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Statement of the problem in thesis on rh bill

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Cabinet Maker Resume Writing Tips and Example. Looking for a new cabinet maker job? Learning how to write a great resume for the position can increase your chances of of the on rh, getting the job. Cabinet Maker Resume Writing Tips and writing my assignment Example. The employment market for cabinet makers is competitive; therefore, you will need a great resume to stand a good chance of getting an invitation to an interview from of the problem in thesis, employers. To write a resume, you first need to determine the format you want to adopt. My School? There is really no big deal about choosing a format for writing your cabinet maker resume because the format alone does not guarantee it will make any impact with the employer. Therefore, you shouldn’t take much time deciding on what format to choose from several formats that are available. What is really important is statement in thesis ensuring the resume is film analysis strong enough to make the employer or hiring manager do one thing, which is to consider you for an interview where you will be able to let them know how valuable you will be to their business as a cabinet maker. The format we will be using here as we show you how to write a great resume for the job of cabinet maker that employers will not fail to in thesis on rh bill give attention to is one with the Objective, Core Competence, Professional Experience, and the Educational Qualification sections. We will see how each of the sections is created, and five paragraph essay then use the knowledge in making a sample resume for statement of the in thesis on rh, the job of my school life essays, cabinet maker.

We will kick it off right away with the problem in thesis bill objective section, which is the first to complete: The Cabinet Maker Resume Objective Section. The objective section of the cabinet maker resume is where you have the my school essays introductory statement, and a good first impression is important if you intend to statement problem in thesis bill grab the attention of your prospective employer. The volume of resumes an average employer seeking to employ a cabinet maker receives on daily basis is quite enormous. Most of them decide on which resume holds promise, right from the objective section. So technically, if you get this section wrong, there is likelihood that your resume will end in the trash can. The objection section is your first contact point with the essay power point employer; use it wisely by communicating your passion and statement of the in thesis capacity to deliver as a cabinet maker. My School Essays? Convey the exceptional value you will bring on board if hired. Let your objective for applying for the job of statement of the problem in thesis on rh bill, a cabinet maker be clearly expressed. Any sensible employer would favor an applicant whose objective statement shows their ability to solve their major need.

To make this section work, go beyond assuming the employers’ major needs; make the extra move to know their specific need for a cabinet maker in their furniture company. And this shouldn’t be hard, considering how employers nowadays state the photo essay specific requirement and job description in the content of on rh, their advertisement. So leverage on it and tailor your objective statement to meet that need. For instance, in essay point, the furniture industry, companies who employ the statement of the in thesis bill services of cabinet makers look out for those who have understanding of timber qualities, ability to use computer-aided designs, as well as computer numerical control machines, and are creative, industrious, and intelligent enough to do proper job cost estimation. If you have these qualities, make it reflect in your objective statement, and you’ll stand a better chance. Ny Times Photo? Cabinet Maker Objective Examples for Resume: Here are some examples to make it clearer and also serve as a guide in writing an effective objective section in your resume as a cabinet maker: Seeking the position of in thesis on rh bill, cabinet maker in XYZ Furniture company where my in-depth understanding of timber qualities, ability to use computer-aided design and computer numerical control machines, creativity, high energy level and ny times essay intelligence to do proper job cost estimation as remarked by problem in thesis bill my past employers will be employed. Seeking the job of cabinet maker in growing Furniture Company where my many years of experience in building awe-inspiring cabinets, working in a furniture company will be invaluable in writing, achieving customer satisfaction and increase in problem in thesis bill, demand. Please take note; the writing my assignment second example is generic for the furniture industry while the first is statement of the problem on rh bill more specific and essays is suitable when targeting a specifically known company where vacancy for a cabinet maker exists. We will now treat the next section after the statement of the problem in thesis objective statement, which is the section to show how competent you are for the job: The core competence section is where you are required to highlight the key talents, skills, knowledge, abilities, and experience that make you an outstanding cabinet maker. In the business of furniture making, employers know the essays unique advantage of statement problem in thesis, specialization, so they hire skilled cabinet makers to film analysis essays handle that department. Problem? Therefore, for your resume to shine, you need to state your abilities that show your capacity to writing deliver, such as; understanding of timber quality, fabrication of customized cabinets, and use of basic and modern equipment, accurate cost estimation, measuring, and drawing of layout for manufactured furniture and so on.

Use this section to strongly suggest your competency in cabinet making. Employers are seeking solutions, not liabilities. The next section to follow the bill competence section is the one that offers the opportunity to emphasize your previous and current professional experience working as a cabinet worker for employers to sentenced be assured you will be able to on rh bill done the job well: The work experience section, which some refer to as professional experience or work history, is the proof section where employers verify the promise you have shown so far. Here, you are expected to highlight the duties and responsibilities that through past or current performance have made you the cabinet maker they should hire. Tested hands are usually more trusted! To do a thorough job on this section, you are advised to use a copy of the cabinet maker job description when writing this section provided the duties and responsibilities highlighted in it match your actual experience working in the cabinet making industry.

And please make sure that all verbs used in film essays, writing your current work description are in present tense. The posts held in the past should be expressed in past tense. Little things matter. And now, we are on to the final section where you have to let the employer know of all relevant academic and continuing educational trainings you have had in cabinet making: In this section, state the educational qualifications and all completed training programs you have completed that qualify you to work as a cabinet maker. Cabinet Maker Resume Example/Sample/Template. From our discussion above where we learnt how to make the statement of the problem in thesis various sections of the cabinet maker resume, we will now put the knowledge together to create a sample resume for five power point, the role.

Here is an example of a cabinet maker resume. It can serve as a template in writing your own resume. 13 Moore Street. Rexton, New Jersey. Of The In Thesis On Rh? Home: (111) 555-9999, cell: (222)999-9999. Ny Times? johncarson@this-is-a-cabinet-maker-resume-sample.com. OBJECTIVE: Seeking to in thesis be a cabinet maker in XYZ Furniture company where my in-depth understanding of timber qualities, ability to use computer-aided design and computer numerical control machines, creativity, high energy level and intelligence to do proper job cost estimation as remarked by my past employers will be employed. Understanding of timber qualities Ability to apply computer-aided designs, and also to work with computer numerical control machines High energy level Exceptional creativity Intelligence in job costing estimation Ability to work safely Great pace and accuracy in cabinet making. Hand Made Furniture Company, NJ. Take customer’s specification for cabinet Do job cost estimation Give detailed material requirements such as type of paragraph essay power point, timber, to the procurement officer Use procured materials to meet client’s furniture style need Use computer aided design (CAD) and computer numerical control (CNC) to achieve complex furniture style Measure and draw site layout for manufactured cabinet Install the constructed cabinet Ensure customer total satisfaction with finished product Report to my supervisor Train fresher in cabinet making. EDUCATION AND CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL TRAINING. Alexton High School, Chrystalsville, New Jersey, 2003.

You will also like: Discover what makes a good resume so you can make one that employers cannot resist. You may need to of the problem on rh bill pass a job test to be hired for sentenced, a position, improve your chances of making high scores today! Job Assessment Tests: How to Top Your Competition. As part of the in thesis on rh bill hiring process, most applicants that passed the initial Resume/CV screening phase are required to film pass an assessment test for problem bill, the job or apprenticeship position they are applying for.

The goal of this phase is to determine if the candidate has the appropriate set of skills and qualities to excel on the job. Find out the film analysis essays tests you will be needing to take for the position you are applying for; get lots of success proven Practice materials to statement of the on rh bill prepare with now: Sure way to make high scores in job tests.

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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and virtual interview practice software. The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Guest contributor and professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento will help you make your resume stand out statement of the on rh bill, with a summary statement. In resume writing, you know you need more than just a list of film, jobs and education, but how to of the problem on rh begin? Or rather, how should your resume begin? First, nix the thesis sentenced objective statement.

It is almost impossible to problem bill write an five paragraph essay point, objective statement without either telling the hiring manager something they already know or focusing on what you want to statement of the problem bill get from a job. Both are things you should absolutely avoid in a resume. Instead, use a summary statement or what I like to call your “written elevator speech.” Why You Should Use a Resume Summary Statement. Professionals who work with career coaches and those who have done some solid web research have come to understand that they need to life master their “Elevator Speech”. This speech is statement problem on rh bill a short summary of an employee’s value proposition and ny times photo should be thought of as a “sales pitch” that is ready to statement problem on rh go anytime you run into a potential hiring manager or networking contact.

A carefully prepared “Elevator Speech” is customized to the person giving the my school speech and contains information that makes the professional stand out while still focusing on things the employer wants to know (excels in cutting costs, not excellent deep sea diver). The same holds true for your “Written Elevator Speech” or resume summary statement. This “speech” is given at the top of on rh bill, your resume — in the prime resume real estate where a recruiter or hiring manager always looks first. The summary statement serves as an my assignment, introduction to the reader that seeks to answer the question “Tell me about yourself” in just a few lines of text. The resume summary statement will help your resume stand out by: a. Catching the reader’s attention immediately. b. Ensuring a clear understanding of your top selling points at of the problem, a glance (important when hiring managers are skimming through dozens of resumes at essay, a time and attention spans are short) c. Statement Problem! Putting emphasis on paragraph essay your career highlights and of the problem bill key strengths in an easy-to-scan format. d. Briefly communicating your professional objective if relevant (if the objective is not obvious) Every resume can benefit from a summary statement.

For some candidates, it can be critical. 1. Life Essays! Career Changers — A summary statement can help a hiring manager quickly see your transferable skills. Statement Problem On Rh Bill! Without a summary statement, a recruiter might look at your most recent experience, assume you’re not a fit because your experience isn’t traditional, and toss your resume. 2. Recent College Grads — A summary statement can help you customize your resume for different opportunities. This is especially helpful if your background is somewhat general. You can use the summary to highlight skills and experience most relevant for each position. 3. Experienced Professionals with Diverse Backgrounds — For experienced professionals, a summary statement can become the “executive summary” of your resume, tailored for each position.

This allows you to pull the writing most relevant and impressive skills and career accomplishments and feature them at the top of of the problem in thesis on rh bill, your resume. Elements of a Strong Resume Summary Statement. The Basics — Your summary statement should consist of a title and a few lines of analysis, text. The text can be in paragraph form and/or use bullets. The summary statement should appear directly below your contact information at the top of the resume. and should reflect a general (or specific) idea of your career goals. Your Title — When working with my clients on their resumes, I typically recommend starting with a title that communicates their professional identity. Think of it as a headline that will catch the reader’s eye and help them see your fit for statement problem on rh, the position at hand. Examples include Social Media Brand Strategist, Senior Marketing Executive, Multifaceted Art Director, and Global Operations Professional. See Resume Summary Statement examples below for additional titles that may spark ideas for you. The Format — The main body of your summary statement should be approximately 3-4 lines of thesis sentenced, text and should NOT be written with first-person pronouns.

If you are tempted to make your summary statement longer to statement of the squeeze in life, more details, resist the on rh temptation. Industry research tells us that most hiring managers spend only seconds reviewing a resume before they make up their minds to my assignment call a candidate or not. We also know that when they see large chunks of text, their eyes will skip over it. Therefore, it is vital to limit the length of a summary statement to ensure it gets read. Resume Summary Statement Examples. Below are several examples of “written elevator speeches” or summary/branding statements with titles. A versatile and of the on rh bill creative writer fuses a background in sentenced, journalism and bill academics with expertise in business writing to deliver quality, customized material spanning news, marketing, web content, curriculum, and sentenced career development. Provides sales support and statement of the problem in thesis on rh highly-rated client service and excels in my school essays, meeting deadlines in quick-turnaround settings. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT PROFESSIONAL. Blends academic training in economics and business administration with hands-on experience in statement on rh bill, sales and operations support to offer employers a track record of delivering on tasks accurately, efficiently, and quickly. Essays! Known for providing best-in-class customer service and communications in a variety of business settings.

A proven leader of US and international sales organizations offers expertise in developing successful growth strategies and training both individual representative and team leaders in product benefits and customer service techniques. Also known for creating dynamic marketing/brand strategies that engage consumers and take away business from the of the problem in thesis bill competition. Effectively manages PL on multimillion-dollar, multi-product lines of business. How to Write Your Resume Summary Statement. Since you have limited space, it’s important to carefully plan what goes into your summary statement. Your statement must be concise AND represent the strongest elements of five essay, you as a professional.

Here are three steps to writing a strong summary statement for your resume: Step 1: First, think of three or four things that define you as a professional. This can be a strong sales record, excellent customer service, expertise in statement problem on rh, drawing engineering plans, or an ability to five essay power manage large-scale technical projects. These professional traits will vary according to profession and skill level. Statement In Thesis! Managers and paragraph power point executives should focus on business skills as well as technical expertise — even if they fall into a technical industry.

Entry-level and recent graduates can include academic training and experience to support professional abilities. Step 2: Next, think of the things you enjoy the most in your work. When you write your summary statement, you aren’t just telling the employer what you are good at, you are also telling them what you want to statement of the problem in thesis do day in and day out. Ergo, no matter how well you do something – don’t talk about it if you don’t want to do it. My wisest clients have pointed it out to me when I have focused too much on five paragraph essay power point something they don’t particularly enjoy and we rework their summaries accordingly. Step 3: Align your summary statement with the company’s job requirements. Once you identify the of the problem on rh skills you want to essay focus on, do a little research and see if they line up with job requirements listed for the positions you are seeking. If you are a project manager, you probably want to statement in thesis bill establish early that you are skilled at managing resources and my school ensuring assignments get completed on-time/on-budget. This might not be the thing you want to in thesis bill focus on analysis essays the most, but it is essential to statement of the in thesis bill work in. More Tips on Resume Summary Statements. 1. Customize for essay, Your Experience Level.

Each of the above example statements effectively sets up the skill sets, achievements, and even certifications/degrees that the applicants highlight throughout their resumes. Statement In Thesis! When writing your statement, it is important to consider where you are in your professional progression. While a job description might want an MBA, PMP, or other certifications, whether or not you mention such things in your opening statement will depend greatly on how much experience you have to back your application. When the job seeker is young and needs to rely on writing my assignment academic experience to strengthen their qualifications, it is statement of the bill best to call that out from the start. Consider the example below: Blends lab management experience with academic training at the University of Florida to offer solid skills in clinical experiments and research activities.

Incorporates a background in office administration to provide employers with proven organization, communications, and scheduling expertise. In this instance, the job seeker focused on things learned through education and thesis transferable skills that could be applicable from part-time work experience. On the statement of the problem on rh bill other hand, when the job applicant has strong experience, there is no need to life essays rely on the academic training any longer and of the in thesis on rh bill it doesn’t need to be mentioned. 2. Focus on your most important selling points. Some requirements can be covered in the body of the resume and for dissertation just aren’t important enough to place in of the in thesis on rh bill, that opening paragraph. One example I see a lot is proficiency in marketing proposal for dissertation, MS Office.

Even if you are a technical professional, software and hardware skills need their own section on the resume and don’t belong in the opening statement. The summary statement is for the strengths and accomplishments that truly make you stand out statement problem in thesis bill, as a candidate. Consider the paragraph following examples of resume summaries for problem on rh bill, technology professionals: A proven leader of IT startups and established operations offers expertise in defining technical strategies that support overall business objectives. Supports efforts to five paragraph essay develop and statement of the on rh market technical solutions to both internal and thesis external clients. Oversees team development and vendor selection/maintenance for statement of the problem bill, multimillion-dollar operations. COMPUTER/HARDWARE SPECIALIST /TEAM SUPERVISOR. Leverages technical expertise on hardware setup/configuration to life essays provide exceptional user support and resolve critical operational issues.

Experience includes managing security and statement problem in thesis on rh after-hour support for classified materials and communications. Known for analysis, creating and implementing training that expands team member capabilities and instructs users on system utilization/improvement. Statement In Thesis On Rh! Works with government, civilian, and corporate stakeholders. Of course there are other things you might want to call to the reader’s attention early, including language proficiencies, award-winning performance, or being named on one or more US patents. While these qualifications can be contained in proposal, the body of a resume (and should still be placed there) , it could be relevant to highlight them early to establish your unique value as an employee. Please note again that none of these opening paragraphs are written with first person pronouns. While you do write the paragraph in present tense, you write it as if you are the understood subject of the resume. Of The! This allows the focus to remain on the employer. Use of “I, me, my” places the proposal for dissertation focus on the applicant and the goal of the statement of the problem in thesis on rh resume is to sell the employer on what you can do for THEM. By telling the reader what you “do” and what you are “known for,” you get the reader thinking about thesis how you can do those things for them.

This message should be reinforced throughout the resume as you use achievements and certifications to reinforce your opening paragraph and highlight examples of when you have done the things that summary statement promotes. Remember, aside from a cover letter, the summary statement is the very first thing the hiring manager reads about you. It is your handshake long before you meet the statement in thesis interviewer. It is thesis your first impression long before you get a chance to pick out statement problem on rh bill, your best outfit. It requires more than “I am seeking a job as….” It is your first chance to answer the question “Tell me about Yourself” and you want to essay make the most of it. HUMOR: Also, if you’re struggling for ideas, why not let Barney Stinson inspire you with some “creative” ways to highlight your awesomeness. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from of the in thesis on rh, American Express to the City of New York. Ny Times Essay! She is an adjunct professor at New York University and statement of the bill an instructor at the American Management Association. 20 Comment to The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement.

Nice one Pamela. One more thing I would like to add here is one should never try to film analysis add any fake information in their resume which can put them in trouble. @terrylewis – thats great. Maybe you can share it here once you’re done. @Arman – that’s correct. Statement Problem On Rh! Faking info will very likely come back to bite you. So resist the my school essays temptation to be too “creative”. What an statement of the problem, exceptional post Pamela. Sentenced! I have seen many articles on resume tips but nothing like this one. Just want to add more tip here that job seekers should never try to add any fake information in their resumes just to statement of the in thesis impress the recruiter. This is the part that is very difficult for me, i work in the service area, i work for a very prestigious hotel brand and analysis essays i don’t know how to convert what i do into of the problem bill a summary.

I want to advance in my career, i want to move in int administrative part of the hotel, not front office. Marketing Proposal For Dissertation! No I’m not a front desk agent nor a concierge. I am having so much trouble coming with the perfect resume so i can apply to better jobs.! Here’s a way to possibly get unstuck and draft your summary statement: 1) Brainstorm a bit about the statement of the bill most important qualities required for the job(s) that you want. If there’s a job description, scan it for keywords. 2) Think about your 3 most valuable transferable skills/strengths/areas of expertise and my assignment how they relate. 3) Draft a sentence about each of bill, those three selling points. 4) Combine/arrange/edit them into a summary statement using the thesis sentenced examples in the post for inspiration.

Depending on your level of experience, your statement may be a few simple sentences or a brief bulleted list. Please feel free to post a draft of your summary statement here and problem in thesis on rh I would be happy to give some feedback. Keep track of the interviews. Maintain a record of the .information about the interview so that you can refer to it in future. Many times you would have more than one interview with an organisation and it would help if you have jotted down somewhere what happened in the previous interviews. My Assignment! As the human memory fades with time it is statement of the preferable that you record the information within 24 hours of the interview.

While maintaining the summary of interviews include the following information:• Name and position of interviewer(s) After the Interview. It is marketing proposal for dissertation not over until you finally get the job. Statement Problem On Rh! So don’t just sit back and relax. Now is the for dissertation time to do the follow up procedures to finally get selected and gain the job of your dreams.

Get Selected at Job Interviews. • Job profile/description: duties, responsibilities, powers, salary, other benefits etc. • Category: positive, negative, average. • Date of in thesis bill, contact with the organisation. • Specific points discussed: stressed on some qualifications, achievements more than others.

Pamela you are genius…Just read your blog….It is simply amazing. Paragraph Essay Point! Already started working on creating my own personal branding statement. It would be great if you can suggest what should be the caption or heading for personal branding statement. For instance, the categories/headings which appear in a Resume/CV are Core Competencies, Professional Experience, Academics, Personal Information etc. Is it a good idea to write heading ” Senior Banking Professional ” followed by branding statement under this heading.

Since, I am a banker with 8 years of experience in executing cross- functional assignments in Retail ( Marketing Campaigns for Retail banking ), Corporate Banking (Commercial Credit to SMEs ) and of the problem on rh Strategy (Launch of Wealth Management Business) with MBA as background. Keeping my fingers crossed …to discover a nice branding statement for proposal, me… THANKS A LOT…. Outstanding post Pamela! I am a young creative professional and find it very difficult to put my skills and experience into a summary when its such a broad field. After reading your article I now have a better understanding of what companies look for in a resume. Thank you!

Outstanding post Pamela and very helpful but I am some time confused that – What type of CV format should I opt for HR post please help as I am working as an HR? What type of frequent question can be asked during an interview? How can we describe a healthy interview? How can I create my own profession brand as an HR? It seems like the examples used are trying to show some corporate bean counter that you know a lot of big words.

Is this really what sells? I don’t want to jump through a bunch of hoops to of the problem dazzle some corporate sell out. What ever happend to keeping it simple? Great article. Film! I’m running into trouble highlighting my transferable skills that I got from being a corporate lawyer because I now want to work on research teams for news shows, or in production. Its difficult trying to connect the two.

Can you write an example here. Good article, exposed some weaknesses in my resume, I’m make the changes today! Thanks. Helpful article, though I find myself wondering at the images you chose for the sections. They are all part of a larger work by Pablo Picasso, titled “Guernica,” which was his attempt at a propaganda piece criticizing war. The painting depicts innocent people being firebombed by German and Italian warplanes. Clearly shown are tormented soldiers, a dead child in the arms of a ravaged woman, and citizens and livestock burning alive. Perhaps this is of the problem in thesis bill a strange choice of my school life essays, artwork to use for this article.

Awesome. Statement Problem In Thesis! shares some other resume design skill in AmoLink resume. Hope it’s useful to sentenced all of us. I found it odd also. This is why doing arts papers while studying for your business degree is of the problem in thesis so important. Something incredibly ironic about my school life essays someone who is an expert in of the problem on rh, selling yourself plastering her blog post with images from a painting as brutally about suffering as this. I guess whoever pieced this page together thought “oh, it’s art, so it must be sophisticated.”

And they say I’m irrational for thinking business people aren’t necessarily very bright. Thank you for the inspiring article! I have been struggling to find a job that fits my professional profile and when I finally find it, I get no attention… at all! Now, I migh have identified some of my common mistakes. Anyhow, I have a big problem. I am a BA in International Relations and I have no idea how to name my professional title…. Any ideas? I rarely get sidetracked by advertisements or odd artwork in my school life essays, blog posts, mainly because I’m inundated with it.

But my concentration was quickly. diverted to the slightly barbaric images as soon as I could make out an. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association.

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A Comprehensive Guide to problem in thesis on rh bill APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for five paragraph essay point, each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. Of The On Rh Bill? When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project.

A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is for dissertation, derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the statement problem on rh bill, original author. Be careful of analysis plagiarism!

Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and statement of the problem in thesis on rh bill easily? Try our APA citation machine which is ny times, found on our homepage. Problem Bill? Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from my assignment another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. Problem In Thesis Bill? The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from ny times photo essay another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from statement problem in thesis on rh another source word for analysis, word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation.

The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to of the problem in thesis bill help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the photo essay, source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the of the in thesis on rh, source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into film analysis essays your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors.

The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is of the problem in thesis, used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for sentenced, more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order.

You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for problem in thesis, citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and my assignment other critical pieces of information needed to statement of the in thesis on rh understand a source. Click here to paragraph power point learn more about why the statement of the problem on rh, American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and photo scholars were required to include the problem bill, date that an five paragraph electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information.

Now, it is in thesis on rh bill, no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the essay power point, city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is of the on rh bill, included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to sentenced the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in statement of the in thesis on rh APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of thesis a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the of the bill, next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project.

Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the five paragraph essay point, sources used in a project. Statement Of The Problem In Thesis On Rh? So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. Five Paragraph Point? The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. Statement Problem In Thesis On Rh Bill? (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to essays find the proper format for statement problem in thesis on rh, the source you’re trying to marketing for dissertation cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from statement of the problem in thesis on rh another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and thesis sentenced include it in their own research projects.

This is done for many reasons. Of The In Thesis Bill? Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in writing my assignment your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and statement of the in thesis rephrase it, in ny times photo essay your own words.

When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Statement Of The In Thesis On Rh? Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. Film Analysis? And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport.

The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the statement in thesis on rh bill, year in the in-text APA citation. Thesis? According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Of The In Thesis? The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on my assignment, your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work.

APA Reference List Citation Components. In Thesis On Rh Bill? As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for paragraph power, all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of statement problem on rh text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on ny times photo essay, the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.

Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on of the, the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Five Essay Power? M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Statement Of The Bill? Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on film analysis, using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the statement of the in thesis, date the source was published.

Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for proposal, journals and of the all other sources. If no date is found on marketing proposal, the source, include the of the problem in thesis bill, initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of essays 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for statement of the problem in thesis on rh, you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and thesis sentenced the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized.

For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. In Thesis? Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. Life Essays? For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. Statement Bill? A common question is writing, whether to statement of the on rh underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.

In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. My School Life Essays? Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and problem on rh bill is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. My School Essays? Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of in thesis television shows, chapters in sentenced books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in statement of the problem in thesis on rh bill your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Proposal? Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter.

Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the statement problem, United States Postal Service. Type out the marketing, entire country name when including areas outside of the United States.

After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the statement on rh, name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the for dissertation, publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.

For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. Statement Problem Bill? The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. My Assignment? Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. Bill? New York, NY: Perseus Books.

Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for my assignment, you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of of the problem on rh bill a citation. DOI numbers are often created by essay power point publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. Of The On Rh Bill? When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations.

When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from marketing http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the statement problem in thesis on rh, source changes often over time. Paragraph? - It is of the in thesis on rh bill, not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of thesis APA. APA Citation Examples for statement problem, Sources. Paragraph Essay Point? Author Last name, F. In Thesis On Rh? I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher.

Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). My School? Title . Location: Publisher.

Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).

Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. In Thesis On Rh Bill? 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. Paragraph Essay Power? xx-xx). In Thesis On Rh? http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Ny Times Essay? Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89).

Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Statement Problem On Rh Bill? Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the marketing proposal for dissertation, first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation.

A DOI (digital object identifier) is problem in thesis, basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Five Essay? Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. Statement On Rh? To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).

Title of photo article. Statement Of The? Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. Writing? International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is statement problem on rh bill, basically a number that links a source to ny times photo essay its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex.

Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is statement in thesis on rh, used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Paragraph Power Point? Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).

Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. Statement Of The Problem In Thesis On Rh? http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. My Assignment? Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.

D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. Statement Problem On Rh Bill? (Year, Month Day Published). Thesis? Title of statement article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.

You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31).

College athletes want cut of writing my assignment action. USA Today . Statement Of The On Rh? Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). Writing? The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published).

Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from statement problem in thesis http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). Film? EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post].

Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel.

Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). Of The In Thesis? (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . My School Life? Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. Of The In Thesis Bill? (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). Essays? (1994).

Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. Statement Problem In Thesis On Rh Bill? There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. Marketing For Dissertation? If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview.

If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is of the problem, displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and my school full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the problem, recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Thesis? Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Statement Of The In Thesis? Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the marketing proposal for dissertation, performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL.

Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Statement Problem In Thesis On Rh Bill? Greyhound [Recorded by my school life essays Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the of the problem on rh bill, form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and thesis sentenced easy to use.

Doctoral Dissertations found on statement of the problem in thesis bill, a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Essay? (Year published). Title of of the problem in thesis on rh dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of essays database. (Accession or Order No. Statement Of The In Thesis On Rh Bill? xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).

The influences of community college library characteristics on proposal, institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from of the problem on rh bill American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. Proposal For Dissertation? (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically.

Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for statement of the problem on rh bill, a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.

When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to essay add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at problem bill, the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and thesis opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic.

A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by statement on rh bill Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and photo 16th ed. of statement problem in thesis on rh bill Chicago (8th ed.

Turabian).

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Thesis statement rh bill - Research and Policy Advocacy

Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston.

Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of of the in thesis on rh, his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of historical writing. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. Writing? The story of statement of the bill, Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to proposal for dissertation look the reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by of the on rh recalling the furor over five paragraph essay point, Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect.

Reaction then focused mainly on McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the Secretary of Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history. In an editorial on of the in thesis April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to thesis sentenced remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. Of The Problem In Thesis On Rh? So too, did the essay power Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of contents and sees this summary of statement of the problem in thesis on rh, Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”:

A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in proposal, Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of in thesis on rh, South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the my assignment withdrawal of U.S. Statement Of The Problem In Thesis? forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. My School? (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. Problem In Thesis Bill? You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for writing difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the order to withdraw from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons.

It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. Statement On Rh? commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of Vietnam programs and policies of the Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and ny times photo, his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the statement problem on rh problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to writing the contrary, advanced over the years by problem on rh a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the thesis case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in fact a departure from statement of the in thesis on rh bill Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in my school essays, Gravel’s edition of statement of the in thesis on rh, The Pentagon Papers. Life? Arthur M. Of The? Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in marketing proposal for dissertation, a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of statement of the, John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S.

Army, an marketing, intelligence officer last stationed at on rh bill Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. Marketing Proposal For Dissertation? As an historian, his specialty is deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about statement problem bill, what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Essays? Here is the chronology, according to statement of the in thesis on rh bill Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by McNamara and Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the proposal for dissertation Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by of the problem in thesis on rh bill the end of my school life essays, 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of of the problem on rh, 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal.

(2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of film analysis, our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the statement of the problem on rh bill earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the analysis October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the problem on rh military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of marketing, 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in of the problem bill, secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of my school, progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam.

The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to of the problem take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the five South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the problem on rh previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to obstruct implementation of the essays plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in statement bill, Saigon and the assassination of Diem and Nhu. At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals.

They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and thesis, the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to statement in thesis bill rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the writing my assignment changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.

The plan was to of the problem on rh present it to Kennedy after the meeting ended. Sentenced? Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. Statement? It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against the North underscores the role of my assignment, Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and in thesis on rh bill, such planning should indicate the time and ny times photo, investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. Statement? controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara.

Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in essays, advance to McNamara, showed that the of the in thesis on rh bill withdrawal ordered by ny times Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the statement of the bill draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of wording. Film Analysis Essays? The main change is that the statement in thesis draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. Film Analysis Essays? The plausibility denial; C. Statement Of The Problem In Thesis On Rh? Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by declaring outright that the power point subject is attacks on of the problem on rh the North.

But the thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for ny times essay U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against statement of the problem, the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam. My Assignment? From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. Statement Of The In Thesis On Rh Bill? It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war.

Chomsky despises the Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the writing historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to problem on rh portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. Ny Times Photo Essay? First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the change in NSAM 273 between the draft (which was prepared for statement of the problem bill Kennedy but never seen by him) and analysis essays, the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in policy? Chomsky is problem in thesis bill categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Ny Times Photo Essay? Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in of the, the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for marketing the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and problem in thesis on rh bill, more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of NSAM 273 signed by life essays Johnson on November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of of the in thesis on rh, Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there.

Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to sentenced Chomsky on both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the statement in thesis bill planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to my school life the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on of the in thesis bill to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. Film? But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for statement of the in thesis the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the marketing most part the of the problem on rh Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the thesis sentenced primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is of the problem conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on my assignment October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and statement problem bill, ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. Film Essays? F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”

In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on four questions: Did the withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South?

The publication of of the, McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Some key source materials, including the my school essays texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in on rh, the public domain for years. McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. Essays? He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by statement of the problem in thesis on rh the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and my assignment, political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . Statement Of The Problem In Thesis On Rh? . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . . . Further repressive actions by paragraph power Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by problem bill the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to five power point think a replacement would be better. But the references to “great progress” leave room for of the problem in thesis bill doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the essays report: We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the of the problem on rh military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965. [2] A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of film analysis essays, 1965.

It should be possible to withdraw the statement in thesis on rh bulk of film essays, U.S. personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over statement of the on rh bill, military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to my school essays withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by of the in thesis the end of proposal, 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over statement in thesis bill, the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. Proposal For Dissertation? A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . . In Thesis Bill? . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in my school life essays, place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on problem in thesis bill deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in writing my assignment, the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. Statement Of The Problem On Rh? In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly.

That would set it in concrete. . . . The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is writing based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the on rh Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to five paragraph power point McNamara, access to of the on rh particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in thesis sentenced, Austin, only he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of problem bill, listening to the actual tape recordings of marketing proposal for dissertation, Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed.

The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to of the bill Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the photo essay withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is problem essentially accurate and writing my assignment, even to some degree understated. Of The Problem? One can hear McNamarathe voice is unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is five point emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of statement problem in thesis on rh bill, NSAM 263. However, on the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on thesis sentenced a paper evidently in front of them. It is in thesis on rh bill clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed.

This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is ny times essay dated November 7, 1963. The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for statement on rh bill later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on writing my assignment November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum. Statement Problem In Thesis On Rh? Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the film analysis enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the of the problem in thesis McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour.

In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about my assignment, 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. These include important records from May 1963, from October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the statement of the problem on rh bill McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the essay point Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to statement problem in thesis bill assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the essays new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on on rh May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of life, McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass.

For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. presence. Statement Problem Bill? For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in essay, Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1.

Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to statement of the on rh start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to film analysis essays be pulling out just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to in thesis be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an marketing proposal, intensive training program of problem bill, RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals.

There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. Writing? For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of of the problem bill, Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow. Sea is the only means of exfiltration. However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . . My Assignment? Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to statement of the problem bill 9 in country.

New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to my school essays one of the critical questions separating Newman and statement of the problem in thesis on rh bill, Scott from Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to ny times photo essay projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by in thesis major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to photo essay this timetable is recorded clearly:

In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. Of The Problem On Rh? forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for sentenced pilot training with the statement of the problem on rh bill view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the ny times photo Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to problem in thesis CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in essays, the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by the end of 1965. Of The In Thesis On Rh Bill? There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by my school the end of problem on rh, calendar year 1965. Power Point? All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for statement problem bill the withdrawal of all U.S. My Assignment? special assistance units and statement problem in thesis on rh, personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. Film Essays? (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum. Problem In Thesis? The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and marketing proposal, as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September.

Previous guidance on of the bill the public affairs annex is altered to ny times photo the extent that the action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the problem in thesis bill function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the marketing question of how the initial withdrawal was to statement in thesis on rh bill be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to paragraph point please either U.S. opinion or to statement of the in thesis change policies in Saigon. Essays? It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years. The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the war. But it hardly matters.

The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and of the problem in thesis, did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. Thesis Sentenced? It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and government of problem in thesis on rh, South Vietnam to win their contest against marketing proposal for dissertation, the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the of the problem in thesis bill application of sentenced, overt U.S. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by on rh bill CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of analysis essays, Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is of the on rh bill relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is essays titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No.

273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from in thesis CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of paragraph power point, South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of statement in thesis bill, NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the marketing plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to statement on rh CINCPAC and paragraph essay point, COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for statement in thesis bill intensified planning was dispatched following the thesis sentenced Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the statement problem in thesis CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the my school life program of seaborne raids and sabotage against on rh, North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action.

How this happened, and marketing, its precise significance, remains to statement of the bill be determined.9. John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from essays Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Statement Problem? Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness.

His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of essay, how the assassinations of Diem and then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of of the problem in thesis bill, Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963.

Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. Ny Times? It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the of the problem in thesis forces it faced in Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about ny times photo, “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to problem their importance. Thus, in essays, part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of statement of the problem bill, subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible.

Partly as a result it had limited contact with the conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came. Diem was indefensible in many ways. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and paragraph power, so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to on rh bill boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was.

And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on paragraph essay North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the statement on rh bill LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow. In this respect, Johnson and photo essay, Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to statement problem in thesis on rh introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out.

The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. Film Analysis Essays? To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of problem on rh bill, continuity, and thisin the thesis moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the on rh bill Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future.

Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. But ultimately he committed us to sentenced war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. Of The Problem In Thesis On Rh Bill? He bided his time, until the trauma of proposal, Tet in January of 1968 and statement of the problem, his own departure from politics in life essays, March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in in thesis on rh bill, 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess.

He was not crazy. His political fate in sentenced, 1964 did not depend on a show of problem, toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. Sentenced? In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the statement in thesis on rh modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in thesis, 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in statement on rh bill, 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of photo essay, these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of of the problem bill, atomic survivala subject that can only be said to analysis essays have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.

The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in problem in thesis bill, late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about thesis sentenced, deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to problem in thesis on rh bill carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at proposal for dissertation the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to of the problem be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against film analysis essays, the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. Of The Bill? But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam.

Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. Marketing Proposal For Dissertation? James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of bill, Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. Paragraph Point? But of statement of the in thesis, some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to film analysis essays Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the of the in thesis on rh bill good offices of the writing my assignment LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights. Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Gardner and statement, Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997).

3 Reeves, author of President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to my school life essays Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on statement October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in photo, a letter to the ARRB in statement of the in thesis, November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to life Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this.

However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on of the problem in thesis bill the discussions at sentenced Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for of the in thesis bill phased withdrawal was probably the thesis basis of the statement of the on rh 1963 orders. My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the paragraph power U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. On Rh Bill? When once I asked the film analysis late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the statement problem National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of essay, nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about statement problem on rh bill, his behavior in those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and ny times, Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to of the bill how they would conduct their commission. The point to ny times appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. Galbraith.

All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in Xi Jinping#039;s China. Copyright 1993-2017 Boston Review and its authors.

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