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bbc homework helper Your news when you want it. A study of the impact of research homework in different countries says that the pressure of homework causes friction between children and parents. This pressure is of the distance essays, worst in families where parents are most keen for their children to succeed at school. And the survey claims that homework causes anxiety and emotional exhaustion. As a solution, the nursing proposal report suggests that homework clubs, which take place after school, are a successful way of essays teratogens getting the research benefit of homework, without risking the disagreements associated with homework at home. The report from the Institute of Education in London is a review of research over on lincoln 75 years, which examines the impact of homework in the United Kingdom, the United States, Europe, Australia and the Far and research sample Middle East. And it says that homework can become a source of tension, particularly when parents try to of the distance runner essays, take too much control of how children are approaching their homework. For parents to make a positive contribution, the report suggests that parents should take a more supportive and less interventionist role, only helping when they are asked. Parents have the most positive influence when they offer moral support, make appropriate resources available and discuss general issues. They should only nursing sample actually help with homework when their children specifically ask them to, says report author, Susan Hallam. The report backs the effectiveness of essay on lincoln homework clubs, which have become popular in many schools.

These provide a quiet place where children can study after formal lessons finish, with a teacher often available to research proposal sample, help them. Homework clubs give children the of the long essays benefits of homework without the rows at home. Children feel they make homework enjoyable and give them a better chance of passing exams, says the report. Research. They may assist in raising standards for those who need extra support or who find it difficult to do homework at home. As such, they help to bridge the gap between the of the long essays haves and the have-nots. The report also says that the research proposal sample impact of homework on academic achievement is relatively limited compared to other factors, such as prior knowledge, ability, time on task, good attendance at school, motivation and essays about teratogens self-confidence. People seem to forget what homework is for.

Sadly kids often won't ask if they don't understand, they just want the lesson over with. The best way for a teacher to see who is struggling is to nursing, set homework. When I was at school, you didn't get in to trouble for thesis doing your homework but getting it wrong; far from nursing it, the teachers offered us extra coaching at lunch and ever written break times to research, help us catch up. Obama Essay On Lincoln. You only get in trouble if you are too lazy to nursing, do the work set. College Application Written. My advice to pupils is it's your education and career that is at stake so take some responsibility. The only time pupils have been up till midnight and wearing themselves out on homework is when they had it for nursing sample two weeks and decided to do it all the night before it is teratogens, due in, because they wanted to do other things in the evenings. Hello? Some of these children expected to do homework after spending an entire day in school are as young as FOUR! These are mere children in all aspects of development and children this young should not be receiving homework! It seems to me that the education system is research, stealing our children's childhood and very few are prepared to stand up and question this. There is no way that a four year old or come to that a nine year old needs to learn about adult work schedules and commitments - this is the time when they should be learning through play and discovery not sat at a table just because it may be expected of them during their adulthood.

No wonder so many of today's youth leave school with little self worth or respect, they have been expected to grow up far too quickly. If it weren't so sad, some of these comments would be funny! I have home educated all three of my children, we average two to four hours study a day (not all that is academic), and forget it altogether if we have a lovely day and go for a walk instead. In case you're wondering my eldest is best college essay written, a Recruitment Officer, the nursing research sample middle one is at University doing a Russian Degree and the youngest one still studying from home. Home Education must be the only time homework doesn't cause stress.

They've all grown up to be confident, happy productive young people who enjoy learning and find satisfaction and a sense of achievement in what they do. Joy Beasley, Halesowen, England. Come on! If nowadays kids are not able to cope with a few extra minutes of homework after school, what will happen when they have to long distance runner essays, work extra hours for work? I think we are creating a nation of lazy and idle people. Research Proposal. Children are now psychologically distressed.

For God sake, let's stop that: we are creating problems that don't exist. Let's stop analysing things and start working. I've been working in an English school for a few months only and I think that now education is seen as something boring. I have always had homework to do and never had my parents behind me to help. On Lincoln. What matters now for kids is to play with their brand new mobile phones. Let's react and show kids that life is not like in Coronation Street or whatever soap opera they watch every evening on TV. If children's education was handled differently there would be no need for the endless extra hours of homework, most of which is proposal, busy work rather than genuine study. Many home educating families will witness the fact that their children don't need to be schooled from 9am to 3pm every day in order to keep up with children within the school system and of civil society they certainly don't then need to sit alone for a couple of extra hours in the evening doing more work! If these children can succeed with unqualified parents teaching them for a few hours a day, surely schooled children could do the same if the nursing sample teachers were free to teach without being slaves to paperwork and targets?

No homework = Happy kids and best application essay parents. Nursing Research Proposal Sample. Happy kids and parents = Better home life. Better home life = Easier to concentrate on studies. Concentrate on studies = better results. Better results = Better jobs, plus more money.

More money = Better quality of obama essay on lincoln life. Better quality of life = Happiness and good health all round! Get rid of the stress, do not add to research proposal, it. Life is there to be enjoyed, you get one shot at it. Give the kids and us a break. If there is less homework, surely it would also encourage more people (i.e. single parents/full time workers/people wanting to origin of civil society, improve their lifestyles) to nursing proposal sample, study at night school that don't have the time to study in the day, plus knowing they'll be up finishing some 50 million word dissertation by the day before yesterday! The world won't stop just because your homework wasn't done or the essay written dog ate it or you dropped it a puddle! Remember those?! I have read all of the comments with great interest as I have two young boys of my own year one and year six. I am a full time working single mum leaving home at nursing proposal 7am and not returning until after 7pm.

Both my children receive nightly homework, which I insist must be completed to the best of their ability. Sometimes there is friction and frustration between us, it's inevitable. Thesis. Whilst I agree children are under a lot of pressure, I try to remind my boys that their standard of education is vital and the effort they put in will be rewarded. It is nursing research, hard work but we have to encourage our youth to do well in loneliness long runner essays education, even if at the end of the day that's all they have. Except of course for love and support. My boys can be dustmen if that makes them happy, as long as they are educated dustmen!

Homework Clubs are a great idea, but are not new. A colleague and I used to run one back in the early 90s after repeated children were unable to do homework because they did not have the equipment, books or help at home. As a busy mum of three young children it would benefit me and most other busy families, leaving the nursing research proposal sample evenings free to enjoy each others' company and the children to pursue other activities e.g. sport/ brownies/cubs etc. Liz Langley, Mons, Belgium. As neither pupils nor teachers want homework, why not do away with it completely, but extend the school day by an hour or two. That way more will get taught, working parents will not have to on lincoln, worry about after school care, pupils will have no homework to do and proposal teachers will have no homework to teratogens, mark. My working day ends when I get home from work, so should teachers and pupils. I went to a school which had boarding and day students. There was a defined time at the end of the sample day for homework, which all the students remained in school for. Thesis Standards. This meant the day students didn't have to battle it out with their parents and didn't have to nursing, take work home with them.

It also made book sharing and group work much more easy to organise. The added bonus was that by obama essay, the time we got to university we were used to research sample, settling down for a couple of hours work in the evenings. Essays About. Rachel, Edinburgh, Scotland. Sample. My cousin was a secondary school teacher for many years and point blank refused to set homework for any of his pupils. Best Essay Ever. He didn't see the point in it. Proposal. If it can't be done at school, why should it be done at all? Martin Willoughby, Stevenage, UK. Teratogens. The amount of nursing sample homework a child faces is ridiculous and one of the reasons I took my children out of school to educate them at home. These are children!

They are meant to be playing after their school hours (which involves a lot more emotional learning than most adults appreciate). What happens when a child spends hours working on their homework when they don't really understand the subject: hours of work to be met by getting into best college ever written trouble by nursing research sample, the teacher the essay written next day. So often I remember homework not being marked by the teachers, sometimes for weeks, which gave me the message that what I did didn't matter - I, and nursing proposal sample what I did, wasn't important. As for 'preparing children for the adult world' in terms of hours worked, as with everything else, it should be tailored to the child's age, abilities and obama essay on lincoln aptitudes - after all, that's what the Law requires. I have four children, one doing GCSEs this year, one year nine and twins in year seven. Our philosophy is that homework is a priority on coming home from school. This has been the research proposal sample same throughout their school lives. Standards. All homework where possible is done immediately (even after returning from ECAs) or risk the consequences. Playstation/computer/TV and other activities have to wait until later or weekends.

I rarely help with homework as this does not help any child, although I am there if needed. We have plenty of family time - our meals are eaten together (no TV), we sit and talk in the evening, weekends and holidays is their time with friends (one weekend a month is kept as family time). Even as a full time working mum and dad this was the same. Research Sample. My kids still have their jobs to do too! Plenty of time. Of course homework causes stress, what kid in their right mind goes home at the end of the loneliness distance runner school day thinking whooohaaaa! I've got homework to nursing proposal, do. Essay On Lincoln. The Stress comes, as the article says, from parents forcing kids to do their homework. So there are three solutions, stop homework, let the kids decide whether they'll do it or not, or as seems to be the prevalence do it for them. Research Proposal. personally I'd stop homework, in 13 years of education (primary to paper, a levels) I've never been given a piece of homework for proposal sample any other reason than the obama essay on lincoln teacher was required to provide me with homework.

If the curriculum wasn't such an unholy mess perhaps homework could be avoided, because teachers would be able to teach, instead of pen-pushing. Simon Binks, Reading, England. I was actively encouraged by my daughter's teachers to do her homework for her, particularly the projects that counted towards her marks. This would ensure that the nursing proposal school had a 'pass' to up their standard in the league tables. Other parents have told me the same story. I admit, I did it to help my daughter. How many other parents will be as honest? Perhaps then homework can be shown for what it is; a way of essay on lincoln improving student standards by allowing their parents to do the work. Homework is essential for reinforcing the ideas thrown out in the classroom.

Nobody likes doing it, but the one hour per subject during the school-day just doesn't cut it when attempting to understand subject material. I recently graduated from my university with a degree in Meteorology and I can certainly attest to the tremendous stress and nursing sample workload involved with all the homework assigned. However, I must say that if children can't handle the (relatively) simple stress from homework, then how can they ever hope to cope with the high expectations and stress levels expected of them when working in their intended career? Michelle, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA. There would be big arguments if we tried to force adults into doing compulsory overtime - homework is the same.

Kids have a long day as it is. Besides, a lot of of the long essays research actually shows that doing a lot of homework has no appreciable effect on research proposal, results. Better results come from teachers who are relaxed and can teach instead of worrying about discipline and inspections. I'm 17 years old so naturally I have a part time job. Essay On Lincoln. I've noticed as I get old the amount of homework in increased, thus making less time for research sample family time.

I think it's the teacher's job to loneliness long runner essays, teach because they're being paid for it. I shouldn't have to teach myself at home something because the teacher fails to do that. I wish I could spend more time with my family, especially my older sisters, but homework definitely prevents this. I am a teacher and a parent. I have arguments at home about my son's homework, and research sample have to sit in on endless detentions at on adhd school for lack of homework. We should give up on nursing proposal sample, homework as a bad deal. Nobody gains from society essay it. James Brown, Birmingham, UK. Research Proposal. I am an English teacher in a Junior High School in Japan (12-14 year olds) and we have a homework club.

It doesn't work. Thesis. All it does is proposal sample, take up more of the teachers precious time and of civil society essay make the students do homework straight after their lessons have finished, instead of research proposal giving them a couple of hours rest so they can do it when they are ready. Children DO have to take responsibility for their actions. If you dictate everything to them then they will leave school and not know how to organise their lives. Time management is very important in life and homework is good training. Also, there are not enough hours in the school day to cover all the necessary work in the curriculum and so an element of homework is essential, particularly from year 10 onwards. Kids need to learn that four hours school work a day bears little relationship to what is expected at college/university, let alone when they start working for a living. Essays About. Too many children leaving school are ill educated and only semi-literate at best. Proposal. It is far easier to learn when they are young and is time well spent. My daughter starts school at 7.30am and is dismissed at 2.45pm. By the time she gets home she is done with school.

She is college ever, 10 years old and nursing proposal sample all she wants to do is play with her friends. The there is the thesis after school programmes, as sport id good for research sample them. With homework we are stressing out kids way too young. If they can't learn it in school, then the standards education district isn't doing it's job. Heather Stabler, Round Rock, TEXAS, UK ex pat. Surely the proposal starting point is to ask what is the purpose of homework? Is it because parents feel cheated if their child isn't doing enough homework - parent/school communication problem?

Is it to essays about, finish work not done at nursing research school? Is it to of civil essay, build on what is done in research proposal sample school - with appropriate amounts and difficulties set? Or is it, just perhaps, to start to instil the discipline that, regardless of distractions, sometimes work just has to be done - and you have to plan how and thesis standards when to do it. And this reinforces the point - it really is largely up to nursing research sample, the child and the school. Parents should keep a good distance unless - as we have sometimes found - the question doesn't make sense or the child just needs to about, look at the problem from another perspective. Perhaps what is really required is research proposal, a genuine homework policy which all three parties - teachers, children and best essay written parents - all understand. When I was at school homework caused all kinds of proposal problems between myself and my parents.

They were constantly on at me to do work or revise or something. I always did enough to get by and do reasonably well at school, but that often wasn't enough for them. Now I'm in my final year at University and everything is going well. Homework did, without exception, cause all sorts of problems, and although I'm not against it in principle, a better system should be instigated to help children and of the essays parents who fall out over it. Homework that has been brought home by my seven year old daughter has already caused disagreements.

The methodology and content is so different to what my wife and I did at school it is hard to grasp what the school are after. The homework is often unclear and not specific enough to exactly what the teachers are after. Is it really necessary at this young age? Can't they just enjoy being kids? Dave Clack, Bicester, England. The simple truth is that homework is of little value until a child begins to study for their GCSEs.

All other homework before that is essentially preparing them for that day so that they are used to it. The best thing a parent can do is to instil a routine for nursing proposal sample their child that they do homework at the same time for the same length of of the long runner essays time every day. Then when it becomes important they are used to applying themselves. Most homework problems in our house are generated by a school policy that declares homework to be the parents' responsibility. To me, it is very clear and simple: if the school wish to set homework, then they should enforce it and sanction non-compliance accordingly, not buck-pass. Nursing Proposal. My role as parent is merely to provide appropriate study facilities along with empathy, support and love. Of Civil Essay. I don't mind the homework setting so much but like other views expressed, get frustrated when it is simply pointless 'colouring' for my 11 year old or comes with poor instructions as to what is required. Both my husband and I work full time and nursing sample finding the time at weekends to standards, create the routine of 'homework time' for our eight year olds is difficult as the children are at nursing research proposal an age when their homework has to be supervised.

At times this has been a stressful 45 minutes or even an hour. Given the of civil essay research view that the value of the work that they do in that time is minimal, I am questioning if this is nursing research sample, really worth the hassle? Angela Ensten, Dunstable. I'd love to help my children with their homework, but, as a teacher, I'm too busy marking other people's children's homework to distance essays, have any time for research proposal my own. Application Ever Written. How's about that for irony? Diane Adams, Newcastle, UK. I don't think it is the nursing research proposal homework as such - it is the amount of homework teachers expect these young adults to do.

By the time they have done 2-3 hours homework had something to eat they are too tired to do anything else. As working parents would we be expected to do the same for our employer before we can do the essential things, like running a house interacting (as it is now) with our children and thesis standards have the social life we crave for? No. Nursing Proposal. so why make these demands on our teenagers? I am not saying NO homework just be a little less demanding on them. After all a good rest is half the job as we keep telling them. A happy child will learn more than a stressed one so why do we put so much stress on them to do hours and hours of work after their normal working day. Essays Teratogens. On the art project front; we did a school trip when I was about nursing research proposal sample 11 and had to paper on adhd, make a model of something from the trip. Year on year these models were handed down. It's truly amazing how repainting the grass makes it look like a totally different Stonehenge from last years. I'm a college student and although it's typical for research proposal work to pile up my course has been absolutely ridiculous.

I'm in my second year doing applied science and obama only recently the teachers have started giving us more assignments. This has put a lot of pressure on me and my classmates, for example two of my classmates are working mothers and nursing find it difficult to cope doing both. On Adhd. In September-December no assignments was set for us to do and only started in January. Research. We have an IVA (Integrated Vocational Assignment) to do at this moment which is the biggest pressure for all of us, it isn't fair. Essay. Yep, got to sample, agree with you there.

I'm currently studying at University, and thesis I'll be sat at my computer, head right in the middle of something, when my Sister, who is nursing research proposal, doing GCSE's back home, phones up or comes on MSN, then I'm expected to drop everything to give her a hand with something that she's had for a week which is due in the next day, thus putting me off my train of thought, if Tony wants a life line, he'll kill off Homework, or if the Tory's want a decent landslide victory, they'll promise to do it, and by thunder they will, save our souls, sanity, and various other aspects from the obama essay dreaded homework beast. Nursing Proposal. Craig Jackson, Lancaster, Lancashire, England. I try to help my daughters with their homework in a constructive way. With my younger child (14) I will type out thesis paper, her essays etc on the computer whilst she dictates them to me. I don't change what she says, I just type it out nursing, verbatim and leave her to do spelling and on adhd grammar checks and put the punctuation in when it's finished. With my older daughter (17) I help by discussing her work with her. Apart from sample Chemistry, she's doing A levels in subjects I understand so we have long involved conversations about Shakespeare and Tudor history etc which she says really helps her get her ideas straight when she's putting an essay together. I help both girls as much as I can but I won't do the actual work for standards them - that's not helping as they wouldn't be learning anything if they didn't do the thinking and the research themselves. Poppy Hasted, London, England. Ellie, London, UK - Isn't the fact that a four and a half year old even has HOMEWORK a damming indictment of the government's (and parent's) target obsessed (or perhaps jumping through hoops would be better) education system fixated on league tables and performance without actually considering what we are doing to children (or should that be pre-adults?).

I cannot see the point of homework until secondary school, and even then only substantial levels at 14 onwards. This was the kind of nursing proposal homework regime I went through (and I'm not old, just under 30) and I consider that I was a more rounded, intelligent, person at 16 than the general level of loneliness of the long essays 16 year olds being produced these days. Good teachers are the key - not homework. My child's school sets regular spellings and times tables each week and also encourages them to read regularly, but there is no pressure heaped on them. They then have an nursing sample optional homework menu each term which has creative ideas for science, geography, IT, music, PE, Art and essays about DT projects that they can do at home. At the end of each term they have a celebration day when children can bring in any optional homework they have done during the term. They are generally really interesting things that children want to do and enjoy doing, and many don't need much, if any, input from parents. Nursing Sample. When the 'I'm bored, what can I do?' cry is heard, the homework menu provides plenty of ready-made ideas that will keep a child constructively occupied. The head teacher of our local high school promotes a very unrealistic homework timetable for college essay written year 11 students where she expects students to work three hours after school and more at weekends. This time table makes many students guilty and despondent because they cannot possibly work so many hours. I have mentored students that her demands are very unrealistic, and that an hour and sample a half of high quality work will stand them in essay good stead.

Sarah cotter, Woodridge, Suffolk. I think it is nursing research, a problem of pointless homework. I always hated being given time wasting work that had no value, just because the long distance runner teachers had to give us something. Kids work enough during the day, that until their courses require coursework, homework should be abolished. It's making me laugh all these comments about homework and nursing proposal all the stress, and even more laughable when people say there should be no homework, as when I was at school I coped, sometimes it was stressful but that is the point, school is not meant to be easy! And by the way I only left school two years ago in case anyone was wondering! Imagine, expecting children to do homework at home. About. Surely the best way to resolve the nursing proposal problem would be to extend the school day by two hours and college application ever written let the teachers supervise homework that is set. I fact if the children bring washing equipment, a sleeping bag and nursing research a bit of food perhaps the teachers can look after them all week. This would not only mean the parents not having to take any responsibility for their child's education, but you could also clearly call the teacher to account when the essays teratogens child does not achieve the required standards by the end of the year. No more nagging teachers because essential homework has not been done be it reading and nursing proposal spelling at application essay written one end, or GCSE coursework at sample the other.

What a solution. Thesis. Cookery was always the nursing research proposal sample worst, I regularly had to go and specially buy the ingredients (often late at night). The instructions always indicated that these items could be found in any kitchen, not in mine they couldn't! Peter Armitage, Cardiff, Wales. Best Essay Written. Homework does cause tension at home, not only from parent to children but also between adults if both have different methods or answers to the questions set. Also when the homework does go in research sample we don't seem to get any feedback to check it. The clubs are a good idea but does anybody think that the teachers want to spend their time running them when they're so overworked already.

Richard Vickers, Nottingham, England. Tensions arises in our house when my daughter's two job-share teachers want different homework handed in at different times. Try and thesis standards get her to do homework on a Wednesday night when it is a different teacher on Thursday, and equally doing the research proposal sample other teacher's homework on a Friday or Sunday. Doesn't make for about good homework routine. Mo Angus, Aberdeen, Scotland. British kids have the longest school hours in nursing research proposal sample Europe and I think it is thesis, inappropriate to expect them to nursing proposal, do homework as well. No wonder kids are getting fatter and less fit - they haven't got the time to play!

Anna Hayward, Cambridgeshire. I lived in a small house with five younger brothers and on adhd paper thin walls. Trying to do my homework was nigh on impossible in those circumstances and rows and tears would often result. A homework club would have made life much easier and would have put those children from working class homes on more of an equal footing with their middle class counterparts. The only time homework causes a problem in our house is when it's either unclear what needs to be done or badly planned. We had one instance in November where science homework was given on a Monday, to be handed in on Friday - the work was to nursing research proposal, create a sundial and thesis mark the position of the shadow morning, noon and afternoon. The morning was fine, but since our son was at nursing research proposal school during the day he obviously couldn't mark the noon position and by thesis paper on adhd, the time he got home it was dark in the evening so there was no light to cast a shadow! Madness.

Other homework has been very vague in the requirements meaning that correct answers were marked as wrong purely because they weren't presented in the way the teacher was expecting. Lee Furness, Blyth (Northumberland) Not so much a source of tension for nursing proposal us, because I do take a hands-off approach most of the time and hope that the doing or not doing of homework is a life lesson itself. Best Application Ever. However, I do find, that when asked to research proposal, help, I can't be of best college essay ever much assistance as I can rarely understand the context in nursing which the homework was set. Of The. Homework clubs sound like a much better idea and would leave us to spend our precious little time in family pursuits.

This article is so true. My brother is always in fight with my mom about his homework.

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Les Choristes : essai d’interpretation sociologique. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. Comment analyser sociologiquement une image ? Il n’existe pas – encore – de methode pour ce genre d’analyse, affirme Sylvain Maresca, qui en profite pour faire de cette lacune une des causes expliquant la « cecite » des sciences sociales [2] [2] S. Nursing! Maresca, La photographie, un miroir des sciences. Thesis Paper! . Nursing! Et pourtant, poursuit-il, le sociologue aurait beaucoup a dire sur l’image sous toutes ses formes, n’en deplaise a Nathalie Heinich, pour qui l’?uvre d’art, analysee seule, n’est pas en soi un objet sociologique [3] [3] « Risque d’hegemonisme, adoption spontanee du point. Thesis! . Nursing Proposal! A l’occasion du cours « Cinema et societe », organise dans le cadre de la licence de sociologie de l’Universite d’Evry (promotion 2004-2005), nous avons donc decide de tenter une experience : il s’agissait de tester une des rares methodes d’analyse, en l’occurrence celle d’Alain Malassinet, et de l’adapter a notre objet afin de mener une « analyse sociologique de l’image cinematographique ». C’est en 1979 que le sociologue Alain Malassinet publia une etude intitulee Societe et cinema. Thesis Paper On Adhd! Les annees 1960 en Grande-Bretagne : essai d’interpretation sociologique . Proposal! Son hypothese etait la suivante : « Le succes d’un film est revelateur. Obama Essay! Il nous fournit un indice sur l’etat d’une societe dans son ensemble, et il offre au sociologue comme un miroir, plus ou moins fidele, de cette societe [4] [4] Paris, Lettres modernes, 1979, p. Research Sample! 45. Thesis Paper! . Sample! » Sa methode consistait a analyser sur dix ans les dix meilleurs scores du box office, et a les mettre en parallele avec les grandes mutations de la societe britannique des annees 1960. Thesis! Prolongeant Malassinet, nous sommes donc partis des dix succes cinematographiques francais en 2004 [5] [5] Les dix titres etaient : 1. Nursing Research! Les Choristes : 8 573 906. Of Civil! , puis de son champion si particulier, Les Choristes , un film qui connut a la surprise de tous quelque 8,5 millions d’entrees. Nursing! Au-dela des themes traditionnels de l’education, de l’autorite et de la nostalgie, souvent debattus [6] [6] Voir en particulier le travail de Jean-Pierre Garnier. Essay On Lincoln! , une lecture approfondie permet de degager d’autres axes d’analyse, bien moins evidents et consensuels qu’il n’y parait.

Les Choristes (de Christophe Barratier) reprend tres exactement la structure, le scenario et parfois meme les dialogues d’un autre grand succes du box office (plus de cinq millions d’entrees), celui-la de 1945, La Cage aux rossignols (de Jean Dreville, avec Noel Noel). Nursing Sample! Malgre soixante ans d’ecart entre les deux films, la version 2004 est une copie tres proche de l’original, avec de nombreuses scenes reprises quasi a l’identique. Standards! Dans un remake aussi fidele, les differences, meme infimes, nous ont semble essentielles a analyser. Nursing Research! Ce sera d’ailleurs le point de depart de notre methode : en quoi les evolutions de 2004, par rapport au film de 1945, nous offrent-elles un « miroir », pour reprendre l’expression d’Alain Malassinet, de cette societe qui a plebiscite ce remake [7] [7] Dans son texte precite, Jean-Pierre Garnier part de. Thesis Standards! ? En premiere lecture, certaines modifications apparaissent tres nettement dans le scenario meme du film : le heros, qui se mariait a la fin en grandes pompes a l’eglise en 1945, part desormais dans un car avec un orphelin qu’il va adopter, contre toute logique. Nursing Sample! La mutation de la famille et un rapport radicalement different a la religion y sont evidemment pour quelque chose. Essay! Plus interessant, la prise de conscience collective, suite a la publication du roman du pion dans un journal de 1945, laisse place a une lecture individuelle des memoires de Clement Matthieu en 2004, sans aucune consequence sur le pensionnat ou sur la trajectoire du pion. Nursing Research! Le film de 1945 montrait une reconnaissance de la societe envers Clement Matthieu, via le best-seller qui lui apporte gloire, fortune et amour (il peut enfin se marier a sa belle promise), tandis que le journal intime de 2004 reste dans un carton jusqu’apres la mort de Matthieu, pour n’en ressortir qu’avec la lecture solitaire ou presque de Morhange. Thesis! Entre-temps, Clement Matthieu, « pion au chomage » (derniere ligne du journal), n’aura jamais « cherche a se faire connaitre », raconte Pepinot, fils adoptif de Matthieu. Nursing Research Proposal! Enfin, le feu accident (la colere divine de la foudre) de La Cage aux rossignols se transforme en main vengeresse du delinquant irrecuperable, ajout majeur de la version 2004.

Autant de modifications, infimes au regard de la similitude globale, mais qui vont orienter notre analyse selon trois axes : la place de l’enfant, le role de l’institution, et la question des inegalites – ou comment faire glisser les inegalites sociales vers des inegalites « naturelles », et donc legitimes et indiscutables. De 1945 a 2004, l’enfant est devenu un individu a part entiere. Of Civil Society Essay! Du moins, c’est ce que nous exposent les changements flagrants de mise en scene et de structure du film. Sample! Alors que La Cage aux rossignols (la modification du titre, aussi, est revelatrice) debute par la vie du pion apres le pensionnat, puis presente en flash back son arrivee au pensionnat, accueilli par un adulte, le pere Maxence, Les Choristes nous plonge d’emblee du cote des enfants : l’ex-enfant Morhange, au moment ou sa mere decede (!), ou encore l’arrivee du pion Clement Matthieu au pensionnat, ou il rencontre en premier lieu un enfant, Pepinot, avant de voir le pere Maxence, son seul accueil de La Cage aux rossignols . Aux « enfants » de 1945, indifferencies dans la masse (voir le nombre tres important de plans larges dans le film), repond l’enfant-personne, l’enfant-individu de 2004 : les gros plans se multiplient sur des figures typees et facilement reconnaissables, tandis que leurs personnalites, leurs histoires et leurs paroles sont mises en avant. Teratogens! La mise en scene de Barratier reproduit, de maniere inconsciente, une conception de l’enfant, personne et individu, tres eloignee des mentalites de 1945. Autre modification concernant les enfants : leur designation et leur rapport a la violence. Nursing Proposal! En 1945, le pere Maxence previent tout de suite le pion : ici, ce sont des « mauvais gars », des vagabonds, des delinquants, des gamins de 10-15 ans, mais « pires que les grands ». Loneliness Long Distance Runner! Soixante ans plus tard, lorsque Gerard Jugnot pose la meme question au pere Maxence, ce dernier se retourne et lui repond : « on research proposal sample ne vous a pas dit ? », suivi d’un long silence enigmatique, et pour le moins inquietant. Meme facon de faire quand il s’agit de filmer les rares actions violentes du film : 1945 nous montre sans souci la plaie du pere Maxence sur l’?il, alors que l’accident de 2004 n’est montre qu’a travers le regard du directeur sur la plaie, impossible a voir. Thesis! « Ah quand meme », s’exclame-t-il en se detournant, visiblement degoute par la blessure [8] [8] On verra pourtant cette blessure plus loin, dans l’infirmerie. Sample! . Written! Lorsque Clement demande a l’homme qu’il remplace la raison de son depart, le pion de 1944 repond un « j’en ai marre », mais celui de 2004 nous montre, de tres loin dans l’image, son bras avec un simple commentaire : « Dix points de suture. Proposal! Un coup de ciseaux parce que j’avais confisque ses cigarettes a Mouton ».

Placer la violence hors champ permet au realisateur d’en amplifier l’impact : les cineastes savent fort bien que l’imaginaire du spectateur est souvent plus impressionnant et plus efficace que le plus gore des maquillages. Thesis Paper On Adhd! D’autant que ce hors champ du film renvoie au hors champ social et que le spectateur n’aura aucun mal a classer ces deux actes dans la longue litanie qui circule, en boucle, sur ses ecrans de television. Proposal Sample! De maniere tres claire, le delinquant des Choristes est le delinquant mediatique. Thesis Standards! On se rend compte que le film propose d’ailleurs un decalage tres interessant entre le son et les images a ce sujet : le son decrit des etres violents et sanguinaires, l’image des enfants plutot attachants, turbulents, mais somme toute assez calmes. La Cage aux rossignols finissait par une prise de conscience collective et une reponse immediate de l’institution face au « mouton noir » incarne par le mechant directeur de pension. Research Proposal Sample! Dorenavant, 2004 met en avant l’individu, l’initiative personnelle, et non plus le collectif. Essays About Teratogens! Le film expose ainsi la « fin » apparente de l’institution, ou plutot son desengagement net, et une prise en charge non plus globale, collective, mais realisee par un individu seul – prise en charge presentee comme preferable, meme si elle est aleatoire.

Car ce que l’on peut deduire du film, c’est que l’institution n’a pas a regler ce genre de problemes, qui ne sont pas de sa competence. Sample! La reponse apportee est celle de la repression (le fameux « action reaction », ajout contemporain), seule action facilement generalisable et generalisee, la ou l’aspect « prevention », incarne par Jugnot, reste bien une volonte individuelle, mais certes pas une volonte et une mission collective. D’ailleurs la « vraie » reussite, celle qu’encense le film, ne reside pas du cote du directeur, soit du cote de l’argent, mais au contraire dans le don de soi desinteresse. About! Le pion est la figure cle de l’engagement, voire quasiment du benevolat : pas de 35 heures ici, mais un travail permanent, sans frontiere franche – voir quand il compose le soir dans son lit pour le lendemain, alors que le pion de 1945 y redige juste son journal intime, plus tard le recit de son aventure. Research Proposal! Resultat de cet engagement personnel, « volontaire » : un Jugnot qui trouve dans son travail un epanouissement total. Thesis! L’argent pervertit tout… Cerise sur le gateau, ca fonctionne, dans le sens de l’institution cette fois. Research! En marge du systeme, l’experience de Jugnot est recuperee par le directeur quand il s’avere que, « grace a la chorale », la delinquance diminue. Origin Society! Le directeur en profite pour tenter de decrocher sa medaille, tandis que Clement Matthieu, de l’autre cote, profite d’une semi-liberte artificielle pour se remettre a la musique et assouvir ses ideaux.

L’equilibre de la pension est donc preserve via un principe d’illusion classique : ces moments de cohesion du groupe detournent les enfants de leurs conditions de vie precaires, qui ont donne lieu precedemment a de belles revoltes cinematographiques – Zero de conduite en tete. Nursing Sample! Alors que le pion tente de leur procurer un moment de liberte, la chorale sert au final des buts opposes, et permet un asservissement de tous sans heurt. Of Civil Society Essay! Car ici, la revolte n’aura pas lieu, pas meme l’ombre d’une contestation : la chorale habitue les enfants a respecter une hierarchie sociale – l’elite Morhange, face auquel on nursing ne peut rivaliser, la masse, classe moyenne passive, et au bout de la chaine le manuel, dans le role du pupitre (d’ailleurs seul enfant « de couleur » dans le film de 2004). Essays! Cette experience « liberatrice » les entraine a accepter sans faille une division sociale du travail, justifiee par une hierarchie de fait incontestable. Car la chorale, centre du film, est tout sauf une entreprise philanthropique, malgre les apparences. Research Proposal! Il y regne le culte de la competitivite et de l’excellence.

Il n’y a pas de place pour ceux qui ne repondent pas aux criteres, et qui sont donc exclus du systeme et relegues au niveau d’objet, comme le petit garcon qui sert de pupitre. Loneliness Long Distance! L’important n’est pas de participer, loin de la, mais d’etre le meilleur. Research! Ce qui se confirme dans la sequence cle entrainant la comtesse, qui finance le pensionnat, a la « rencontre » de la chorale. On Lincoln! Elle n’est certes pas venue encourager une « experience pedagogique innovante », mais elle vient au contraire apprecier l’excellence de la representation. Proposal Sample! Ce n’est pas parce qu’ils chantent qu’elle vient voir les enfants, mais parce qu’ils chantent bien « contre toute attente ». Standards! A ce titre, la rencontre entre les classes sociales n’aura pas lieu. Sample! La comtesse a en face d’elle les codes et les normes de son monde, codes qu’imitent d’ailleurs bien difficilement les enfants : des fleurs et des compliments, des habits du dimanche, une chorale dans une eglise ou encore La Nuit de Rameau, pas forcement un « standard » parmi les « classes populaires ». Le film deplace donc clairement la question des inegalites : elles ne sont plus sociales, mais naturelles [9] [9] Ou le principe de l’illusion, au sens de Clement Rosset. Origin Of Civil Society Essay! . Nursing Sample! Toute lutte est donc inutile. Thesis! Morhange est bon des le debut, don inne, alors que le pupitre aura beau travailler, il ne saura jamais chanter. Nursing Sample! Idem avec Mondain, le mechant du film : il sera mechant du debut a la fin, et irrecuperable par la societe. Thesis! Il n’y a qu’a regarder son visage, face a celui de Morhange pour s’en convaincre. Nursing Proposal Sample! Le determinisme est omnipresent, sans echappatoire, comme lorsque le directeur decide de punir a l’aveuglette un enfant et que Matthieu, nouvellement arrive, designe Boniface, manifestement non coupable aux yeux de tous – trop beau pour cela… Idem lorsque Mondain est innocente du vol d’argent : « si Mondain n’est pas coupable aujourd’hui, il le sera une autre fois.

On ne peut rien pour ce genre d’individu », declare, premonitoire, le directeur. Essays Teratogens! Sequence suivante : le pensionnat brule, vengeance de Mondain. Pourtant, pourrait-on objecter, l’ascenseur social fonctionne bien : Morhange, « malgre » son origine et sa mere celibataire, s’en sort, lui. Nursing Proposal Sample! Qu’importe des lors que le destin des autres pensionnaires soit passe sous silence, il incarne a lui seul la « revanche » de ces enfants, et surtout pas d’une classe. Thesis Standards! Ce n’est d’ailleurs pas n’importe quelle reussite sociale qu’on nous propose en ouverture du film, puisque Morhange est desormais un chef d’orchestre reconnu internationalement : New York, rien que cela. Proposal! Le sacrifice de Matthieu, puisque sacrifice il y a, au sens religieux du terme, ne sera pas vain et justifie cette entorse au systeme, derriere son apparente remise en cause. Essays Teratogens! L’art ne sauve pas Morhange.

Bref, la lutte des classes est morte et enterree, ne reste plus que la lutte de l’individu. Nursing Proposal! Meme le pion « roule » pour lui : il ne fait pas confiance au collectif (ses trois collegues, restes sur place, feront licencier le directeur, pas lui), mais a ses actions personnelles, qu’il ne cherche pas a etendre, surtout pas pourrait-on dire. Essays About! Deresponsabilisation collective, mais responsabilite individuelle. La grande difficulte, a ce stade d’analyse du film, est d’elargir ces premieres remarques. Nursing Research! Prenons par exemple la question du deplacement des inegalites : si on origin society essay accepte que ce theme est ainsi traite dans le film, qui parle ? Est-ce le realisateur qui percoit la societe contemporaine de la sorte ? Est-ce, de maniere totalement consciente, une production d’idees vehiculees aujourd’hui ? Est-ce au contraire le spectateur de 2004 qui recoit le film sous cet axe ? C’est cet aspect de la reflexion qui nous semble le plus interessant. Nursing! Que le realisateur ait voulu ou non, de maniere consciente ou non, faire figurer ces themes, peu importe, et la reponse a ces questions ne sera jamais entierement satisfaisante. Thesis Standards! L’essentiel est qu’ils y soient, ou que, du moins, le spectateur de 2004 puisse les y trouver et trouver un echo a ses questionnements. Nursing Sample! En ce sens, un film, meme pris seul, meme independant des gros corpus d’etudes qui constituent les recherches d’Alain Malassinet, ou de l’historien Pierre Sorlin [10] [10] P. Obama Essay! Sorlin, Sociologie du cinema, Paris, Aubier Montaigne. Nursing Research Proposal Sample! , est effectivement, comme l’esquisse en creux Edgar Morin, un excellent analyseur des representations qu’une societe se fait d’elle-meme. Paper On Adhd! Le miroir qu’offre le film n’est jamais un miroir fidele, mais un miroir deforme par un point de vue socialement construit.

Preuve s’il en est que l’analyse de l’image cinematographique reste un vaste champ d’analyse pour le sociologue, encore trop peu defriche, et qu’une reflexion methodologique de fond s’impose, trente ans apres les premieres pistes de Pierre Sorlin et d’Alain Malassinet. Maitre de conferences en sociologie a l’Universite d’Evry. S. Nursing Proposal! Maresca, La photographie, un miroir des sciences sociales , Paris, L’Harmattan, coll. Paper! « Logiques sociales », 1996. « Risque d’hegemonisme, adoption spontanee du point de vue des acteurs, manque de langage de description specifique : autant de raisons de douter que la sociologie soit une discipline bien armee pour etudier de pres les ?uvres d’art », in nursing proposal sample N. College Essay Ever! Heinich, La Sociologie de l’art , Paris, La Decouverte, coll. Research! « Reperes », 2001, p. Thesis Standards! 90. Paris, Lettres modernes, 1979, p. Nursing Research Proposal! 45.

Les dix titres etaient : 1. Thesis Paper! Les Choristes : 8 573 906 entrees ; 2. Nursing Research Proposal! Shrek 2 : 7 141 481 entrees ; 3. Standards! Harry Potter et le prisonnier d’Azkaban : 7 138 546 entrees ; 4. Nursing Sample! Spider-Man 2 : 5 313 855 entrees ; 5. Best College Application Essay Ever! Les Indestructibles : 5 109 167 entrees ; 6. Nursing Research Proposal! Un long dimanche de fiancailles : 4 380 797 entrees ; 7. Thesis On Adhd! Frere des ours : 3 567 214 entrees ; 8. Nursing Research Proposal! Podium : 3 559 786 entrees ; 9. Loneliness Long Distance Essays! Deux freres : 3 325 541 entrees ; 10. Research Sample! Gang de requins : 2 970 170 entrees (chiffres CNC). Essays! Peut-on voir, dans cette petite selection, une « revanche » des classes moyennes ? Les Choristes, Harry Potter, Spider-man 2, Les Indestructibles, Podium, et meme le film d’animation Gang de requins, partent tous du « looser », issu des classes moyennes qui, en cachette, par ses actions, devient une « star ». Voir en particulier le travail de Jean-Pierre Garnier, « Les Choristes : un analyseur des nostalgies populaires », in sample L’homme et la societe , n° 154, octobre-decembre 2004. Dans son texte precite, Jean-Pierre Garnier part de l’analyse croisee de trois succes populaires et inattendus, Les Choristes , Etre et avoir , et Le Fabuleux Destin d’Amelie Poulain . On verra pourtant cette blessure plus loin, dans l’infirmerie, et de face cette fois-ci. Ou le principe de l’illusion, au sens de Clement Rosset (in Le Reel et son double , Paris, Gallimard, coll. Teratogens! Folio Essais, reed.

1993), fonctionne bien : voir juste, mais tomber a cote dans les consequences ; on research proposal sample voit bien qu’il y a des problemes, mais on thesis paper en deduit que cela vient d’inegalites naturelles et non sociales. P. Research! Sorlin, Sociologie du cinema , Paris, Aubier Montaigne, 1977. Comment analyser sociologiquement une image cinematographique ? Des que l’on s’interesse de pres a un ou plusieurs films, la question methodologique se pose. Standards! Pour analyser Les Choristes – grand succes de 2004, revelateur de certaines logiques sociales de la societe francaise cette annee-la –, nous acceptons le postulat d’Alain Malassinet et comparons le film avec son inspirateur direct, La Cage aux rossignols (1945). Research Sample! Les differences entre l’original et son remake nous ont permis de questionner le film sous trois axes : la place de l’enfant dans la societe, le role des institutions, et le deplacement des inegalites sociales vers des inegalites « naturelles ». Thesis Paper On Adhd! Mais jusqu’ou ces elements de base offrent-ils un miroir de la societe francaise de 2004 ? analyse sociologique du cinema remake methode Alain Malassinet enfant mise en scene inegalites sociales.

How to research sample, analyze a film, in of civil society a sociological way? As soon as we start to proposal sample, focus on obama essay on lincoln one or many film, we find a methodological problem. Proposal Sample! To analyze Les Choristes , number one in about teratogens the 2004 French box office and sample, so far, a mirror on paper on adhd the French society of nursing sample 2004, according to college application written, the theory of nursing research proposal sample Alain Malassinet, we choose to loneliness of the runner, compare this film with La Cage aux rossignols (1945). Nursing! The differences between this original and about teratogens, its remake allowed us to nursing proposal sample, discuss Les Choristes within three axes: the best application essay ever written, child in proposal our society, the college ever written, place of the proposal sample, institutions, and of the long runner essays, the end of the nursing proposal sample, social disparities, replaced by of the distance runner natural disparities. Nursing! But do those few themes truly reflect the best application ever, French society of nursing research proposal 2004? Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Thesis Paper On Adhd! Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Nursing Proposal Sample! En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Loneliness Of The Distance Essays! Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web. Research! En savoir plus.

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photoshop homework During the course, students explore the tools and techniques necessary for editing and nursing research processing images. Students modify the multiple file formats supported by PhotoShop by obama on lincoln implementing digital image enhancing, photo retouching, and image compositing. This course addresses color management, multiple layering, palette and painting tools, and research sample various filter operations. Essays About Teratogens. Students are required to submit all completed projects into the dropbox located on the school's network. Each completed assignments should be identifed using your first and last name and the name of the project number (such as John Smith 4, Alice Jones 8, etc.)

Find out what we're currently working on by visiting homeworknow.com. Quarter 1(3) Projects. Go online and download several pieces of research proposal sample fruit and vegetables to use as pieces to essay construct a face. You will need a large round or oval shape for the face and then will resize other facial parts as needed (nose, ears, mouth, eyes, hair). The finished project should be 5 x 7 (portrait mode) 75 dpi.

Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Colorize the tulips using realistic colors (use the following colors for the tulips -- two should be red , two should be pink , two should be lavender , two should be yellow , and the remaining ones, colors of your choice. Color the nursing research sample background and thesis on adhd the chocolates surrounding the tulips and it's square vase. An optional colorizing tutorial may be found here. The finished project should be 7 x 7, 75 dpi, and saved in nursing research sample, jpg format.

Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of thesis standards this project. 3 Digital Photography Scavenger Hunt. Go to Digital Cameras for Teachers to research obtain answers for the digital photography scavenger hunt. The information you find on this site and others will be very helpful to essay you when you complete your upcoming PowerPoint presentation. Sample. The worksheet to complete for this assignment is found here: U:CURRICULUMCareerPrepMrs. InmanPhotoshopHandOutsdigital photo scavenger hunt.doc or click HERE. Find a current online computer article that deals with digital photography or a topic that relates to college your future PowerPoint presentation. Read the article and then type 2-3 paragraphs summarizing the article and then 1-2 paragraphs telling what you learned and how you may use the information. Be sure to provide a link letting your instructor know which website you obtained the article from.

You will use the information from this article review and from the digital photography scavenger hunt to use on your PowerPoint presentation. Suggested sites to find articles include: 5 Vacationland Typography. Using large block letters (such as 72 pt. Arial Black) to research spell MAINE and then fill the letters with pictures that represent tourism here in obama on lincoln, Maine (HINT: use layer flatten between each letter and the paste into feature). Sample. Superimpose your text layer on top of a map of the State of Maine. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Do two type projects.

You may select from the Photoshop 7 Type Effects textbook or one of the following web-based instruction sets below. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of each of project. …. Web-based project option 1 - do the steps at photoshopcafe. (Replace step 1 with your first name rather than photoshopcafe.com) Web-based project option 2 - do steps for obama on lincoln, beveled steel . Use your first, middle, and nursing research last name for the project. Web-based project option 3 - do steps for Weathered. Use your name for the text in thesis standards, the project. Web-based project option 4 - do the steps for Curved Type Reflections.

Use your first name for the text in research proposal sample, the project. Use your up close photograph and repair one side of your face (removing blemishes, spots, whiten your teeth, widen your eyes, apply makeup, etc.). Also add a blurred background in. Follow the society steps that we have done in class also another tutorail is found here. The finished project should be 5 x 7, 180 dpi, and saved in jpg format.

Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Download two animal images from the Internet and create your own new animal by nursing proposal using various features from each animal. Add text above the essay image giving a new name to nursing proposal the animal you have created. Your finished project should be 5 x 7, 75 dpi, and saved in jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of loneliness of the distance this project. Use the Liquify feature to proposal sample create a manja character. You may use the image here or use your own portrait. The finished project should be 5 x 7, 75 dpi, and saved in jpg format. Loneliness Long Distance Essays. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Using the You Look Marvelous picture divide it into six segments as demonstrated during class. Each segment needs to have a different filter applied.

The finished project should be 5 x 7, 75 dpi, and saved in jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. You have been hired to nursing research proposal landscape a homeowners yard. The home currently has some grass growing but that's about it. Fill in any bare spots with new lawn, add flowers and shrubs. Remove the portion of house/porch showing of a neighbor's home on the right.

When finished, make a before and after page with both images side by side. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Create a group picture of our Photoshop class using each person’s individual body shot photo. Find a background that is suitable for a group photo. You should have 4-6 people per row. The finished project should be 7’ x 5”, 75 dpi, and best essay ever saved in jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of nursing this project. Create a magazine cover putting yourself on the cover of a magazine of your choice. Use one of the sample here as your guide.

Add text to identify you on the cover and long distance runner essays be sure to add the magazine title just like the one shown here from the Time Magazine website. Your finished project must look like a realistic cover. Proposal. Your finished product must be 7 wide x 10 tall and saved at 150 dpi, jpg format. Thesis Paper On Adhd. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon nursing sample completion of this project. 15 PowerPoint Presentation (COMMON ASSESSMENT) on one of the following topics: Tips on taking better digital pictures How to choose a digital camera Computer graphics used in advertising How to create a photoshop project from obama on lincoln start to finish Other (as approved by sample instructor) Your slide show must be a minimum of 10 slides including a title slide and an ending slide containing a minimum of on adhd three references. Proposal. Be sure to make the background surrounding any images you use transparent. You may use the information from the Digital Camera Scavenger Hunt and the article review as two of the sources for your presentation. Presentations will be made during the first week of second quarter. Go online and download fonts that best match the following words/phrases, and in teratogens, a photoshop document write the words/phrases in the font downloaded.

* Your Choice - Select a word/phrase of your own! Using patterns and gradient fills color one of the several coloring book images from the U: drive or online from the internet. Make sure to use variety and nursing research proposal have fun! Think funky or realistic. Try to select a picture that has clean lines that connect.

You must use at least four different patterns, and at least two patterns you create. 18 Television Show or Movie Poster. Select from a G or PG television show or movie ( have the show or movie approved by your instructor). No weapons, alcohol, or illegal drugs will be allowed to be in your poster.. You will place yourself and two or more of your classmates into of the the poster. Apply a title for your movie (at least 36 pt. bold or larger), include a list of characters. Research Proposal. Save image at 180 dpi (5’ x 7”) and then go through the steps of converting it to standards a poster in sample, MS Publisher (Mr. Hunter will demonstrate).

Final product will be printed on the color laser. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Use one of our digital cameras (or your own) and loneliness distance runner take a photograph of a Flower, Stone Wall, Tree, Part of the building outside, Tree leaf/bud/flower and One of your choice. Proposal. Then apply a filter to create one a watercolor, one a charcoal, and one a sketch. Standards. Use other artistic filters on the remaining images to demonstrate artistic style. The finished projects should be 5 x 7, 180 dpi, and saved in jpg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon nursing research proposal completion of this project. 20 Fixing A Scanned Image.

You will be given a scanned image that has been torn into pieces. You must put the thesis image back together and research proposal repair any flaws to the picture. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. 21 Sliced Orange Juice Bottle. Go to the Photoshop folder on the U drive and open the bottle and orange slice files. Split the bottle vertically along the neck of the long distance runner essays container and insert the orange slice so that it appears to be an orange inside the bottle. Nursing Research Sample. (see sample) The finished project should be 5 x 5 75 dpi. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of long runner this project.

Using one of these images (statue 1, statue 2), transform the research sample statue into origin of civil society essay a life-like character by colorizing it. Research Proposal Sample. Use steps found in this online tutorial. Follow the steps at. You may be required to gather the separate graphics required (dark sky background, witch, tree, etc.) on your own. Have a classmate take a series of 6-8 pictures of you. Select your favorite image and clean it up as necessary (remove blemishes, adjust levels, contrast, etc.) Use the picture package feature (located under the File menu) to create a set of loneliness of the long distance 8 wallet-sized (2.5 x 3.5) pictures of research yourself. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Go online and on adhd find a photograph of a statue (Statue of Liberty or of a political figure). Add a layer of a flag and reduce its opacity as seen in the illustration to the left. Bring in a non-perishable food product (can, bottle, box).

Create a spoof of the product and research replace it's front label (for example, Raisin Brain Cereal instead of Raisin Bran Cereal). After the project has been printed in color, attach it to your food product and give it to Mr. Hunter for grading rather than putting the image into of civil essay the dropbox). Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Photoshop a picture of yourself into a picture from nursing research proposal sample somewhere else. I.e. Thesis. a picture of nursing proposal you in front of the Eiffel tower, a picture of you next to a pyramid in Egypt, etc. Make it look as if you belong in the picture- be aware of proportions! When you have it done, combine it with an image of standards a post card and add a witty line like Mexico- Wish you were here! Etc.

Extra points will be given to proposal sample postage stamps, wear and tear marks, etc. Origin Essay. The finished project should be 75 DPI and saved in jpeg format. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. Infomercial (change your body . add or remove weight . or results from plastic surgery, or results from using ProActive acme medication). show before and after pictures. Both images should appear on a 11 x 8 1/2 sheet with a heading for your infomercial product at the top of the sheet. At the bottom of the research proposal sample sheet list a toll free number for thesis, people to nursing proposal call along with a website where they may order your product. YCreate a menu with a restaurant name, appetizers, drinks, and food items in two categories (i.e. Thesis Standards. chicken, beef, salads, entres, etc) Make it look as realistic as possible- referencing example menus online as needed. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project.t. work with Mrs. Morelli (reading promotion) to photograph a staff member or student who is nursing proposal holding their favorite book or magazine.

Add a background which fits the theme of the obama book or magazine. Save at nursing research proposal, 150 dpi resolution and then place the image into MS Publisher to of the distance runner essays create a sign (size it as a poster). Your instructor will have it printed in color (2 copies) and nursing research proposal then you will tape the image together. Do a PhotoShop Reflective Journal upon completion of this project. or. Each student will be assigned to photograph one or more staff members here at the high school holding a blank sheet of posterboard. (be sure to thesis paper use the tripod). You will be told the specific wording to place on nursing, the individual staff member's poster.

The image should be formatted in Portrait orientation. Knock out the existing background from the image and essay replace it with either red, blue, green, orange, or purple. The staff member should appear as a grayscale graphic on top of the colored background. The text on the poster must be legible and be printed the same color as the background used on the poster. Place your full name on the bottom right corner of the poster in Arial, 18 point (created by proposal your name) 31 PhotoShop Portfolio - (COMMON ASSESSMENT) . Essays. Watch this video (wear headsets) to learn how to create a Photoshop Web Gallery (see sample below).

The gallery will contain two frames. The left frame will have your full name, the date, and nursing proposal sample Photoshop - block 7 in the upper left corner. beneath this information, you will have a miniature image of each project completed during the quarter; in the larger right frame, each individual will load to display a larger version of each project. The portfolio is due January 24. Of The Long Distance. Projects 4, 14, and 27 will not appear in research sample, the web portfolio . Final Exam - the exam consists of two parts. The first , is a self-scoring theory exam ; the second is production based. You have worked hard this semester in our Photoshop course. As a reward, you are treating yourself to a vacation to the destination of your choice. Photoshop a picture of yourself into a picture from somewhere else. I.e. Application Ever Written. a picture of research proposal you in front of the paper on adhd Eiffel tower, a picture of nursing research sample you next to a pyramid in Egypt, etc. Make it look as if you belong in the picture- be aware of proportions! When you have it done, combine it with an image of a post card and add a witty line like Mexico- Wish you were here!

Etc. Extra points will be given to postage stamps, wear and tear marks, etc. Best College Ever. The finished project should be 75 DPI and nursing research proposal sample saved in jpeg format. The official theory exam will be posted here on thesis, the date scheduled for the final.

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a good job essay Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in nursing research proposal sample developed countries. There is application essay ever, one simple reason for nursing this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in best application essay ever the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the research proposal sample concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and thesis standards, that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of nursing research this trend?

And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. College Application Essay Ever! The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced.

Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . Nursing Research Proposal! A TFR of paper below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. Nursing Research Proposal! This ageing of the paper on adhd population has the research proposal potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and thesis paper, economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). Nursing Sample! So what are the causes of this trend and long runner essays, what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to proposal lay the blame on origin of civil society, young people and nursing research, their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and thesis on adhd, the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family.

A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in nursing research sample their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to origin essay Yamada , it is nursing research proposal sample, this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is standards, responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). Nursing Research Proposal Sample! In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for standards the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to nursing research sample attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on obama, average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).

As an proposal, example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in of civil society essay their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. Proposal! It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the origin changed role and research sample, status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). Best Application Essay Written! According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and proposal sample, career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. Thesis! It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in nursing research itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement.

Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and essays about, concludes that empowerment of research proposal sample women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to thesis standards low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. Nursing Sample! In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of essays about teratogens tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the nursing proposal sample number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.

Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the origin society essay economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in nursing research his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the thesis relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an nursing research, economic cost, and so, it is argued, the on lincoln benefits are more of a psychological kind - for nursing proposal example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is thesis on adhd, that for nursing research proposal sample many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is thesis paper on adhd, also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to research sample this theory, when we make important decisions in obama on lincoln our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. Nursing Research! McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts.

Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of loneliness distance essays perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the nursing research sample risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is origin of civil, not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in research sample secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. Obama Essay On Lincoln! According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents.

If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Nursing Research! Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for paper more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the proposal young (McDonald, 2000b). It is thesis on adhd, hard to nursing research proposal know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the thesis effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02.

Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).

A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA.

McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in nursing research sample Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. Essays About Teratogens! pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the research sample European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility?

Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is obama on lincoln, asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and research sample, reading for it. Thesis On Adhd! As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. Nursing! declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. Thesis Paper On Adhd! why this is happening).

Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and research proposal, ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the standards explanation in the topic, and then offers an nursing proposal, alternative explanation. Hint: in best college ever the introduction it is research sample, always a good idea to state what you intend to standards argue. In this paragraph, the nursing sample student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen.

This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in essay many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the nursing research proposal need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the thesis standards reader what the proposal sample main issue is long distance runner essays, - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is nursing proposal, you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in origin society the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas.

Notice how in this new paragraph, the sample student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the paper student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the research proposal sample work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in essays about fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to sample do this. But if you are going to essays about teratogens be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the research view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the obama on lincoln student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by nursing research sample the young. Essays! The student now elaborates on this part of the research proposal sample argument.

Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for college essay ever the argument. Proposal! The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the thesis main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in research sample the rest of the essay, he seeks to origin of civil society essay support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of nursing research sample evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by thesis standards Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay.

But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . Nursing Research Sample! He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the essays blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the research implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Long Distance Runner! Think: I have argued for nursing proposal sample this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is on adhd, quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out proposal, thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion.

Hint: always try to map out a structure for essays about your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the sample texts you have referred to (cited) in origin of civil society the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the research sample essay refers to college written a total of nine texts.

This is a good number, and research sample, indicates that the thesis standards student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the nursing proposal sample student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in loneliness distance essays the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in nursing research their written work.

But in essay fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the nursing research sample words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to loneliness long essays keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the nursing sample ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the best essay ever footnote system (also known as Oxford).

In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. Research Sample! One method is to present some information and then provide the college application essay ever written citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to nursing blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style.

When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the essay wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . Sample! discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an loneliness of the long distance, #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of nursing proposal a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in standards the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks.

It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font.

Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and proposal sample, format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher.

It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of best college application ever site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of nursing sample junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems?

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essays of brutus v December 13, 1787. To the People of the State of New-York. It was intended in this Number to have prosecuted the enquiry into the organization of this new system; particularly to have considered the dangerous and premature union of the President and Senate, and the mixture of legislative, executive, and judicial powers in the Senate. But there is such an intimate connection between the several branches in whom the nursing research proposal sample, different species of about, authority is lodged, and the powers with which they are invested, that on reflection it seems necessary first to proceed to examine the nature and extent of the powers granted to the legislature. This enquiry will assist us the nursing research, better to determine, whether the legislature is so constituted, as to provide proper checks and restrictions for the security of origin society essay, our rights, and to nursing, guard against the abuse of power – For the means should be suited to the end; a government should be framed with a view to the objects to which it extends: if these be few in obama number, and of such a nature as to give but small occasion or opportunity to work oppression in the exercise of authority, there will be less need of nursing research proposal sample, a numerous representation, and special guards against abuse, than if the powers of the government are very extensive, and include a great variety of cases. It will also be found necessary to examine the extent of these powers, in order to form a just opinion how far this system can be considered as a confederation, or a consolidation of the states. Thesis. Many of the advocates for, and most of the nursing, opponents to this system, agree that the form of about, government most suitable for the United States, is that of a confederation. The idea of a confederated government is that of a number of independent states entering into a compact, for the conducting certain general concerns, in which they have a common interest, leaving the research sample, management of their internal and local affairs to their separate governments. But whether the system proposed is of this nature cannot be determined without a strict enquiry into the powers proposed to be granted. This constitution considers the people of the several states as one body corporate, and is intended as an original compact, it will therefore dissolve all contracts which may be inconsistent with it.

This not only results from its nature, but is expressly declared in the 6th article of it. The design of the constitution is origin of civil essay expressed in the preamble, to be, “in order to form a more perfect union, to establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and nursing research, posterity.” These are the society essay, ends this government is to accomplish, and for which it is invested with certain powers, among these is the nursing research sample, power “to make all laws which are necessary and proper for carrying into on lincoln execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the nursing research proposal, United States, or in any department or officer thereof.” It is a rule in construing a law to consider the on adhd, objects the legislature had in view in research proposal passing it, and to give it such an explanation as to promote their intention. The same rule will apply in explaining a constitution. The great objects then are declared in this preamble in general and indefinite terms to of civil essay, be to research proposal sample, provide for the common defence, promote the thesis, general welfare, and an express power being vested in the legislature to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution all the powers vested in the general government. The inference is research proposal sample natural that the legislature will have an authority to make all laws which they shall judge necessary for obama the common safety, and to nursing, promote the general welfare. This amounts to a power to make laws at discretion: No terms can be found more indefinite than these, and it is obvious, that the legislature alone must judge what laws are proper and necessary for the purpose.

It may be said, that this way of obama essay, explaining the constitution, is torturing and making it speak what it never intended. This is far from my intention, and I shall not even insist upon this implied power, but join issue with those who say we are to collect the idea of the powers given from the nursing proposal sample, express words of the clauses granting them; and it will not be difficult to shew that the same authority is thesis expressly given which is supposed to be implied in the forgoing paragraphs. In the 1st article, 8th section, it is declared, “that Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to nursing research, pay the debts, and thesis paper, provide for the common defence, and general welfare of the United States.” In the preamble, the sample, intent of the constitution, among other things, is declared to be to provide for the common defence, and promote the general welfare, and in this clause the power is in express words given to Congress “to provide for the common defence, and general welfare.” – And in the last paragraph of the same section there is an express authority to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution this power. It is therefore evident, that the legislature under this constitution may pass any law which they may think proper. It is true the 9th section restrains their power with respect to certain objects. But these restrictions are very limited, some of them improper, some unimportant, and of civil, others not easily understood, as I shall hereafter shew. It has been urged that the meaning I give to research proposal, this part of the of the long distance essays, constitution is not the true one, that the intent of it is to confer on the legislature the power to lay and collect taxes, etc. in order to provide for the common defence and general welfare. To this I would reply, that the meaning and intent of the constitution is to be collected from the words of it, and I submit to the public, whether the construction I have given it is not the most natural and easy. But admitting the contrary opinion to nursing research proposal sample, prevail, I shall nevertheless, be able to shew, that the same powers are substantially vested in the general government, by several other articles in the constitution.

It invests the legislature with authority to essays teratogens, lay and sample, collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, in order to provide for the common defence, and promote the general welfare, and to pass all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying this power into effect. To comprehend the extent of this authority, it will be requisite to examine. 1st.what is included in this power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and on lincoln, excises. 2d. Nursing. What is implied in the authority, to pass all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying this power into execution. 3d. What limitation, if any, is set to the exercise of thesis, this power by the constitution. 1st. To detail the particulars comprehended in the general terms, taxes, duties, imposts and excises, would require a volume, instead of a single piece in research proposal sample a news-paper. Indeed it would be a task far beyond my ability, and to which no one can be competent, unless possessed of a mind capable of comprehending every possible source of revenue; for they extend to every possible way of raising money, whether by about, direct or indirect taxation. Under this clause may be imposed a poll-tax, a land-tax, a tax on houses and buildings, on windows and fire places, on cattle and on all kinds of personal property: – It extends to duties on all kinds of goods to any amount, to tonnage and poundage on vessels, to nursing research sample, duties on written instruments, newspapers, almanacks, and books: – It comprehends an excise on all kinds of liquors, spirits, wines, cyder, beer, etc. and indeed takes in duty or excise on every necessary or conveniency of life; whether of foreign or home growth or manufactory.

In short, we can have no conception of any way in which a government can raise money from the people, but what is included in one or other of three general terms. We may say then that this clause commits to the hands of the general legislature every conceivable source of revenue within the United States. Not only are these terms very comprehensive, and extend to a vast number of objects, but the power to lay and collect has great latitude; it will lead to the passing a vast number of laws, which may affect the personal rights of the citizens of the states, expose their property to fines and confiscation, and obama, put their lives in jeopardy: it opens a door to nursing research proposal, the appointment of a swarm of revenue and excise officers to pray [ sic ] upon the honest and industrious part of the community, eat up their substance, and riot on the spoils of the country. 2d. We will next enquire into what is implied in thesis the authority to pass all laws which shall be necessary and proper to carry this power into research execution. It is, perhaps, utterly impossible fully to define this power. The authority granted in the first clause can only be understood in its full extent, by descending to all the thesis, particular cases in which a revenue can be raised; the number and variety of nursing proposal sample, these cases are so endless, and as it were infinite, that no man living has, as yet, been able to reckon them up.

The greatest geniuses in the world have been for ages employed in the research, and when mankind had supposed that the subject was exhausted they have been astonished with the thesis, refined improvements that have been made in modem times, and especially in the English nation on research proposal the subject – If then the objects of this power cannot be comprehended, how is loneliness long distance runner essays it possible to understand the extent of that power which can pass all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying it into execution? It is truly incomprehensible. A case cannot be conceived of, which is not included in this power. Nursing. It is about teratogens well known that the subject of revenue is the most difficult and extensive in the science of government. It requires the greatest talents of a statesman, and the most numerous and exact provisions of the research proposal sample, legislature.

The command of the revenues of a state gives the command of every thing in it. – He that has the standards, purse will have the research, sword, and standards, they that have both, have every thing; so that the legislature having every source from which money can be drawn under their direction, with a right to make all laws necessary and research proposal, proper for drawing forth all the loneliness of the long runner, resource of the country, would have, in fact, all power. Were I to enter into the detail, it would be easy to shew how this power in its operation, would totally destroy all the powers of the individual states. But this is not necessary for those who will think for themselves, and it will be useless to such as take things upon trust, nothing will awaken them to research proposal, reflection, until the iron hand of oppression compel them to it. I shall only remark, that this power, given to the federal legislature, directly annihilates all the powers of the state legislatures. There cannot be a greater solecism in politics than to talk of loneliness of the runner essays, power in a government, without the command of nursing proposal, any revenue. It is as absurd as to talk of an animal without blood, or the subsistence of thesis standards, one without food. Now the general government having in their controul every possible source of revenue, and authority to pass any law they may deem necessary to draw them forth, or to facilitate their collection; no source of revenue is therefore left in the hands of any state. Should any state attempt to research, raise money by law, the general government may repeal or arrest it in the execution, for all their laws will be the supreme law of the college, land: If then any one can be weak enough to believe that a government can exist without having the authority to raise money to pay a door-keeper to their assembly, he may believe that the state government can exist, should this new constitution take place. It is agreed by most of the advocates of this new system, that the government which is proper for the United States should be a confederated one; that the sample, respective states ought to retain a portion of their sovereignty, and that they should preserve not only the forms of their legislatures, but also the essay on lincoln, power to conduct certain internal concerns.

How far the nursing research proposal sample, powers to be retained by the states shall extend, is the question; we need not spend much time on this subject, as it respects this constitution, for a government without the power to raise money is one only in thesis name. It is clear that the legislatures of the research sample, respective states must be altogether dependent on the will of the general legislature, for the means of supporting their government. The legislature of the United States will have a right to exhaust every source of revenue in every state, and to annul all laws of the states which may stand in of civil society essay the way of effecting it; unless therefore we can suppose the state governments can exist without money to support the officers who execute them, we must conclude they will exist no longer than the general legislature choose they should. Indeed the idea of any government existing, in any respect, as an independent one, without any means of support in their own hands, is an sample, absurdity. If therefore, this constitution has in view, what many of obama essay on lincoln, its framers and advocates say it has, to secure and guarantee to the separate states the exercise of certain powers of sample, government[,] it certainly ought to have left in their hands some sources of teratogens, revenue. It should have marked the line in which the general government should have raised money, and set bounds over research sample, which they should not pass, leaving to the separate states other means to raise supplies for the support of their governments, and to essay on lincoln, discharge their respective debts. To this it is objected, that the general government ought to have power competent to the purposes of the union; they are to nursing proposal sample, provide for the common defence, to pay the debts of the United States, support foreign ministers, and the civil establishment of the obama, union, and to do these they ought to have authority to raise money adequate to the purpose.

On this I observe, that the state governments have also contracted debts, they require money to support their civil officers, and how this is to be done, if they give to the general government a power to raise money in every way in which it can possibly be raised, with such a controul over the state legislatures as to prohibit them, whenever the general legislature may think proper, from raising any money. It is again objected that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to draw the line of distinction between the powers of the general and state governments on this subject. The first, it is said, must have the power of raising the money necessary for the purposes of the union, if they are limited to certain objects the revenue may fall short of a sufficiency for the public exigencies, they must therefore have discretionary power. The line may be easily and accurately drawn between the proposal, powers of the two governments on origin this head. The distinction between external and nursing research, internal taxes, is on lincoln not a novel one in this country, it is a plain one, and easily understood. The first includes impost duties on all imported goods; this species of taxes it is proper should be laid by the general government; many reasons might be urged to shew that no danger is to be apprehended from research sample their exercise of it. They may be collected in few places, and from few hands with certainty and expedition. But few officers are necessary to be imployed in collecting them, and there is no danger of oppression in laying them, because, if they are laid higher than trade will bear, the merchants will cease importing, or smuggle their goods. We have therefore sufficient security, arising from the nature of the thing, against burdensome and intolerable impositions from this kind of tax.

But the case is far otherwise with regard to obama, direct taxes; these include poll taxes, land taxes, excises, duties on written instruments, on every thing we eat, drink, or wear; they take hold of every species of property, and come home to every man’s house and packet. These are often so oppressive, as to grind the face of the poor, and nursing sample, render the lives of the about teratogens, common people a burden to them. Proposal. The great and only security the people can have against oppression from this kind of taxes, must rest in essay on lincoln their representatives. Nursing Research Proposal. If they are sufficiently numerous to be well informed of the circumstances, and ability of thesis standards, those who send them, and have a proper regard for research proposal sample the people, they will be secure. The general legislature, as I have shewn in a former paper, will not be thus qualified, and therefore, on this account, ought not to exercise the power of direct taxation. If the power of laying imposts will not be sufficient, some other specific mode of raising a revenue should have been assigned the general government; many may be suggested in which their power may be accurately defined and limited, and it would be much better to give them authority to lay and obama on lincoln, collect a duty on exports, not to exceed a certain rate per cent, than to have surrendered every kind of resource that the country has, to the complete abolition of the state governments, and which will introduce such an infinite number of laws and nursing proposal, ordinances, fines and penalties, courts, and judges, collectors, and excisemen, that when a man can number them, he may enumerate the stars of Heaven. I shall resume this subject in my next, and by an induction of essay, particulars shew, that this power, in its exercise, will subvert all state authority, and will work to the oppression of the people, and that there are no restrictions in the constitution that will soften its rigour, but rather the contrary. Source: The Complete Anti-Federalist , ed. Herbert J. Storing (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981) Volume Two, Part 2, 388-393.

Brutus turns to an examination of “the nature and nursing proposal, extent of the powers granted to the legislature.” He considers this inquiry to be a necessary preliminary to the larger question of just how separate are the powers lodged in of the long distance essays the separate branches of the federal government. He interprets these legislative powers, or means, in light of the Preamble that sets down the research, ends of the new government and the supremacy clause of Article VI; he declares that Congress is granted all power over taxation, and to pass all necessary and proper laws, all the better for carrying out the comprehensive and undefined ends of the Preamble. This Constitution does not guarantee to the states “the power to thesis standards, conduct certain internal concerns.” All the nursing sample, more reason, says Brutus, for essay on lincoln a bill of rights restricting the reach of Congress over the authority of the states and the liberty of the people, and a larger number of representatives in the Congress. Use email, Facebook, and Twitter to spread the word. 50 Documents That Tell America’s Story. Required reading for students, teachers, and citizens. Professional Development Opportunities for Teachers.

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