and the amount outstanding was Rs 57,700 crore. 64. Hon'ble Members will recall that my predecessor, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, had, in the Budget of 2009-10, introduced the Central Scheme for Interest Subsidy (CSIS) in respect of education loans disbursed after 1.4.2009 under which Government took over the burden of interest for the duration of the period of study and a little beyond. The scheme brought great cheer to student-borrowers and their families. However, I have noticed a sense of discrimination among students who had borrowed before 31.3.2009, struggled to pay interest during the speech, period of study, and continued to service the loans afterwards. I think they deserve some relief. I therefore propose a moratorium period for all education loans taken up to 31.3.2009 and outstanding on 31.12.2013. Joseph? Government will take over university, the liability for outstanding interest as on educate by developing, 31.12.2013, but the borrower would have to pay interest for the period after 1.1.2014. It is estimated that nearly 9 lakh student borrowers will benefit to the tune of act analysis approximately Rs 2,600 crore.
I intend to provide the funds in the current financial year itself. Accordingly, a sum of `2,600 crore will be transferred to the Canara Bank, the designated CSIS banker. Details of the scheme will be announced shortly. 65. This year, Life Insurance Corporation has opened 1,252 offices and a short paper the four public sector general insurance companies have opened 1,849 offices in towns with a population of 10,000 or more to serve peri-urban and rural areas. They are moving steadily to achieve the goals set for them. 66. A number of overcome steps have been envisaged to deepen the Indian financial markets. Among them are.
- To comprehensively revamp the ADR/GDR scheme and educate research paper enlarge the scope of Depository Receipts; - To liberalise the rupee-denominated corporate bond market; - To deepen and strengthen the university research, currency derivatives market to enable Indian companies to fully hedge against foreign currency risks; - To create one record for all financial assets of every individual; - To enable smoother clearing and a short settlement for international investors looking to invest in Indian bonds. Commodity Derivatives Market. 67. Hon'ble Members will recall the payment crisis in the National Spot Exchange Limited (NSEL). Following the transfer of the speech act analysis thesis, subject to the Ministry of Finance, swift action was taken to sequester NSEL and to ensure there was no spill over of the crisis to the other regulated segments of the educate by developing a short, financial market. I propose to amend the depression, Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act to strengthen the regulatory framework of the commodity derivatives market. Key Pending Bills. 68. Educate By Developing A Short? I regret to essay on discipline in student record my disappointment that the Insurance Laws (Amendment) Bill and the Securities Laws (Amendment) Bill have not been passed by Parliament for reasons that have nothing to do with the merits of the Bills. Public Debt Management Agency.
69. Educate By Developing? Pursuant to high science research paper topics the announcement in the Budget speech of 2011-12, Government is educate a short research, ready with the Public Debt Management Agency Bill. Following precedent, it is caused great, proposed to establish a non-statutory PDMA that can begin work in 2014-15. A VISION FOR THE FUTURE. 70. Madam Speaker, I now wish to joseph research paper look forward and outline a vision for essay on discipline in student the future. 71.I wonder how many have noted the fact that India's economy, in terms of the size of its GDP, is the 11th largest in the world. There are great things in store. There is a well-argued view that in the next three decades India's nominal GDP will take the country to the third rank after the US and educate a short research paper China. Just as the fortunes of the developed countries affect the emerging economies today, the thesis, fortunes of China and India will, in the future, have a significant impact on the rest of the world.
We therefore owe a responsibility not only to educate joseph a short ourselves but to the whole world to short on discipline life keep our economy in robust health. 72.The UPA Government has a clear line of sight to the goals that we have set for ourselves. I have broken down the educate joseph by developing paper, steps toward those goals into tasks that must be undertaken by the Government of the day. I crave your leave to identify ten such tasks: i. Fiscal Consolidation: We must achieve the target of fiscal deficit of 3 percent of GDP by 2016-17, and remain below that level always. ii. Auburn Research Papers? Current Account Deficit: Since we will run a Current Account Deficit every year for some more years, it can be financed only by foreign investment, whether it is FDI or FII or ECB or any other kind of educate a short research foreign inflow. Hence, there is no room for high any aversion to foreign investment. iii. Price Stability and Growth: In a developing economy we must accept that when our aim is high growth there will be a moderate level of inflation. RBI must strike a balance between price stability and growth while formulating monetary policy.
iv. Financial Sector Reforms: The recommendations of the Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission that require no change in legislation must be implemented immediately and, for the other recommendations, we must draw a timetable for passing legislation. v. Educate Joseph By Developing A Short? Infrastructure: We must rebuild our infrastructure and add a huge quantity of new infrastructure. Every proven model must be adopted and the PPP model must be more widely used. New financing structures must be created for long term funds and pooling of investments. vi. Manufacturing: We must focus on manufacturing and especially on manufacturing for papers export.
I propose that all taxes, Central and by developing a short State, that go into an exported product should be waived or rebated. I also propose that there should be a minimum tariff protection so that there is an incentive to manufacture goods in India rather than import them into India. vii. Depression? Subsidies: Given the limited resources, and the many claims on the resources, we must choose the subsidies that are absolutely necessary and give them only to the absolutely deserving. viii.
Urbanisation: Our cities will become ungovernable, and by developing a short research perhaps unliveable, if we do not address the decay in our cities. Cities have wealth, cities also create wealth. That wealth should be tapped for resources to school paper topics rebuild the cities with a new model of governance. ix. Skill Development: Skill development must rank alongside secondary education, university education, total sanitation and universal health care in the priorities of the Government. x. Sharing responsibility between States and Centre: States have the educate a short paper, fiscal space to bear a reasonable proportion of the financial costs of implementing flagship programmes and must willingly do so, so that the Central Government can allocate more resources for subjects such as defence, railways, national highways and on discipline in student telecommunications that are its exclusive responsibility. 73. Revenues are of educate by developing research paper paramount importance.
The best source of revenue is taxes and for that we need modern tax laws. I am disappointed that we have not yet been able to introduce GST. I leave it to you to on obstacles answer the question, who blocked the GST when an educate a short research, agreement on the game-changing tax reform was around the corner? We have also got ready a Direct Taxes Code that will serve us for at least the next twenty years. I intend to place it on the website for a public discussion without partisanship or acrimony. Thesis Standards? I appeal to joseph all political parties to resolve to pass the essays on obstacles overcome, GST laws and the DTC in 2014-15. Funding Scientific Research. 74. Our Government has passionately espoused the cause of science, promoted scientific research, and supported scientific applications and inventions. The Income-tax Act allows deductions for expenditure on scientific research, but it is limited to direct funding.
We have reflected on a new approach to funding scientific research. I therefore propose to set up a Research Funding Organisation that will fund research projects selected through a competitive process. Contributions to that organisation will be eligible for tax benefits. This will require legislative changes which can be introduced at the time of the regular Budget. 75. There has been much debate on illegal off-shore accounts held by Indians. Investigations into such accounts were launched in 2011. Educate Joseph? Despite several hurdles in obtaining evidence from the standards, countries concerned, the Government has succeeded, through alternative methods and special efforts, in obtaining information in 67 cases and action is research paper, underway to determine the tax liability as well as impose penalty. Prosecutions for wilful tax evasion have been launched in 17 other cases. More enquiries have been initiated into accounts reportedly held by Indian entities in no tax or low tax jurisdictions.
Changes in depression essay Tax Rates. 76. In keeping with the conventions, I do not propose to make any announcements regarding changes to the tax laws. By Developing Research? However, the current economic situation demands some interventions that cannot wait for the regular Budget. In particular, the manufacturing sector needs an immediate boost. Hence, I propose the following changes in some indirect tax rates: (i)To stimulate growth in the capital goods and consumer non-durables, I propose to reduce the excise duty from 12 percent to 10 percent on all goods falling under chapter 84 and chapter 85 of the Schedule to the Central Excise Tariff Act for the period up to 30.6.2014.
The rates can be reviewed at the time of the regular Budget. (ii) To give relief to the automobile industry which is registering unprecedented negative growth, I propose to reduce the act analysis thesis, excise duty as follows for the period up to 30.6.2014: Small cars, motor cycles, scooters. and commercial vehicles from 12% to 8% SUVs from 30% to 24% Large and mid-segment cars from 27/24% to 24/20%
Consequently, I propose to educate joseph by developing research make appropriate reductions in the excise duty on chassis and trailers. The rates can be reviewed at the time of the regular Budget. (iii) To encourage domestic production of mobile handsets (which has declined) and reduce the dependence on imports (which have increased), I propose to restructure the excise duties for all categories of mobile handsets. The rates will be 6 percent with CENVAT credit or 1 percent without CENVAT credit. (iv) To encourage domestic production of soaps and university research oleo chemicals, I propose to by developing rationalise the act analysis, customs duty structure on non-edible grade industrial oils and its fractions, fatty acids and fatty alcohols at educate by developing a short research, 7.5 percent. (v) To encourage domestic production of specified road construction machinery, I propose to withdraw the exemption from essays overcome CVD on similar imported machinery. (vi)To encourage indigenous production of security paper for printing currency notes, I propose to provide a concessional customs duty of 5 percent on by developing a short paper, capital goods imported by great the Bank Note Paper Mill India Private Limited. 77.
I also propose to give relief from service tax in two cases. (i)By virtue of the educate by developing research, definition of 'agricultural produce' in Finance Act 2012, read with the Negative List, storage or warehousing of paddy was excluded from the auburn papers, levy of service tax. Rice was not. The distinction is somewhat artificial. Educate Joseph By Developing Research? Hence, I propose to exempt loading, unloading, packing, storage and warehousing of rice from service tax. (ii) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has requested that services provided by cord blood banks are also healthcare services and should be exempt from service tax. I propose to accept the request.
Notifications in respect of the above changes will be issued today. 78. I shall now present the Budget Estimates for 2014-15. 79.The current financial year will end on a satisfactory note with the fiscal deficit at 4.6 percent (below the red line of 4.8 percent) and the revenue deficit at 3.3 percent. 80. Emboldened by the progress made, I have budgeted for receipts and thesis expenditure in 2014-15 that will leave a fiscal deficit of 4.1 percent, which will be below the target set by the new fiscal consolidation path. Revenue deficit is educate by developing research paper, estimated at 3.0 percent.
81.The estimate of plan expenditure is `555,322 crore. Non-plan expenditure is estimated at `12,07,892 crore. 82. Madam Speaker, Jean DrA?ze and Amartya Sen have pointed out that India was the first non-Western country - and speech thesis also the first poor country in educate joseph by developing research paper the world - to commit itself to auburn research a resolutely democratic way of by developing governance. Democracy acknowledges diversity, respects dissent, encourages debate, and decides through a government of great depression essay elected representatives. Neither populism nor majoritarianism nor individualism is an alternative way of governance.
83.Our way of governance has not come in the way of lifting 140 million people out of poverty in joseph a short research the last ten years. Great? That is the greatest achievement of the UPA Governments, and we are proud of the achievement. 84.In the a short research, ten years that I have been in the North Block, I have seen the best of times and difficult times. Never did I lose faith in Jawaharlal Nehru's idea of India that, in the words of Sunil Khilnani, sought to coordinate within the form of a modern state a variety of values: democracy, religious tolerance, economic development and cultural pluralism. It is with that faith that I shall remain on the bridge until the day when, I am sure, the people of India will entrust the high school, responsibility to a hand that will hold the sceptre swayed with equity. Let me sign off with the educate by developing paper, couplet from the sage, Thiruvalluvar:
Vel Anru Venri Tharuvathu Mannavan. Kol Athuvoom Kodaathu Enin. (Not the spear but sceptre swayed with equity Alone gives the short essay in student life, ruler victory.) 85. Madam Speaker, with these words I commend the Interim Budget to the House.
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The Five Stages of Small Business Growth. Categorizing the problems and growth patterns of small businesses in a systematic way that is joseph a short research useful to entrepreneurs seems at first glance a hopeless task. On Discipline Life! Small businesses vary widely in size and capacity for growth. They are characterized by independence of action, differing organizational structures, and educate paper varied management styles. Yet on university research closer scrutiny, it becomes apparent that they experience common problems arising at similar stages in their development. These points of similarity can be organized into a framework that increases our understanding of the nature, characteristics, and educate by developing research problems of businesses ranging from a corner dry cleaning establishment with two or three minimum-wage employees to a $ 20-million-a-year computer software company experiencing a 40 % annual rate of growth. For owners and managers of small businesses, such an auburn research papers understanding can aid in a short paper assessing current challenges; for example, the need to upgrade an existing computer system or to hire and caused train second-level managers to maintain planned growth.
It can help in anticipating the key requirements at various points—e.g., the inordinate time commitment for owners during the start-up period and the need for delegation and educate a short research paper changes in their managerial roles when companies become larger and more complex. The framework also provides a basis for evaluating the impact of present and proposed governmental regulations and science research topics policies on one’s business. A case in point is the exclusion of dividends from double taxation, which could be of great help to a profitable, mature, and stable business like a funeral home but of no help at all to a new, rapidly growing, high-technology enterprise. Finally, the framework aids accountants and consultants in diagnosing problems and matching solutions to smaller enterprises. The problems of a 6-month-old, 20-person business are rarely addressed by advice based on a 30-year-old, 100-person manufacturing company. For the former, cash-flow planning is by developing paper paramount; for the latter, strategic planning and budgeting to achieve coordination and on obstacles operating control are most important.
Developing a Small Business Framework. Various researchers over the years have developed models for examining businesses (see Exhibit 1). By Developing A Short Research! Each uses business size as one dimension and depression company maturity or the stage of growth as a second dimension. While useful in many respects, these frameworks are inappropriate for small businesses on by developing a short research paper at least three counts. Exhibit 1 Growth Phases. First, they assume that a company must grow and pass through all stages of development or die in the attempt. Second, the models fail to papers capture the important early stages in a company’s origin and growth.
Third, these frameworks characterize company size largely in terms of annual sales (although some mention number of research employees) and ignore other factors such as value added, number of locations, complexity of high research product line, and rate of change in products or production technology. To develop a framework relevant to small and growing businesses, we used a combination of experience, a search of the literature, and empirical research. (See the second insert.) The framework that evolved from this effort delineates the five stages of joseph paper development shown in overcome Exhibit 2. Each stage is characterized by an index of size, diversity, and complexity and described by five management factors: managerial style, organizational structure, extent of formal systems, major strategic goals, and the owner’s involvement in the business. We depict each stage in a short research Exhibit 3 and describe each narratively in this article. We started with a concept of caused great essay growth stages emanating from the educate joseph by developing a short research work of Steinmetz and Greiner. We made two initial changes based on our experiences with small companies. The first modification was an extension of the independent (vertical) variable of size as it is used in the other stage models—see Exhibit I to include a composite of value-added (sales less outside purchases), geographical diversity, and complexity; the complexity variable involved the number of auburn university product lines sold, the extent to which different technologies are involved in educate joseph by developing research paper the products and the processes that produce them, and short essay on discipline in student the rate of change in these technologies. Thus, a manufacturer with $ 10 million in sales, whose products are based in a fast-changing technical environment, is farther up the joseph by developing a short research vertical scale (“bigger” in terms of the speech act analysis thesis other models) than a liquor wholesaler with $ 20 million annual sales. Similarly, a company with two or three operating locations faces more complex management problems, and hence is farther up the scale than an educate joseph by developing a short paper otherwise comparable company with one operating unit.
The second change was in the stages or horizontal component of the framework . From present research we knew that, at the beginning, the entrepreneur is totally absorbed in the business’s survival and if the business survives it tends to evolve toward a decentralized line and staff organization characterized as a “big business” and the subject of most studies. * The result was a four-stage model: (1) Survival, (2) Break-out, (3) Take-off, (4) Big company. To test the model, we obtained 83 responses to a questionnaire distributed to 110 owners and managers of successful small companies in the $ 1 million to $ 35 million sales range. Thesis! These respondents participated in a small company management program and had read Greiner’s article. They were asked to identify as best they could the a short research paper phases or stages their companies had passed through, to standards characterize the major changes that took place In each stage, and to describe the events that led up to or caused these changes. A preliminary analysis of the joseph a short questionnaire data revealed three deficiencies in our initial model: First, the grow-or-fail hypothesis implicit in the model, and thesis standards those of others, was invalid. Some of the enterprises had passed through the survival period and then plateaued—remaining essentially the same size. with some marginally profitable and joseph by developing a short research others very profitable, over a period of between 5 and 80 years. Second, there existed an early stage in the survival period in which the entrepreneur worked hard just to exist- to obtain enough customers to become a true business or to move the product from a pilot stage into quantity production at an adequate level of quality.
Finally, several responses dealt with companies that were not started from scratch but purchased while in a steady-state survival or success stage (and were either being mismanaged or managed for essays overcome, profit and not for growth), and then moved into a growth mode. We used the results of by developing a short research this research to revise our preliminary framework. Paper! The resulting framework is shown in Exhibit II. We then applied this revised framework to joseph by developing research the questionnaire responses and obtained results which encouraged us to work with the revised model: * John A. Welsh and Jerry F. White, “Recognizing and Dealing With the Entrepreneur,” Advanced Management Journal, Summer 1978. Exhibit 2 Growth Stages. Exhibit 3 Characteristics of Small Business at Each Stage of Development.
In this stage the main problems of the business are obtaining customers and speech act analysis thesis delivering the product or service contracted for. Educate A Short Paper! Among the on obstacles overcome key questions are the joseph by developing research paper following: Can we get enough customers, deliver our products, and provide services well enough to become a viable business? Can we expand from that one key customer or pilot production process to a much broader sales base? Do we have enough money to cover the considerable cash demands of essays this start-up phase? The organization is a simple one—the owner does everything and directly supervises subordinates, who should be of at least average competence. Systems and formal planning are minimal to nonexistent. Research! The company’s strategy is simply to remain alive. The owner is the business, performs all the university research important tasks, and is the major supplier of educate joseph by developing research energy, direction, and, with relatives and friends, capital. Companies in the Existence Stage range from newly started restaurants and retail stores to high-technology manufacturers that have yet to stabilize either production or product quality.
Many such companies never gain sufficient customer acceptance or product capability to become viable. In these cases, the owners close the business when the start-up capital runs out and, if they’re lucky, sell the business for its asset value. Auburn University! (See endpoint 1 on Exhibit 4). In some cases, the owners cannot accept the demands the business places on their time, finances, and energy, and they quit. Those companies that remain in business become Stage II enterprises. Exhibit 4 Evolution of Small Companies.
In reaching this stage, the business has demonstrated that it is a workable business entity. Educate Joseph Paper! It has enough customers and satisfies them sufficiently with its products or services to keep them. The key problem thus shifts from caused great mere existence to the relationship between revenues and expenses. The main issues are as follows: In the joseph a short research paper short run, can we generate enough cash to essays break even and to joseph by developing cover the repair or replacement of our capital assets as they wear out? Can we, at a minimum, generate enough cash flow to stay in business and to finance growth to a size that is sufficiently large, given our industry and market niche, to earn an economic return on our assets and labor? The organization is thesis still simple.
The company may have a limited number of employees supervised by a sales manager or a general foreman. Neither of them makes major decisions independently, but instead carries out the rather well-defined orders of the owner. Systems development is minimal. Formal planning is, at best, cash forecasting. The major goal is still survival, and the owner is still synonymous with the joseph by developing business. In the Survival Stage, the enterprise may grow in size and essays on obstacles profitability and educate joseph research paper move on to Stage III. Or it may, as many companies do, remain at the Survival Stage for some time, earning marginal returns on invested time and capital (endpoint 2 on high school research paper Exhibit 4), and paper eventually go out of business when the owner gives up or retires. The “mom and pop” stores are in this category, as are manufacturing businesses that cannot get their product or process sold as planned. On Discipline Life! Some of these marginal businesses have developed enough economic viability to ultimately be sold, usually at a slight loss. Or they may fail completely and drop from sight. The decision facing owners at this stage is whether to exploit the company’s accomplishments and expand or keep the company stable and joseph by developing a short research paper profitable, providing a base for on discipline life, alternative owner activities.
Thus, a key issue is whether to use the company as a platform for growth—a substage III-G company—or as a means of support for the owners as they completely or partially disengage from the company—making it a substage III-D company. (See Exhibit 3.) Behind the disengagement might be a wish to start up new enterprises, run for political office, or simply to pursue hobbies and other outside interests while maintaining the business more or less in the status quo. In the Success-Disengagement substage, the company has attained true economic health, has sufficient size and educate by developing a short research product-market penetration to ensure economic success, and earns average or above-average profits. The company can stay at this stage indefinitely, provided environmental change does not destroy its market niche or ineffective management reduce its competitive abilities. Organizationally, the company has grown large enough to, in many cases, require functional managers to take over certain duties performed by the owner. The managers should be competent but need not be of the highest caliber, since their upward potential is limited by the corporate goals. Cash is plentiful and the main concern is to avoid a cash drain in school prosperous periods to the detriment of the joseph by developing research paper company’s ability to withstand the inevitable rough times. In addition, the first professional staff members come on board, usually a controller in the office and perhaps a production scheduler in the plant. Basic financial, marketing, and production systems are in place.
Planning in the form of operational budgets supports functional delegation. The owner and, to great depression a lesser extent, the company’s managers, should be monitoring a strategy to, essentially, maintain the joseph by developing status quo. As the business matures, it and essay on discipline in student the owner increasingly move apart, to educate a short some extent because of the auburn university owner’s activities elsewhere and to some extent because of the presence of other managers. Many companies continue for long periods in the Success-Disengagement substage. Educate By Developing A Short Research Paper! The product-market niche of some does not permit growth; this is the in student case for many service businesses in small or medium-sized, slowly growing communities and for franchise holders with limited territories. Other owners actually choose this route; if the company can continue to adapt to environmental changes, it can continue as is, be sold or merged at educate research a profit, or subsequently be stimulated into growth (endpoint 3 on Exhibit 4). For franchise holders, this last option would necessitate the purchase of other franchises. If the company cannot adapt to changing circumstances, as was the case with many automobile dealers in the late 1970s and early 1980s, it will either fold or drop back to a marginally surviving company (endpoint 4 on Exhibit 4).
In the Success-Growth substage, the owner consolidates the company and marshals resources for growth. The owner takes the cash and the established borrowing power of the company and risks it all in essays on obstacles financing growth. Looking Back on Business Development Models. Business researchers have developed a number of models over the last 20 years that seek to delineate stages of corporate growth. Joseph W. McGuire, building on the work of W.W. Educate Joseph By Developing Paper! Rostow in economics, * formulated a model that saw companies moving through five stages of high economic development: † 1. Traditional small company. 2. A Short Paper! Planning for growth. 3. Take-off or departure from existing conditions. 4. Drive to professional management. 5. Mass production marked by a “diffusion of objectives and an interest in the welfare of society.” Lawrence L. Steinmetz theorized that to caused great depression survive, small businesses must move through four stages of growth.
Steinmetz envisioned each stage ending with a critical phase that must be dealt with before the company could enter the next stage. § His stages and educate by developing research phases are as follows: 1. School Science Paper! Direct supervision. The simplest stage, at a short research the end of which the standards owner must become a manager by learning to delegate to others. 2. Supervised supervision. To move on, the manager must devote attention to growth and expansion, manage increased overhead and complex finances, and learn to become an administrator. 3. Indirect control. Joseph Research! To grow and survive, the company must learn to delegate tasks to key managers and to deal with diminishing absolute rate of return and overstaffing at the middle levels. 4. Divisional organization.
At this stage the company has “arrived” and has the on obstacles overcome resources and educate joseph a short research paper organizational structure that will enable it to remain viable. C. Roland Christensen and Bruce R. Scott focused on overcome development of organizational complexity in a business as it evolves in its product-market relationships. They formulated three stages that a company moves through as it grows in overall size, number of products, and educate joseph a short research market coverage: ‡ 1. One-unit management with no specialized organizational parts. 2. One-unit management with functional parts such as marketing and finance. 3. Multiple operating units, such as divisions, that act in their own behalf in the marketplace. Finally, Larry E. Greiner proposed a model of on discipline life corporate evolution in which business organizations move through five phases of joseph research growth as they make the transition from research papers small to large (in sales and employees) and from young to mature. || Each phase is distinguished by an evolution from the by developing research paper prior phase and then by thesis, a revolution or crisis, which precipitates a jump into the next phase.
Each evolutionary phase is characterized by a particular managerial style and by developing a short each revolutionary period by a dominant management problem faced by the company. These phases and standards crises are shown in Exhibit 1. *W.W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1960). †Joseph W. McGuire, Factors Affecting the educate a short research Growth of Manufacturing Firms (Seattle: Bureau of Business Research, University of Washington, 1963). §Lawrence L. Steinmetz, “Critical Stages of Small Business Growth: When They Occur and How to Survive Them,” Business Horizons, February 1969, p. 29.
‡C. Roland Christensen and Bruce R. Scott, Review of Course Activities (Lausanne: IMEDE, 1964). ||Larry E. Greiner, “Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Growth,” HBR July–August 1972, p. 37. Among the important tasks are to make sure the basic business stays profitable so that it will not outrun its source of cash and to develop managers to short essay life meet the needs of the growing business. This second task requires hiring managers with an eye to the company’s future rather than its current condition. Systems should also be installed with attention to forthcoming needs. Operational planning is, as in substage III-D, in the form of budgets, but strategic planning is extensive and educate paper deeply involves the owner. The owner is thus far more active in all phases of the company’s affairs than in the disengagement aspect of this phase. If it is successful, the III-G company proceeds into Stage IV. Indeed, III-G is often the first attempt at growing before commitment to a growth strategy. If the III-G company is unsuccessful, the causes may be detected in time for high school paper, the company to shift to III-D.
If not, retrenchment to the Survival Stage may be possible prior to bankruptcy or a distress sale. In this stage the joseph a short research key problems are how to grow rapidly and act analysis how to joseph research finance that growth. The most important questions, then, are in the following areas: Can the owner delegate responsibility to others to improve the managerial effectiveness of a fast growing and increasingly complex enterprise? Further, will the action be true delegation with controls on performance and a willingness to see mistakes made, or will it be abdication, as is so often the case? Will there be enough to satisfy the great demands growth brings (often requiring a willingness on the owner’s part to tolerate a high debt-equity ratio) and a cash flow that is high school topics not eroded by inadequate expense controls or ill-advised investments brought about by owner impatience?
The organization is decentralized and, at least in part, divisionalized—usually in either sales or production. The key managers must be very competent to handle a growing and complex business environment. The systems, strained by growth, are becoming more refined and extensive. Both operational and strategic planning are being done and involve specific managers. The owner and the business have become reasonably separate, yet the company is educate joseph by developing a short research paper still dominated by science paper topics, both the owner’s presence and stock control. This is a pivotal period in a company’s life.
If the joseph by developing owner rises to on discipline in student life the challenges of a growing company, both financially and managerially, it can become a big business. If not, it can usually be sold—at a profit—provided the joseph by developing paper owner recognizes his or her limitations soon enough. Too often, those who bring the overcome business to the Success Stage are unsuccessful in Stage IV, either because they try to grow too fast and joseph by developing paper run out of cash (the owner falls victim to the omnipotence syndrome), or are unable to delegate effectively enough to make the company work (the omniscience syndrome). It is, of course, possible for the company to traverse this high-growth stage without the original management. Often the entrepreneur who founded the company and brought it to the Success Stage is replaced either voluntarily or involuntarily by the company’s investors or creditors. If the company fails to research topics make the big time, it may be able to retrench and continue as a successful and substantial company at a state of equilibrium (endpoint 7 on educate joseph a short paper Exhibit 4). Or it may drop back to Stage III (endpoint 6) or, if the problems are too extensive, it may drop all the thesis way back to the Survival Stage (endpoint 5) or even fail. (High interest rates and by developing research uneven economic conditions have made the latter two possibilities all too real in the early 1980s.) The greatest concerns of a company entering this stage are, first, to consolidate and control the financial gains brought on by rapid growth and, second, to retain the advantages of small size, including flexibility of response and the entrepreneurial spirit. The corporation must expand the management force fast enough to eliminate the inefficiencies that growth can produce and high research paper professionalize the company by use of such tools as budgets, strategic planning, management by objectives, and standard cost systems—and do this without stifling its entrepreneurial qualities. A company in Stage V has the staff and educate by developing research financial resources to engage in detailed operational and strategic planning.
The management is short on discipline decentralized, adequately staffed, and experienced. And systems are extensive and well developed. The owner and educate joseph research paper the business are quite separate, both financially and operationally. The company has now arrived. It has the advantages of size, financial resources, and managerial talent. If it can preserve its entrepreneurial spirit, it will be a formidable force in the market. If not, it may enter a sixth stage of essays overcome sorts: ossification. Ossification is educate by developing paper characterized by a lack of innovative decision making and the avoidance of risks. It seems most common in large corporations whose sizable market share, buying power, and financial resources keep them viable until there is essay in student life a major change in the environment. Unfortunately for these businesses, it is usually their rapidly growing competitors that notice the environmental change first. Several factors, which change in importance as the business grows and educate by developing a short develops, are prominent in determining ultimate success or failure.
We identified eight such factors in our research, of which four relate to the enterprise and four to the owner. The four that relate to the company are as follows: 1. Financial resources, including cash and borrowing power. 2. Personnel resources, relating to numbers, depth, and quality of people, particularly at the management and staff levels. 3. Systems resources, in terms of the degree of sophistication of both information and planning and control systems. 4. Business resources, including customer relations, market share, supplier relations, manufacturing and distribution processes, technology and reputation, all of which give the company a position in its industry and market. The four factors that relate to the owner are as follows: 1. Owner’s goals for himself or herself and for the business.
2. Owner’s operational abilities in standards doing important jobs such as marketing, inventing, producing, and managing distribution. 3. By Developing A Short Paper! Owner’s managerial ability and willingness to delegate responsibility and to manage the activities of others. 4. Owner’s strategic abilities for looking beyond the thesis present and matching the strengths and joseph a short research weaknesses of the company with his or her goals. As a business moves from one stage to another, the speech act analysis thesis importance of the factors changes. We might view the factors as alternating among three levels of importance: first, key variables that are absolutely essential for success and must receive high priority; second, factors that are clearly necessary for the enterprise’s success and must receive some attention; and joseph a short research paper third, factors of little immediate concern to top management. If we categorize each of the eight factors listed previously, based on its importance at each stage of the company’s development, we get a clear picture of changing management demands. (See Exhibit 5.) Exhibit 5 Management Factors and the Stages.
The changing nature of managerial challenges becomes apparent when one examines Exhibit 5. In the great early stages, the owner’s ability to do the job gives life to by developing a short research the business. Small businesses are built on the owner’s talents: the ability to short in student life sell, produce, invent, or whatever. This factor is thus of the research paper highest importance. The owner’s ability to delegate, however, is on the bottom of the scale, since there are few if any employees to delegate to. As the company grows, other people enter sales, production, or engineering and they first support, and depression then even supplant, the owner’s skills—thus reducing the importance of this factor. At the same time, the owner must spend less time doing and more time managing. He or she must increase the amount of work done through other people, which means delegating. The inability of many founders to let go of doing and to begin managing and delegating explains the joseph by developing paper demise of many businesses in substage III-G and Stage IV. The owner contemplating a growth strategy must understand the change in personal activities such a decision entails and thesis standards examine the managerial needs depicted in Exhibit 5. Similarly, an entrepreneur contemplating starting a business should recognize the need to do all the selling, manufacturing, or engineering from the beginning, along with managing cash and planning the business’s course—requirements that take much energy and commitment. The importance of cash changes as the business changes.
It is an extremely important resource at the start, becomes easily manageable at the Success Stage, and is a main concern again if the organization begins to grow. As growth slows at the end of Stage IV or in Stage V, cash becomes a manageable factor again. The companies in Stage III need to recognize the financial needs and risk entailed in educate joseph by developing a short research paper a move to Stage IV. The issues of people, planning, and systems gradually increase in importance as the company progresses from slow initial growth (substage III-G) to essay life rapid growth (Stage IV). These resources must be acquired somewhat in advance of the growth stage so that they are in place when needed. Matching business and personal goals is crucial in the Existence Stage because the owner must recognize and joseph by developing a short paper be reconciled to short the heavy financial and time-energy demands of the new business. Some find these demands more than they can handle. In the Survival Stage, however, the owner has achieved the necessary reconciliation and survival is paramount; matching of goals is thus irrelevant in Stage II. A second serious period for goal matching occurs in the Success Stage.
Does the joseph by developing a short owner wish to commit his or her time and risk the accumulated equity of the business in order to grow or instead prefer to depression savor some of the benefits of success? All too often the owner wants both, but to expand the business rapidly while planning a new house on Maui for long vacations involves considerable risk. To make a realistic decision on which direction to take, the owner needs to consider the personal and business demands of joseph research different strategies and to evaluate his or her managerial ability to meet these challenges. Finally, business resources are the stuff of which success is made; they involve building market share, customer relations, solid vendor sources, and a technological base, and are very important in the early stages. In later stages the high school science research paper loss of by developing a short research a major customer, supplier, or technical source is more easily compensated for. Thesis! Thus, the relative importance of educate joseph a short paper this factor is shown to be declining. The changing role of the factors clearly illustrates the need for owner flexibility. An overwhelming preoccupation with cash is quite important at some stages and less important at others. Delaying tax payments at almost all costs is paramount in Stages I and II but may seriously distort accounting data and use up management time during periods of success and growth. “Doing” versus “delegating” also requires a flexible management. Holding onto old strategies and old ways ill serves a company that is entering the growth stages and can even be fatal. Even a casual look at Exhibit 5 reveals the demands the on obstacles Take-off Stage makes on the enterprise.
Nearly every factor except the owner’s “ability to educate joseph a short research paper do” is crucial. This is the stage of action and potentially large rewards. Looking at this exhibit, owners who want such growth must ask themselves: Do I have the quality and diversity of life people needed to manage a growing company? Do I have now, or will I have shortly, the systems in place to handle the needs of a larger, more diversified company? Do I have the inclination and ability to delegate decision making to my managers? Do I have enough cash and borrowing power along with the inclination to risk everything to pursue rapid growth? Similarly, the potential entrepreneur can see that starting a business requires an ability to paper do something very well (or a good marketable idea), high energy, and a favorable cash flow forecast (or a large sum of cash on hand). These are less important in school Stage V, when well-developed people-management skills, good information systems, and budget controls take priority.
Perhaps this is joseph why some experienced people from large companies fail to make good as entrepreneurs or managers in small companies. They are used to delegating and are not good enough at auburn university research papers doing. This scheme can be used to evaluate all sorts of small business situations, even those that at joseph a short research first glance appear to short essay in student life be exceptions. Take the case of franchises. These enterprises begin the Existence Stage with a number of differences from most start-up situations. They often have the following advantages: A marketing plan developed from educate joseph by developing a short paper extensive research. Sophisticated information and high school science research control systems in place. Operating procedures that are standardized and very well developed. Promotion and other start-up support such as brand identification. They also require relatively high start-up capital.
If the franchisor has done sound market analysis and has a solid, differentiated product, the new venture can move rapidly through the educate joseph research Existence and Survival Stages—where many new ventures founder—and into the early stages of Success. The costs to the franchisee for university research papers, these beginning advantages are usually as follows: Limited growth due to joseph a short paper territory restrictions. Heavy dependence on the franchisor for continued economic health. Potential for later failure as the entity enters Stage III without the maturing experiences of Stages I and II. One way to grow with franchising is to acquire multiple units or territories. Managing several of these, of course, takes a different set of skills than managing one and it is here that the lack of survival experience can become damaging. Another seeming exception is high-technology start-ups. These are highly visible companies—such as computer software businesses, genetic-engineering enterprises, or laser-development companies—that attract much interest from the investment community. Entrepreneurs and investors who start them often intend that they grow quite rapidly and then go public or be sold to other corporations.
This strategy requires them to acquire a permanent source of outside capital almost from the beginning. The providers of this cash, usually venture capitalists, may bring planning and operating systems of a Stage III or a Stage IV company to the organization along with an outside board of essays on obstacles directors to educate a short research paper oversee the auburn university investment. The resources provided enable this entity to jump through Stage I, last out Stage II until the product comes to market, and attain Stage III. At this point, the planned strategy for by developing, growth is often beyond the managerial capabilities of the founding owner and the outside capital interests may dictate a management change. Speech Act Analysis! In such cases, the company moves rapidly into Stage IV and, depending on joseph by developing a short research the competence of the development, marketing, and production people, the company becomes a big success or an expensive failure. The problems that beset both franchises and high-technology companies stem from a mismatch of the founders’ problem-solving skills and the demands that “forced evolution” brings to the company.
Besides the extreme examples of franchises and high-technology companies, we found that while a number of other companies appeared to be at a given stage of thesis standards development, they were, on closer examination, actually at one stage with regard to a particular factor and at another stage with regard to the others. For example, one company had an abundance of a short research cash from a period of speech controlled growth (substage III-G) and joseph a short paper was ready to accelerate its expansion, while at the same time the owner was trying to supervise everybody (Stages I or II). Essay On Discipline! In another, the owner was planning to run for joseph by developing a short, mayor of short a city (substage III-D) but was impatient with the company’s slow growth (substage III-G). Although rarely is a factor more than one stage ahead of or behind the company as a whole, an imbalance of factors can create serious problems for the entrepreneur. Indeed, one of the major challenges in a small company is the educate a short research fact that both the problems faced and the skills necessary to deal with them change as the company grows.
Thus, owners must anticipate and manage the factors as they become important to the company. A company’s development stage determines the managerial factors that must be dealt with. Its plans help determine which factors will eventually have to be faced. Knowing its development stage and future plans enables managers, consultants, and investors to school science paper make more informed choices and to prepare themselves and their companies for later challenges. While each enterprise is unique in educate paper many ways, all face similar problems and all are subject to great changes.
That may well be why being an auburn university papers owner is so much fun and such a challenge. Neil C. Churchill is a visiting professor at the Anderson School at UCLA and a professor emeritus of entrepreneurship at INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France. Virginia L. Lewis is a senior research associate of the Caruth Institute at SMU.
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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Business plan templates come in joseph by developing a short, all forms, shapes and sizes. The beauty of PDF business plan templates, however, is that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in front of them. Speech Thesis! Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of joseph by developing paper, starting from great depression essay, scratch. Educate By Developing A Short Research Paper! Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to research topics help you get started. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the U.S. Joseph Research Paper! Small Business Administration (SBA). The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from sba.gov#39;s 8(a) Business Development Program.
This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of a business, with more than 50 prompts to help users answer the questions needed for a complete business plan. [ How to Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for short essay life starting a business. In addition to offering a business plan template and joseph by developing research, financial projections charts, the VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on why an entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and tips on university research the do#39;s and don#39;ts of writing a business plan. Used as the official business plan for the New York StartUP! 2014 Business Plan Competition, this PDF business plan template was adapted from Successful Business Plans (The Planning Shop, 2010) by educate joseph paper, Rhonda Abrams. Science Paper Topics! Each of the educate by developing a short 12 sections of this business plan template includes instructions explaining what type of information to enter, as well as chapter references so you can look up more details. In addition, the template includes a SWOT analysis and optional technology plan. Need a quick and painless, albeit unconventional, business plan? Try the Business Entrepreneurship Center#39;s (BEC) elevator pitch business plan.
Instead of an entire business plan with typical sections written out such as executive summary, market analysis and financial projections the elevator pitch business plan template combines all these areas into one succinct paragraph. Find examples at the BEC#39;s downloadable PDF elevator pitch small business plan template. 5. The One Page Business Plan Company#39;s business plan template. Hate the life idea of writing out an entire essay for a business plan? The One Page Business Plan Company offers a one-page business plan separated into joseph paper several sections vision, mission, objectives, strategies and action plans. You can answer all of these sections using keywords and short phrases. PDF samples of the one-page business plan template are available for download via Oprah.com.
6. $100 Startup One-Page Business Plan. Business plans don#39;t have to be complicated. Great! The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan template helps users craft a business plan by joseph, answering several short questions. You can answer each question in one or two sentences. This PDF one-page template covers everything from an overview of research papers, your business to marketing, money matters and educate joseph, obstacle projections. 7. Thesis Standards! Biz Kids business plan template. Biz Kids, an online portal where kids teach kids about money and business, offers a step-by-step guide to writing a business plan. This PDF document breaks down each section with brief questions and simple formulas to help users complete the included one-page business plan template.
Although the guide and plan are catered toward young entrepreneurs, these resources cover all the basics and are suitable for any type of business. 8. Rowan University College of Business#39; sample plan. Thinking about starting a consulting business? Check out Rowan University#39;s sample consulting business plan template. Part of the educate joseph by developing a short research paper university#39;s Center for act analysis thesis Innovation Entrepreneurship 2013 Rohrer Business Plan Competition, this 30-page PDF business plan template is joseph by developing a short research, a comprehensive example of what a consulting business plan entails, complete with financial charts and balance sheets. 9. iPlanner.net business plan template. IPlanner.net, a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for essays startups. The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and tips for completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the educate a short research financial areas of the business plan. 10. SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan. If you want to cover all of your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template.
This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of thesis, questions so you can fill in each section of the business plan. It also includes detailed financial charts and educate joseph a short research paper, a glossary of essay in student life, business terms. Educate By Developing A Short Research! The SNIEDC is essays on obstacles, a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and working capital support for enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and marketing. After graduating from educate joseph by developing a short research, UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in 2013.
Follow Sara Angeles on auburn university papers Twitter @sara_angeles.
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Week 36 History: The Final Lesson and My Favorite Parts of the History Class… Writing Assignment: Write a two to three page essay on one of the following topics: 1. Educate Joseph By Developing A Short Research? Summarize the auburn university papers developments in mainland Europe studied in this history year. 2. By Developing A Short Research Paper? Tell the story of your favorite lesson or lessons and what you liked most about history this year. This history class has had so much content covered in it that it would be difficult to high school paper summarize it all in joseph a short research, one writing assignment, but I will talk about essay, my favorite subjects covered during this year. The first thing I really enjoyed studying was the wars. In history, there were many large conflicts, and I enjoy studying them and learning how a battlefield commander would take advantage of a bad situation. I thought the by developing paper Crusades were very interesting because of how the Christians wanted to take back Jerusalem from the O ttomans, or the Muslims, as we call them today. Research Papers? While the Crusades didn’t really turn out all that well for either side, it was still interesting studying the tactics the educate joseph by developing Christians used to try to take back their holy land. After a long time and several Crusades, the Crusaders eventually made a peace treaty with the Ottomans, which had them co-exist together in Jerusalem.
Another part I liked was the coverage of everyday life in thesis, places we studied, such as how the Spartans from Sparta lived, or the ways the American colonists lived. Small things like that may not seem very important to the development of history, but they can give you insight into their lives and joseph paper how a certain race of people lived. Not knowing things like that will prevent you from standards getting an joseph a short paper, idea of what life was like in a certain historical period, which isn’t very good. I also liked the overcome World Tour part of the a short paper history class, because it showed that other nations were developing alongside of Europe. Essays Overcome? A lot of joseph by developing, history classes can give you the idea that only one nation develops at a time because they latch on to one particular nation in history and they don’t say a word about any other place in the world. This history class does not teach that way, and I am grateful for it. Short Essay In Student? Otherwise, history would be one confusing mess. I really enjoyed the by developing paper way Mr. School Science Paper? Fish taught my history class, because he made history look and sound interesting, and I have knowledge about things I never knew before in history. I loved this year’s history, and I look forward to possibly doing the educate joseph paper 8th grade history class. Thank you for a great year!
Assignment: For this week’s writing assignment, write a poem on the following topic: Topic: Write a poem of at least 25 lines describing a moment or object in your life. Your assignment should be one typed page in length. I believe in God, in the heavens above, creator of all things. I believe that the government has ruined our life, they act like kings. Abortion is wrong, and it kills innocent souls that the holy God created.
I believe that Christ, son of God, died to save my forsaken soul from the fires of hell and being devastated. I am a stubborn sort, not easily swayed from his beliefs. I refuse to great essay acknowledge horrible people, I need a release. Internet trolls are not very nice, and they destroy a fun experience, so help them repent. I believe that the internet needs to be cleaned up, the trash, it has gone on a downhill descent. I believe that cats are superior to educate joseph by developing research dogs in every way, because they do not stretch my sanity. 343 Industries ruined the best game series ever, so I rally to depose them from their throne of profanity. Microsoft only cares about money, so try to essay on discipline life make that known. I am not one to educate joseph a short be easily scared, so please, if you try, you will be thrown. I love my family very much, and am thankful they love me so.
I believe that God will save us all, and depression essay that we all need to repent and follow Him and by developing paper go. God will provide us everlasting life, if we just believe in him. Amen. Week 35 History: Africa and the Egyptian Empire. Writing Assignment: Write a one to high school paper topics two page paper on one of the educate research paper following topics: – History of the Middle East. – History of Africa. – History of Oceania and Southeast Asia. – History of China and India. Africa is one of the earliest nations in research, the world, as the events in the Garden of by developing a short research, Eden were supposed to auburn university research have taken place there. The continent of Africa started out as being extremely primitive, with the by developing paper early people only having basic survival knowledge.
They rapidly invented new things such as weapons and tools, along with clothes. Act Analysis Thesis? The early people also lived off the land, and hunted for survival. The one thing early people did not have, was metal. That all changed when somebody discovered that a certain rock melted when placed in by developing a short research, a fire. This led to the discovery of school science research paper, metal, which in turn led to better tools and easier survival. Eventually the wheel was discovered, and people also were becoming less primitive and more like the educate by developing research intelligent human beings we know today. These events are what led to the beginning of the great kingdoms of thesis, Africa. One of the first happened to joseph by developing research be the Egyptian Empire, famous for building the great pyramids . Act Analysis Thesis? They began sometime around 3000 B.C. and joseph by developing a short paper rapidly became the standards largest empire in Africa at joseph the time. They made adobe-style homes made out of rudimentary bricks, and they filled them with elaborate furniture, idols to their gods, and, sometimes, paintings. Standards? Whenever a pharaoh, their leader, died, he would be buried in a massive pyramid such as the ones to joseph a short research paper the left.
Egypt was a divided nation, until a conflict united upper and lower Egypt together. Each nation actually had their own crown, and short when upper and lower Egypt was united, the crowns joined to make one, symbolizing the joseph by developing a short paper uniting of the two nations into one. The Egyptian Empire is one of the most well known kingdoms in history, mainly because tons of great essay, records were kept and found, and there are tombs that have been found. Educate By Developing Paper? This is the last normal history essay I will be doing this year, so I hope you enjoyed reading it! Week 31 English: A (sort-of) Poetic Summary of the Events in the Odyssey. Assignment: For this week’s writing assignment, write an papers, essay on by developing research paper, the following assignment: Topic: Summarize the story line of books 9-12 in the Odyssey. Your assignment should be two to three typed pages in length. NOTE: I decided to write this in an almost-poem style, since it has somewhat poetic language. Again, I am not great at poems, so I apologize if it sounds weird.
These books begin with the tale of how Odysseus led a failed raid on on obstacles, the island of by developing, Cicons . Odysseus and his men are caught in a storm-they end up on the island of the Lotus-eaters . These people give Odysseus’s men food that makes them just want to stay there and forget all about university research papers, everything that has happened . The lotus-drunken men are dragged away , and instead of sailing peacefully on , Odysseus and his men eventually land on the island of Polyphemus , the Cyclops . While Odysseus is sleeping , curiosity overcomes his men. They open a bag Odysseus was given, and the blustering winds bring them back to Aeolus . Educate Joseph A Short? The men barely escape with their lives and end up on the island of Circe . Half the men go on an expedition , are beguiled by Circe , and after feasting on enchanted foods , are turned into pigs . One of the more wary men , who had been watching from a distance , ran back and thesis tells Odysseus what had happened . Odysseus goes to confront Circe , and on the way , runs into the messenger god , Hermes . Joseph By Developing A Short Research Paper? He forces Circe to turn his men back to auburn humans and a short research paper the men stay on Circe’s island for another year . The men remind Odysseus of his beloved Ithaca . Odysseus tells Circe that his men want to leave , so she lets them , but tells him that he must gain advice from the dead. The ship sails to the end of the earth , where Odysseus performs sacrifices to the dead and auburn papers enters the Underworld . Odysseus eventually cracks under the joseph research paper strain of being in the land of the dead and runs back to the living world . Thesis Standards? The last of the trials Odysseus is to face with his men is soon to come ; they land on the island where the cattle of the a short research sun are kept . They stay on the island for some time , and finally , one day , when Odysseus is praying for mercy , the men gang up and act analysis eat the cows . The thunder god Zeus is outraged at this treacherous act. Storm clouds gather , the ship is wrecked , and all but Odysseus drown . Odysseus, sad and woeful, travels to an island and tells of by developing a short paper, his sad tale. Week 34 History: The Battle of Jumonville Glen. Writing Assignment: Write a one to two page paper on one of the topics in this week’s history lessons: – Atlantic Slave Trade. – Taxation Acts in Great Britain. – Battle of Jumonville Glen. The Battle of Jumonville Glen is one of the most famous battles in the history of America, even if it only lasted 15 minutes and was fought between Englishmen, Indians, and Canadians. The English side was led by none other than George Washington himself. The English were opposing against the EVIL FRENCH, who were led by Joseph Coulon de Villiers (his name was so incredibly long that I shortened it for your sake).
The battle started on May 28, 1754 in the state of Pennsylvania. University Papers? George Washington and his men were sent to protect a small fort that was under construction. Unfortunately, the French had gotten there first, apparently having driven off the construction workers. Now the English had been warned previously by educate by developing a short research paper, Jumonville, a Canadian, not to trespass on French territory. George really paid no attention to this, and set up an ambush against the fort. The ambush was a huge success, resulting in the battle only lasting 15 minutes and the opposing forces being devastated, which meant that this battle had a very large and long-lasting impact. Tons of Canadians were killed, including Jumonville (the poor soul). The other French forces in short in student, America were really ticked off by a short, this, so they sent reinforcements (commanded by Jumonville’s brother, no less) to auburn university papers the fort where George and his men were holed up. The French overwhelmed George’s forces, and he was forced to surrender, albeit reluctantly. He acted extremely flippant and did not even read the educate joseph a short “terms of auburn university research papers, surrender”, partly because they were written in French, and partly because he did not care. The death of Jumonville had officially made waves around the world, which soon resulted in the British Empire sending an army over to paper the fort to dislodge the French.
These events had officially set into motion the beginning of the essay in student life Seven Year’s War, and, eventually the Revolutionary War itself (also commanded by George Washington). Sadly, I will not be writing about the Revolutionary War this year, but I will eventually! Week 30 English: A (sort-of) Poem About George Whitefield. Assignment: For this week’s writing assignment, write an essay on educate joseph a short, the following assignment: Write a poem, similar in style to those of caused depression, Alfred Tennyson, about one of your personal heroes and his/her accomplishments. Your assignment should be about educate a short research, one typed page in length. ( This isn’t really the best poem I have ever written, mainly because I hate writing poems, and I cannot make any sense of them, either)
George was born into a very poor family that lived in a place many say is a wrong starting point, in the great town of Gloucester, England. Almost nothing is act analysis thesis experienced about his time of educate joseph by developing a short research paper, being young, but he suddenly came into view again onto the map when he got into standards Oxford organization for higher education. Research Paper? Despite his parents being poor, he was able to give attention to caused essay Oxford by being a lowly worker there. While at Oxford, he had meeting with the educate by developing a short research Wesley brothers, and great essay joined a sort of very good club with them. With the Wesley brothers, he would eventually found a Methodist Church later in his living. In the by developing a short end, while at Oxford, he had a make into different sort experience after finally crying out in request to do with religion to God one day. After this experience, he was very readily moved by feelings about the things of God and took teaching them very seriously. After becoming a views-giving person, he journeyed to the American countries under the control of speech thesis, another as a church division man of religion, and educate research paper while there, he discovered an essays on obstacles overcome, orphanage that had very serious questions, so he decided that this orphanage would become his livings work, in educate a short paper, company with putting forward views. Essays On Obstacles Overcome? He then returned to England to lift funds and go on by developing a short, giving a talk. George visited the on discipline countries under the control of another a total of seven times in by developing research paper, his living before he died and was put under earth there, having been one of the most influential leaders of his time. (This isn’t really the school science paper topics best poem I have ever written, mainly because I hate writing poems, and joseph by developing I cannot make any sense of them, either)
Week 33 History: King Louis XVI: The Guy Who Got His Head Chopped Off. Writing Assignment: Write a one to caused great two page paper on one of the educate joseph a short research paper topics in this week’s history lessons: – The Glorious Revolution. – The Acts of Union. – Kings George I and George II. – Kings Louis XV and school XVI. King Louis the Sixteenth was one of the most famous French kings, mainly because of the fact that he was the last ruler before the joseph a short revolution, and because he got his head chopped off. For a little while, people thought he was the best king ever, but, inevitably, his indecisiveness and overall, derpy nature led people to hate his guts and standards think he was horrible as a king.
He eventually got married to by developing research Marie Antoinette, and auburn university papers he seemed to educate by developing research be anxious to get “things” going, but it took a while for her to get pregnant. Eventually, after several miscarriages, the couple became parents to four children, most of which survived into adulthood (one died in infancy). When Louis was crowned king at just 19 years old, he felt that he had far too many responsibilities. So, as a result, he focused primarily on religious freedom and high topics foreign policy. None doubted his intellectual ability to rule France, far from it, it was clear that he was not very firm or decisive. This behavior on his part led to educate a short the people eventually revolting against high science topics, him in the infamous French Revolution, so Louis decided to try to flee the country, along with his family. Sadly, this did not work out, as they were caught and they returned to Paris. He was forced to pledge his allegiance to the new French Constitution (sounds like what our government is doing with OUR constitution).
Shortly after that, he was discovered to educate have been bribing French Officials with the root of all evil (that is, money). High Paper Topics? He was put on trial, and found “guilty”, then swiftly sentenced to death. Joseph By Developing A Short? At his execution, he tried to rally the crowd to school science research topics support him, but his speech was cut off (no pun intended) by the guillotine slicing his head off. This brings a rather depressing end to his story and his life, but he was a fairly good king, except for the fact that the people thought he was weird. Week 29 English: Sir Lancelot and Ze Zombi Moosiz.
Assignment: Write a one to two page essay on the following topic: Write a story of one of the knights of the joseph by developing a short research paper Round Table having an adventure. Be sure to university write it in the style of the Middle Ages, using era appropriate words and ideas. Sir Lancelot was rollin’ through a forest one day, hoping they weren’t patrollin’, tryin’ to catch him ridin’ dirty. The so-called “they” happened to educate joseph a short paper be a pack of wild, carnivorous MOOSIZ. High Paper? ZE MOOSIZ were a deadly race of ZOMBI MOOSIZ that feasted upon ZE KNITE’Z SPIRIT! Lancelot was cornered into a corner within the dark and foreboding forest and cried, “ALAS! I HAVE BEEN SET UPON MY DOOM!” Lancelot was disappointed that the ZOMBI MOOSIZ were going to eat his soul, so he began to swing his sword wildly at the MOOSIZ.
He hit is target, and it fell with a grunt. Lancelot was relieved and said, “MOOZE bites can be veri nasti!” ZE ZOMBI MOOSIZ got really mad and charged him, their tounges flailing. He then proceeded to cut down all of the MOOSIZ that charged him. Soon, a pile of MOOSIZ lay at his feet, and Lancelot laughed maniacally at his victory, when suddenly, a MOOZE corpse fell out of the educate joseph by developing research sky and landed on high school research topics, his head. Lancelot was dazed from the impact, and looked up with horror to find that a steady stream of the dead MOOSIZ were coming right for him. Lancelot rolled back the way he came, definitely knowing that they were tryin’ to catch him ridin’ dirty. He screamed like a girl as he neared the castle walls, the educate by developing research paper MOOSIZ still falling from the sky and landing with rapid thuds behind him. A castle guard looked at Lancelot and asked, “What be thy problem?” Lancelot banged on the doors and shouted, “A PACK OF THY WILD MOOSIZ!” Lancelot banged on the doors harder. “NOW THEY ARE FALLING FROM THY HEAVENS ABOVE!” The guard looked up, saw all he needed to, and opened the gates rapidly.
Lancelot burst through them and slammed the door shut instantly, just as a pack of MOOSIZ fell where he was seconds before. Short Essay On Discipline? He shouted “I BEQUEATH OF YOU OH MERLIN! CAST A SPELL TO MAKE THESE ABOMINATIONS BE NO MORE!” before running into the castle for educate a short research paper, shelter. Merlin walked out of his Wizard’s Room onto the balcony of the castle Keep, and shouted, “BEGONE, YOU WRETCHED CREATURES!” He waved his wand and then all of ZE MOOSIZ suddenly exploded, casting a sheet of green goo all over the castle. “BEGONE, WRETCHED FILTH!” Merlin shouted again, and the green goo all but disappeared. “GOOD!” He stated, then he went back inside his room and took a nap. Writing Assignment: Write a three page paper on this week’s history topic: Summarize what you learned about colonial culture this week, including noting your favorite and least favorite parts of the culture. Life in the colonies was a very different time compared to the modern era. In this essay, I will cover a key aspect of the colonist’s lives: their jobs.
The colonial jobs involved much more work than, say, working at thesis standards McDonalds and squishing as many burgers as you can. For example, you actually had a town blacksmith, who would do anything metal related, such as creating metal braces, making horseshoes (and applying them), and repairing a dizzying array of machines. There was also a town barber, where as now-a-days you can just walk into educate joseph by developing a short a solon and get the thesis fanciest hairdo you have ever seen with minimal effort. In town, there was often one barber, and men would go there to get haircuts, as well as shaves. Women went just to educate by developing a short research get their hair trimmed. Another interesting thing about high research paper, colonial jobs was that a person in a particular job would often have two or more roles. For example, the blacksmith would also serve as the, um, town dentist.
Yes, if you had a toothache, the blacksmith would knock it out educate joseph by developing a short research, with a hammer. The barber would also serve as the town surgeon. Thesis? The barber was primarily known for bloodletting, a practice of putting leeches on the skin to suck out the “bad blood” that had the educate by developing a short sickness in it. As you can imagine, this practice was not very successful, but it helped influence the great essay colors on the barber pole. On the barber pole that you often see outside of old-timey barber shops, you will see red and white stripes.
The red stripes actually signify the blood in bloodletting, and the white signifies the bandages applied after bloodletting. There were a great many colonial jobs, far too many to list here, but each one had its own purpose in helping a colonial town stay on its feet.
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Essay, Research Paper: Bailey White. offers readers an inviting refuge from our increasingly fast-paced society. Using humor, White transports the reader to the rural South, where the setting, the way of life, and the characters the reader meets contrast strikingly with. life in the typical Northern city. Bailey White’s South has a warm and.
hospitable atmosphere, a pleasant alternative to cold, bustling, Northern. metropolitan centers. As a cousin of the educate joseph by developing a short paper Whites puts it when she calls from. Philadelphia to announce she’ll be visiting overnight, “‘I’ve heard so. much about Southern hospitality. Speech. Now I will be able to experience it for. myself’” (Mama, 48).
The language in Bailey White’s writings also. delights, especially her characters’ manner of educate a short research paper, speaking, which contains many. curious Southern expressions. My friends certainly would not say. (Mama, 60), describe a club as a “tough juke joint” (Mama, 3), or say,
South Georgia, in the backwoods, White’s characters are allowed to do what. they please without judgment from high science research paper neighboring yuppies glaring down from their. balconies. The village “. is a place where they are kind to one another and. indulgent of eccentricities” (Publishers Weekly, 30 March 1998). The result is.
“endearing true stories about educate by developing a short rural South Georgia” (Publishers Weekly, 1. March 1993) on thesis, subjects as quirky as bathtubs and educate joseph, Porsches on porches, backyard. camping, and road-kill suppers. After remodeling their bathroom Bailey and Mama. find that their bathtub won't fit in it anymore. Instead of installing a shower,
they leave the bathtub on the porch. Bailey explains that “with the. midsummer's afternoon breeze blowing through the high pine woods and the. fragrance of the lilies, it's a lovely spot for a leisurely bath” (Mama, 25). Joining the bathtub on the porch is a 1958 Model 356 Speedster in original. condition, because the driver refused to “‘just park it out behind the.
garden with those two tractors and that thing that might have been a. lawnmower’” (Mama, 21). School Science Paper Topics. When inspired, Mama can (and does) go camping in the. wilderness. Bailey, however, doesn't have to worry about her aging mother alone. on a trip: their backyard is wilderness enough for camping. Educate Joseph Research. “At night I could. see a tiny glow from her fire. And just at dawn, if I went out to the edge of.
the pasture and listened very carefully I could barely hear her singing ‘Meet. Me in depression St. Louis’” (Mama, 38). Mama, whether camping or not, can get. fast-food for dinner, Southern-style: road kill.
White and Mama have “feasted. not only doves, turkeys, and quail, but robins, squirrels, and, only once, a. possum,” but Bailey draws the line at snakes, even when her mom protests. “‘But it was still wiggling when I got there. Let's try it just this once. I have a white sauce with dill and joseph paper, mustard’” (Mama, 39). Despite the gourmet.
sauce, Bailey refuses to eat any animal her mom brings in without. documentation--the model and tag number of the car that struck it--to assure her. of a recent kill. While chronicling small-town culture, White manages to make me. laugh out loud, which is quite a feat for an author. The comical scenes from the.
small town of Thomasville will not only produce laughter, but a longing to move. to such a quaint village. Instead of going into on obstacles, the Instant Care Facility, a. modern walk-in medical clinic, one can, as Mama did, take advice from. “‘surgeons, I'd say, from the amount of blood and brains on educate by developing a short paper, those white. coats,’” who were actually butchers on their cigarette break (Mama, 23). The. provincial aspects of thesis standards, life in Thomasville are evident in joseph paper Plums, in the extent of. interest and pride community members exhibit when Roger appears in a photograph.
in the April edition of the Agrisearch magazine. At the Pastime Restaurant the. waitresses tape up Roger's picture next to the ‘In Case of thesis, Choking’ poster, Meade makes a mat for his picture out of construction paper left from by developing a short research paper her. schoolteaching days, Hilma transposes Roger’s image onto two color photos for. an artistic effect, Eula puts the magazine photo on her refrigerator, and others.
prop it up on speech act analysis thesis, their windowsills (Plums, 4). Educate A Short. The detail in thesis Bailey White’s. stories come from her own experiences living in Thomasville, especially in her. first two books, Mama and educate joseph by developing, Sleeping, which are both autobiographical. “In my. own town I know the story of every missing body part: an ear in speech thesis an auto.
accident, a middle finger in a miscalculation at a table saw, a thumb in a freak. accident involving a white horse and a Chrysler coupe” (Sleeping, 5). Educate Joseph A Short Paper. Since. White’s books are set in auburn research the rural South, nature is educate by developing research paper, a part of everyday life. (What a contrast to everyday life in essays on obstacles overcome our Northern city, which typically finds us. driving down treeless, paved streets, dashing from home to work to the. supermarket!) The primary concerns of the characters in White’s writings are. not bills and work, but include plants and domestic animals. “[White’s]
vignettes illuminate. the immense satisfaction that can be derived from an. appreciation of nature” (Publishers Weekly, 17 April 1995). In Plums nearly. all of the characters’ jobs relate to nature. Roger is educate by developing paper, a plant pathologist; Tom and Gawain are foresters; Lewis is an ornithologist; and Della paints native. birds (ix). Thesis. The rest of the characters frequently garden, all own Peterson Field. Guide’s (160), and are vehemently opposed to environmentally unfriendly. techniques like slash-and-burning (158-9). Southerners are known for their slow.
speech, their Southern drawl (especially slow compared to educate joseph by developing research paper, fast-talking New. Yorkers). In White’s books the way of speech act analysis, life is also slowed-down, with little. pressure and plenty of time to pursue activities important to the characters. Critics notice the educate research paper slow pace, saying, “nothing much happens [in Plums]” (Publishers Weekly, 30 March 1998), “the characters don’t do a lot [in. Plums]” (Friedman), and “Sleeping at the Starlite Motel celebrates the.
value. of lives that proceed at their own pace” (Fichtner). Doing “nothing. much” is the life the characters have chosen, though; they like the slower. pace. Mama loves to “sit in her reclining chair all day, reading the UFO. newsletter, listening to the radio, and drawing conclusions” (Mama, 41). Bailey loves to standards, garden; she put five years into creating a wildflower meadow, a. time-consuming process because, as the “more responsible plant. catalogues. Educate Joseph Research. admitted, ‘we have not been able to develop a mixture suitable. for Zone 9’” (Mama, 160-5). Bailey, “in the thrall of that good old rural.
community spirit,” also has the time to make a “noble gesture,” becoming a. volunteer fireman (Mama, 177). Besides indulging their own interests and whims, White’s characters take the time to care for others. Mama campaigned for. Vernon Bryan, working “harder and short in student life, harder” as election time grew closer: “She drove her old pickup truck into town every day to man campaign. headquarters, and she spent hours studying voter registration lists and calling. on the phone to urge people to vote.
She volunteered for everything” (Mama, 139-140). Mama also taught Luther, whose jam caused Bailey to joseph by developing paper, rush over to the. sink and wash her mouth out, the fundamentals of cooking, beginning with “Jams. and Jellies,” moving on to “Pickles and Preserves,” then to “Biscuits. and Pastry,” and finally “Sauces, Marinades, Shellfish, and speech act analysis, Game. Souffl#1081;s. Desserts” (Mama, 151-155). Bailey took time to listen to old Mrs. Educate By Developing A Short Paper. Bierce with. the wandering eye, and to visit Mrs.
Helgert, tolerating her frequent. interjections of “Hot? Honey! That was a hot night” (Sleeping, 38-41). Meade.
and Hilma looked after Roger’s house when his childhood horse Squeaky died. “‘He must be relieved of all the high paper topics little household chores--laundry, the. preparation of meals, housecleaning tasks. He should come home at night to a. bright clean home, a supper warm on the back of the stove, and educate by developing research, his bed turned. down,’” said Meade, outlining her elaborate plan to on obstacles, take care of educate paper, Roger. (Plums, 148). The activities the characters choose in their free time. demonstrate the importance of relationships.
In Plums, “a charming story of. human relations” (Haddock), “White’s 14 or so characters are introduced. and identified as they would be in any small town in the South: by their family. relationships to essay, others in educate joseph a short research the rural Georgia community” (Publishers Weekly, 30. March 1998), thus showing the weight of family. Essays On Obstacles Overcome. In Sleeping, after Great Aunt El. disappears twice and complains of elephants and ghosts, Bailey and Mama become. concerned about educate joseph by developing a short research paper her and school paper topics, decide it’s “time to joseph a short, get someone to look after. her” (47).
Reminding Bailey that “‘Blood is thicker than water,’” Mama. succeeds in bringing El’s nephew Ralph down to stay with her (49). Act Analysis Thesis. Unlike our. male-dominated society, strong women dominate White’s world. Educate Joseph A Short Research. The women are. independent, with no need for marriage. They handle everything themselves, even. if it means crawling under the house in “high-topped boots laced up tight, a. turtleneck shirt, and a ski mask” (to protect oneself from spiders, of course)
to move the telephone jack (Mama, 34). All of the characters in White’s books. are unmarried, which appears to be all right with the women, but the. not-so-strong men express a longing to be married. As Dean Routhe repeatedly. said, “Men need wives” (Plums, 211).
Ever since Ethel left Roger “the. women in great depression essay town have worried about Roger. Educate Research Paper. Hilma and Meade discuss him at their. weekly readings. Science Paper Topics. Eula frets over his welfare--not to mention his appetite”
(Haddock). Within one year after Ethel left Roger, Ethel has two men lusting. after her while another woman has left Roger. Educate By Developing. The characters in White’s books, peculiar but delightful, working-class but educated, and understanding and. accepting of themselves and act analysis, each other, present a refreshing contrast to joseph by developing a short paper, the. conforming, pretentious sophisticates who inhabit our Northern cities. At the. head of the long list of quirky characters is act analysis, Mama, who attracts ornithologists. (Mama, 12), who then use Bailey’s 102 degree feverish body to incubate wild. turkey eggs.
Other memorable characters include the educate paper obsessed typographer who. feels personally called to save vanishing typefaces, Louise, who thinks letters. and string will entice creatures from outer space, the university papers hippie fruit tree man. with the jujube trees, and educate by developing a short research, homeless Elmer who can only speech act analysis thesis, talk to horses. Modern. society is in the Information Age, in joseph by developing a short which technology demands more and more of. us. The average workweek is 49 hours, and many so-called successful lawyers, doctors, and businessmen frequently work ten, twenty, or even thirty hours more. Even to reach the hiring stage takes a competitive drive and long hours.
studying. It is standards, not surprising, then, when Bailey says, “Over the generations. my family has metastasized from that hill to lower spots all over the county. Once members of the leisure class, we are now farmers, carpenters, teachers, and. mechanics” (Mama, 54). Bailey’s Aunt Eleanor recalls, after a minor plumbing. disaster of her own, how great-uncle Melville “ ‘Shot right through the. ceiling medallion. and landed in joseph by developing the tomato aspic’” (Sleeping, 9). Bailey. admits, “There’s no denying that our family fortune frittered away, the depression essay big. house sold.
We are probably not up to a second-floor plumbing disaster involving. chandeliers and crown moldings” (Sleeping, 10), which is what Aunt Eleanor. says shows style, class, and breeding. Although not up to showy plumbing. disasters, White’s characters are educated. Hilma and Meade have a 50-year. ritual of joseph, reading together every Thursday of every May (Plums, 17). Great. On summer. picnics Lucy would read Pride and educate research, Prejudice aloud. Mama reads The Naked Lunch. and decides she’s “. tired.
I’m tired of breathing the university papers essence of a sheep. fold; I’m tired of teaching babies to knit; I’m tired of being set upon by. crazed Christians one minute and joseph paper, unbridled libertines the next” (Mama, 38). “Two of the characters [in Plums] are retired schoolteachers to whom the. classics of literature are daily companions; in university research papers fact, most of the educate joseph a short characters, no. matter how humble, quote lines from famous poetry or prose and are knowledgeable. about plants, flowers, birds and animals” (Publishers Weekly, 30 March 1998). White’s characters are also neither pretentious nor materialistic. When Aunt. Eleanor is sulking over the modest plumbing disaster Bailey buys her a $60 watch.
and a linen skirt, and tells her that nowadays people judge not by plumbing. calamities but by caused great essay, clothes, cars, and vacations (Sleeping, 10). Joseph By Developing. Aunt Eleanor, however, is not impressed: “‘I guess I’m just old-fashioned’” (Sleeping, 10). When Meade and Hilma call on a new family, the high school science paper women brags about. her eagle statues--“‘exact replicas of a certain castle in England. they. were not cheap’” (Plums, 156).
Later Meade brings up a house she. particularly liked, explaining, “No pretension there” (Plums, 159). The key. to White’s stories is her characters' wisdom: understanding that timeworn. truths are worth paying heed to. When prissy Aunt Eleanor comes over for dinner, she praises the bird. “‘The quail are delicious. I haven’t found a single. piece of shot. How do you manage it?’ ‘Intersection of 93 and educate joseph research, Baggs Road,’
recites Mama. ‘Green late model pickup, Florida tag. Have another one. And. some rice, El’” (Mama, 40). White’s stories “offer us snatches of humor.
in the largest sense, written with an. Standards. often self-mocking compassion” (Trachtman). White opens up for educate joseph a short, her readers a different world, one without many of the. annoying traits of school paper topics, modern society: dull, gray scenery, traffic, impersonal. contact, alarms, cell phones, male-dominance, uniformity, pretension, conflict, materialism, censorship, isolation, and superficial relationships. She reminds. us of a life that, in most places, has ceased to a short research, exist and invites us to return. to its comforts in the pages of her books.
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