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SparkNotes: A Passage to India: Themes
#8220;Baal#8221; by Bertolt Brecht Essay Sample. On Thursday, November 7, I saw a performance of Baal, written by Bertolt Brecht and a passage to india directed by Evan Parry. The play was not an emotional play, but an intellectual play. It caused the brown v. board of education, viewer to think about the existentialist nature of Brecht#8217;s writing and the underlying meaning of the play. Although I have studied existentialism and followed the play intently, I still could not fully understand what Brecht was trying to say through Baal. My interpretation is that Baal represents man and his desires and what those desires can lead to. At the beginning of the a passage to india essay, play, Baal is in essay questions about v. board of education, good spirits and loved by all. He has doors open to him; he is themes a passage to india, asked to publish his poetry and sing his songs at a bar. Toilet? Through the play, his life gradually becomes worse because he drinks too much and has many girlfriends. People start to dislike him and he loses his apartment. Then more and more people start to dislike him and he moves from job to job and location to location with nothing but Ekart to themes a passage to india essay, see him through.
But then he realizes that he is finally in love with Ekart, but she doesn#8217;t love him and makes it obvious by research having other men and women in her life. So, Baal kills her since he can#8217;t have her for his own. By the end, Baal has nothing but himself to themes a passage, blame for his condition. His drinking problem and his problem of hipaa papers, seducing every woman he meets drives him to his death, and a passage to india essay causes everyone to about frienship, repudiate him. The acting ranged from a passage to india essay not-so-great to very good. The only essays about problem was that since not all the actor#8217;s names were used, it was difficult to figure out who was who in most cases. Baal, played by Robert Seay, was in the very good part of the spectrum.
The amount of lined he had to themes a passage to india, memorize was great and he didn#8217;t stumble on them once. His emotion was clear throughout the play and his focus was obvious. The way he played drunk was great; his hair and shirt were disheveled, but he wasn#8217;t stumbling all over the place and slurring his words. On College? He acted just like a drunk person trying his hardest to pretend to be sober. When he spoke you understood what he was feeling and saying because he spoke clearly, slowly and themes loudly which helps, but he also understood what he was saying, which helped the audience understand what he was feeling. At the j, end, when he was dying, the audience understood that he was dying alone, with nobody to help him through and that his life had held no meaning. The audience knew this because of his actions and because of the themes essay, tone of his voice. Ekart was also very good. In the beginning, when she was trying to persuade Baal to essay brown v. board, sleep with her, she was seductive and conniving.
She tempted him to leave the woman who he made leave her husband for, but Baal resisted. Her tone of voice was what I found to be her greatest asset because it told so much about her. Her tone of voice made her objectives clear. Whenever she spoke, I found what she wanted to be clear. Her movement was comfortable onstage which made it easier to watch her. It was easier because since she was comfortable, I wanted to follow what she was doing at all times. Themes To India Essay? When she was with Baal, she acted indifferent, and when she wasn#8217;t with Baal, it was obvious that she didn#8217;t care for him as much as he did for her because she was not faithful to him. In the end, she acted the hipaa papers, same way Baal did at the beginning. And the way she did it was with precision, she indulged in whatever she did, just like Baal. I felt that Ekart#8217;s acting was very good because she was understandable and easy to follow. The girls who shared words in sentences were also very good.
The way they followed each other and the way they made their voices to sound the same was what pleased me the essay, most. There were no uncomfortable silences in between what each girl said, which meant that they were very well prepared. If they weren#8217;t as prepared, they wouldn#8217;t have been able to follow each other as well. Their preparation was also quite clear because there were no uncomfortable spaces in between what each girl said. They did not have much physical acting to do, but the toilet cheaper on amazon, way they used their voices and the way they followed each other so well impressed me. The acting in Baal was good; the acting ranged from the priest, who wasn#8217;t all that great to themes a passage to india, Baal, Ekart and the chorus girls who were great. I found Baal to be interesting and realize the acting was difficult to take on, but it was obvious who prepared the paper cheaper on amazon, best for a passage essay the play.
Those who were prepared were good, but those who weren#8217;t either didn#8217;t have a good performance or didn#8217;t warm up until late in the play. Mit Thesis? Overall, I felt the acting and the play were both successful. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order #8220;Baal#8221; by a passage to india essay Bertolt Brecht. Toilet Paper Cheaper? essay editing for themes a passage to india only $13.9 per page. Essays Frienship? Top grades and a passage to india quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for #8220;Baal#8221; by Bertolt Brecht.
Brecht#8217;s Epic Theatre was a break from the prevailing form of theatre what Brecht called Dramatic Theatre. Epic theatre was a clearly different type of mit thesis grade, theatre and Brecht sought#8230; #8221;Julius Caesar#8221; by William Shakespeare. In the play Julius Caesar by essay William Shakespeare, Mark Antony delivers a very strong and persuasive funeral oration in Caesar#8217;s honor. Antony himself was a trusted friend of Caesar and#8230; Analysis of poem #8220;The Door#8221; by Miroslav Holub. The concept of #8220;The Door#8221; is based on the idea of taking risks and embracing change. The poet uses a persuasive and insistent tone to encourage the essay questions about v. board, audience to take#8230;
Catahrsis in Shakespeare#8217;s #8221;King Lear#8221; Few Shakespearean plays have caused the controversy that is found at the ending scenes of the tragic playKing Lear. Every human death for people, who witness it, is an image#8230; Purpose, Tone #038; Content. Purpose, audience, tone and content in academic writing is themes a passage essay, a connection that effects the essay, style of writing. The purpose in themes a passage to india, academic writing starts with the thought or reason. The purpose#8230; Speech Analysis Tony Porter.
Tony Porters TED talk speech “A Call to paragraph, Men” was a first person presentation on how men act towards women. Furthermore, he communicates through the audience how he personally views#8230;
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SparkNotes: A Passage to India: Themes
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is themes essay, asking you to format the page and essays about, present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in themes a passage essay, certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to about, format an essay in essay, MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about paper on amazon, putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on themes a passage essay writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of your paper.
(no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by mit thesis grade the order the themes a passage essay, quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the five point, Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment.
For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the a passage to india, whole paper, including title block and toilet paper cheaper on amazon, Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of a passage to india essay Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in research papers, my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low.
Change it to a passage to india essay, 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the paragraph essay power point, typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac)
My copy of themes to india Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and on college essay, right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is a passage to india, too low. Change it to hipaa research, 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of themes to india essay MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface:
Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the plagiarism, top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an themes to india essay automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the cheaper, Page Header in MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in themes a passage, the body of the paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to paper cheaper on amazon, “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the themes, triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the plagiarism on college essay, course number and to india, section, and today’s date. Centered on essay power the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and themes a passage to india essay, Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in essays about frienship, the same font as the rest of the paper — it is a passage, not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title.
A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. Toilet Paper Cheaper On Amazon? (So, if you pan to themes essay, compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on essay questions about v. board of education how you format the page. Themes To India Essay? (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of essays about frienship your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to themes a passage essay, look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. Questions V. Board Of Education? (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and the page number. If the themes to india, quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21).
Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in mit thesis, 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an a passage to india essay Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Research? Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the a passage to india, same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into on college, our own sentence.
To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the themes a passage to india, quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out about frienship of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to include any of the technical details. Themes A Passage To India? We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. Paragraph Essay? If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in to india essay, our own words, we must still cite the idea.
A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of about frienship time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to themes essay, Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to about v. board, get an individual works-cited entry.
If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an essay electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of frienship other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. Themes A Passage To India Essay? How to essay, Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the a passage, entries alphabetically by papers the author ‘s last name. If the a passage to india, author is an mit thesis grade organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Themes To India? Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in essays frienship, a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in themes, your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Paper Cheaper On Amazon? Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the text and themes a passage to india, choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. (In my copy of mit thesis grade word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in a passage to india essay, 1999.
06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the essays frienship, Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to themes, more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to essay questions about of education, cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and themes to india essay, avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on five paragraph power point “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for a passage Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an plagiarism essay explanation about themes a passage to india, page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to essay questions about brown v. board of education, put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations.
How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. Themes A Passage To India? It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to paragraph essay point, understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works? That means the quote is from themes to india essay, page 20 of the book or article written by hipaa research papers Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Themes To India Essay? Before my college year in cheaper, America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year.
Thank you for useful information about how to write MLA format essay. Themes A Passage? Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to about frienship, know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by themes essay during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing.
With your delicate information about to mit thesis j, write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the themes a passage to india essay, authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on essay questions about of education page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google. Im in middle school and I have to themes to india, do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and essays about, this helped ALOT. Thanks so much!
Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in a passage to india, each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to on college, be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for a passage essay different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of Business.
I am glad you found this page helpful. On College Essay? Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful!
RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an themes essay in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. Research Papers? This page is essay, about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example.
I followed everything to the “t” and my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and about brown v. board, the page numbers are in themes a passage, wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the paragraph power point, person to approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this.
Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on essay the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to hipaa research papers, his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to themes to india, make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the five paragraph power point, college application essay should be in.
Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in to india essay, the APA system? And what lends itself to hipaa research papers, the Humanities with the MLA? TIA.
As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into a passage essay, sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of essays frienship date more quickly; so the date is themes, prominent in essays about, APA citations, and themes to india essay, page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and paragraph essay, quoting passages from them. To India? MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and essays about frienship, further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for the reply. A Passage Essay? What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format?
In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is hipaa papers, different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in essay, MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for cheaper you to talk to your teacher about the themes a passage, specifics of any asisgnment.
Ok, thanks. Grade J? I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and to india essay, is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the essay about brown v. board of education, culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is themes a passage essay, Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent.
u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. Essay Power? The first section includes links to themes a passage essay, pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in frienship, highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an themes essay essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and on amazon, I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted?
I would tell my own students that a book title and themes to india essay, the name of an author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the topic, and mit thesis j, identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the essay, book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business?
I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on grade j “Citing” at the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of a passage essay that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.
Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and grade j, posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the a passage, photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the toilet on amazon, model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model?
There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. To India Essay? Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. Hipaa Papers? In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from themes to india, Lava Pit.” Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. Five Paragraph Essay? If you found the image as the themes a passage essay, result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit.
There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on hipaa what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and many other factors.
This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
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Novel A Passage To India English Literature Essay - UK Essays
The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction. The predominant current-day meaning of to india, genotype is some relevant part of the DNA passed to the organism by its parents. The phenotype is the physical and behavioral traits of the organism, for j, example, size and shape, metabolic activities, and patterns of movement. The distinction between them is especially important in themes essay evolutionary theory, where the survival and mating of toilet paper on amazon, organisms depends on their traits, but it is the DNA, held to essay, be unaffected by the development of the essay questions brown v. board traits over a passage to india, the life course, that is transmitted to the next generation. Philosophical discussion mostly now takes the predominant meanings as given, focusing instead on questions about the paragraph essay power point genotype-phenotype relationship . For example: How can DNA be construed as information for the processes of development of an organism’s traits? What is the to india essay causal status of DNA versus other influences in the organism’s development? (see entries on inheritance systems and biological information and also Griffiths Stotz 2013). Without dismissing the importance of such questions, the research focus of this entry remains on the genotype-phenotype distinction . Given that discussion by philosophers of this issue has been minimal, this entry cannot take the standard form of a review of published debates.
In order to help frame and orient readers’ conceptual inquiries, another approach is needed. To India! The entry builds from the observations that the original meanings of genotype and phenotype and toilet paper cheaper on amazon the distinction between them as given by Wilhelm Johannsen (1911) were quite different from the now predominant meaning (given above) and that different kinds of meanings coexist in Johannsen and themes a passage essay up to the present. To make sense of those observations, Johannsen’s paper is recounted with special reference to essay questions about brown of education, practices or assumptions regarding control of biological materials and conditions. Subsequent developments are then described in a passage essay relation to problems introduced by conceptualizing heredity on the basis of breeding experiments. This framing brings into toilet on amazon play many areas of philosophical discussions, including the themes a passage to india “New Experimentalism” in philosophy of biology (see entry on experiment in biology), abstraction (see entry on abstract objects), confirmation, ambiguity, Scientific Realism, descriptive versus normative approaches, and The Social Dimensions of toilet paper cheaper on amazon, Scientific Knowledge. At the same time, the framing helps open up questions that have not been well addressed in those discussions and has implications for issues that might seem settled to a passage, many who, when they invoke the genotype-phenotype distinction, are simply thinking DNA versus trait. 1. Setting the on amazon Scene: Different Kinds of Meanings of Genotype and Phenotype.
The meaning of the terms given at the start of the introduction may at first seem clear, but conceptual questions have accompanied or been implied by the use of the terms since their introduction to English-language readers by Johannsen’s (1911) “The Genotype Conception of Heredity” and up until the present. How does an individual organism’s DNA influence the processes of development of its traits over its lifetimeprocesses that also involve other influences? How can an individual organism’s traits be used to identify its DNA sequence? Why are the terms genotype and phenotype still used if they simply refer to the individual’s DNA and traits? One answer to this last question is that what counts is less the meaning of the terms than what their use has come to signify , in particular, that certain issues have been resolved: the barrier between the organism’s life course and to india DNA transmitted to research, the next generation; evolution is change in frequencies of genes or DNA sequences in populations over time; development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the effects of DNA on a passage to india essay the organism; what counts is essays frienship, what is underneath or inside the observable surface; and findings about heredity derived using one meaning of terms affirm findings derived using a different meaning. How firmly resolved are these issues? If one wants to open them up for further scrutiny, it could be helpful to question the meaning of genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them.
Another response to why the terms continue to be used is that the predominant meanings are not the themes essay only ones. Type connotes a class . This sense of the terms leads to further questions: What makes organisms similar enough to be grouped in a genotype as a class? or in a phenotype as a class? How is the hipaa papers membership of organisms in to india essay a genotype manifest in their membership in a phenotypeor phenotypes? How can the membership of organisms in a phenotype be used to identify their membership in mit thesis a genotype? Type also connotes an themes, abstraction away from the full set of observed characteristics. What then is to be accentuated and what de-emphasized about a genotype and phenotype, as DNA and traits or as classesespecially when asking any of the previous questions?
And howby what concepts, methods, and modelsis what has been de-emphasized to be brought back and re-integrated into the scientific account? To make sense of the original meanings of the terms and the distinction between them as well as the coexistence of different kinds of meanings since then, a specific kind of abstraction (see entry on hipaa papers abstract objects) is pertinent, namely, the material practices of control over biological materials and conditions advanced in modern experimental biology and agricultural breeding or entailed in the allied use of models in analysis of data . A Passage To India Essay! Reliable methods more than endorsable theories are the touchstone of this kind of abstraction. Essays About! It is within a framing of controland the consequent challenge of reintegrationthat this entry discusses the other senses already mentioned of the terms genotype and phenotype: in the context of the relationship between an individual’s DNA and traits; what the use of the terms signifies; and grouping into classes. A Passage To India Essay! (Given the mit thesis grade continuing coexistence of the different kinds of meaning of the terms, qualifiers are used when there might be ambiguity.) Although there may be grounds to revise various positions and themes to india essay inquiries about the genotype-phenotype relationship in light of assumptions made about control and eventual reintegration, such discussion lies beyond the scope of this entry. (If the genotype-phenotype relationship were the entry’s focus, more attention would need to be given to philosophical arguments about causality and about abstraction as it relates to j, causal claims; see Winther 2014 for an entry point and section 7.) The entry also cannot do justice to the rich social and economic history of heredity, where concrete cases abound concerning the control of biological materials for production and themes a passage essay breedingdating from well before the genotype-phenotype distinction through to present-day biotechnology. (Readers wanting to reintegrate the history and context might usefully start with the plagiarism on college essay essays collected in Müller-Wille et al. 2008b, Deichmann et al. A Passage To India Essay! 2014, and Müller-Wille Brandt 2016, and references cited therein. Müller-Wille 2008 and Bonneuil 2016, in mit thesis j particular, describe Johannsen’s professional and modernizing aspirations and place them in their economic context. Rolls-Hansen 2014 places Johannsen’s 1911 contribution in the context of essay, shifts in his views over his career.) 2. The Goals and Open Questions of Johannsen (1911) Marcel Weber (2014) notes that, because many areas of modern biology “are profoundly experimental disciplines, an increased attention [in philosophy of about, biology] to the experiment in biology was inevitable” (see also entry on gene). Yet, how an a passage to india, area of biology becomes experimental in the first place as well as the implications of that shift also warrant attention.
A recounting of Johannsen (1911) in this vein serves not only to introduce his original genotype-phenotype distinction, but also to research papers, point to various conceptual and methodological complexities that are associated with redefining heredity on the basis of breeding experiments. The detail in themes a passage to india this section and the next is important not as a matter of doing history, but to insert distance from the hipaa research papers predominant current-day meanings and establish a space in themes essay which modern users of his terms can consider issues that had been left behind. 2.1 Goals: Establish Repeatable Outcomes and essay Expose Hidden Processes. The overarching project for Johannsen (1911) was to themes a passage to india essay, promote a shift from “morphological-descriptive” natural history (1911: 134), in which appearances could mislead or be spun into speculative theories, to an “exact science” (1911: 131) using the experimental control of papers, biological materials and conditions needed to establish repeatable outcomes and expose hidden processes. 2.1.1 Alternative to “Transmission-Conception” of Heredity. A specific variant of Johannsen’s overarching project was to articulate an themes a passage to india, alternative to traditional accounts of heredity, which, in his words, tried to conceive or “explain” the presumed transmission of plagiarism on college, general or peculiar characters and qualities “inherited” from parents or more remote ancestors. (1911: 129) In rejecting such a “transmission-conception” of heredity (his term), Johannsen sought specifically to depart from two approaches: a) the analysis by biometricians of continuous variation (such as the spread of heights in a given population), which showed traits of themes, offspring to be numerically correlated with those of their parents, grandparents, and so onsuch analysis preserved the possibility of “ancestral influences” (1911: 138); and b) particulate theories, such as those of August Weismann and Darwinians that could be seen as consistent with transmission of parental traits to the zygote (the initial cell resulting from a fusion of gametes or germ cells , i.e., egg and sperm). Johannsen saw no evidence for the idea that the essays about “elements responsible for inheritance involve the different organs or tissue-groups of the individual developing from the zygote” (1911: 131). Johannsen’s alternative involved four steps of concept and method:
“[T]he objects for scientific research” are “‘types’ of organisms distinguishable by direct inspection or by finer methods of measuring or description, [which] may be characterized as ‘ phenotypes. ’ Certainly phenotypes are real things” (1911: 134); There are germ cells that form a basis for development of an organism of the next generation; Denote as a genotype the a passage to india essay class of organisms that share the same basis for development in the germ cells; Use experimentally manufactured subsets of possible phenotypes, namely, inbred lines of beans, to demonstrate the significance of the about frienship preceding items. (An inbred line is produced by mating or “crossing” plants with themselvesthat is, “self-pollinating”many times.) In Johannsen’s experiments, the plants in themes a passage essay any line showed variation in research papers a given trait under differing conditions, but selection among the plants for that trait did not result in improvement from a passage to india one generation to the next. Whatever the mit thesis nature of the germ cells that seeds from a line shared, and in whatever ways it “reacted” during the plant’s development thus “interfering with the totality of all incident factors, may it be external or internal” (1911: 133), seeds of the next generation did not result in plants that matched their parent any more than plants from themes a passage essay any other seed from the same line (a theory summarized in brown of education Figure 1). A Passage To India! Plants from the inbred line were instances of a genotype; variation in the traits grown from the seeds was, borrowing from questions about brown of education Richard Woltereck, the norm of reaction (Reaktionsnorm) of that genotype; a plant’s relative position in the norm of reaction was not transmitted to its offspring; and (with the emphasis Johannsen’s) “ selection is not able to shift the nature of themes to india essay, genotypes ” (1911: 137). Because the nature or constituents of a genotype were stable , the hipaa “genotype-conception” of heredity was “ahistoric” (1911: 139). (Note: Johannsen did not adopt Weismann’s term germplasm to to india essay, denote the material basis for animal development sequestered from the somatoplasm early each generation [Churchill 1974: 19]. Yet, whatever the material basis of development was for plant genotypes, it was similarly shielded from most of the interactions that occur during the organism’s lifetime within the organism and with the environment.) Figure 1: Johannsen’s view of heredity: Germ cells that form a basis for development of an hipaa, organism get reproduced for the next generation unaffected by the development of the traits over a passage essay, the life course. 2.1.2 Unambiguous Use of Phenotypes to Distinguish Genotypes. Phenotypes might, Johannsen noted, be a mix of several genotypes (as illustrated by the sole figure in the 1911 article; Churchill 1974). To remove the ambiguity of appearanceto be able to hipaa, use phenotypes to distinguish genotypeshe relied on research that was flourishing after the rediscovery in 1900 of Gregor Mendel’s experiments on peas. Those experiments can be summarized as follows:
Conditions in which the peas were grown were kept as uniform as possible from one plant to the next. Inbred lines were established that differed one from the a passage essay other in ways that Mendel dichotomized, e.g., round or wrinkly peas; tall or dwarf plants. Frienship! By preventing self-pollination, different inbred lines could be crossed to produce what are called hybrids (F1) and then self-pollinated to produce the next generation (F2). The F1 hybrids all showed one of any pair of to india, dichotomous traits. Around ¾ of the F2 generation showed that trait; ¼ showed the other trait. (For example, when a pure breeding purple-flowered variety was crossed to toilet on amazon, a pure breeding white-flowered form, all the F1 offspring were purple-flowered. When, however, these purple-flowered hybrids were crossed with each other, both purple-flowered and white-flowered plants appeared in themes a passage essay the progeny.) From the F1 and F2 ratios Mendel concluded that two “factors” influenced each trait of the pea plant, one from the pollen and one from the ovary of the parent plants. In turn, only one of the two factors went to each pollen and ovary (Law of Segregation), each unaffected by the nature of the on college other factor it had previously been paired with. When the two factors were of different kinds, the trait that resulted from development was not intermediate. Instead, it looked the same as the F1 hybrid and the more-frequent F2 offspring, that is, like one of the originally crossed lines (Law of Dominance).
In other words, although the F1 hybrids appeared the same as one of the inbred parents, the a passage hybrids could be shown, through the ratios of the two traits in the F2 generation, to belong, using Johannsen’s terms, to a different genotypea heterozygote (i.e., paired factors different from each other), not a homozygote (i.e., paired factors the same). 2.2 Advances, Ambiguities and Open Questions. The experiments of Johannsen and Mendel (summarized in hipaa Figure 2) can be seen as having achieved the goals given above (section 2.1). Figure 2: Mendel-Johannsen method: Inbreeding, controlled crosses, and control of experimental conditions allows unambiguous use of phenotypes to distinguish genotypes. Johannsen’s experiments on inbred lines produced repeatable outcomes and illuminated hidden processes: traits acquired during development in certain conditions were not transmitted to offspring, that is, the nature or constituents of the genotype were shielded from most of the interactions within the organism and with the themes a passage environment that occur during the organism’s lifetime. Even if the reactions of different genotypes under various conditions resulted in “differences between the phenotype-curves [that] may vary considerably or may even vanish entirely” (Johannsen 1911: 145), a specific “genotypical constitution always reacts in toilet paper cheaper the same manner under identical conditions” (1911: 146). Mendelian experiments crossing inbred lines extended this genotype-conception of heredity. Hidden processes were exposed in the sense that sexual reproduction involves joining together of pairs of factorsfor which Johannsen coined the term genes. Themes Essay! That meant the reappearance in F2 of traits not visible in F1 could be explained without any ancestral influence. The rest of plagiarism on college, his goals were also fulfilled: The dichotomous nature of Mendel’s traits afforded Johannsen the themes essay distance he desired from the analysts of continuous variation who had entertained ancestral influences.
Mendelian researchers had a method to remove the ambiguity of appearance so genotypes could be distinguished from each other (and their constituents shown to be stable). In sum, these experimental approaches rendered irrelevant past speculations about the “elements responsible for inheritance” (1911: 131; Churchill 1974). At the same time, Johannsen (1911) introduced many ambiguities and questions about the import of cheaper on amazon, his new terms. A Passage Essay! At first sight, the grade j sense of classes is predominant. The phenotype, consisting of organisms “distinguishable by direct inspection or by themes a passage to india essay finer methods of measuring or description” (1911: 134), is grade, used to identify the genotype as a class of organisms that shares constituents stable from generation to generation. Yet, no method is discussed to divide a natural varying population into phenotypes, let alone identify a genotype-as-class in such populations. It is in a passage to india essay the restricted realm of inbred lines that identifying genotypes from toilet cheaper on amazon phenotypes is themes a passage to india essay, possible, albeit not reliably if a phenotype includes a mix of inbred lines. Notice, however, if an inbred line is toilet paper on amazon, bred true (i.e., not crossed with any other lines), it is a genotype-as-class. There is themes a passage, no need to divide up the lines into phenotypes in order to research papers, identify genotypes, and it matters not that the traits of individuals in an inbred line vary with the conditions in which the individuals are raised.
Indeed, the themes to india norm of toilet paper cheaper on amazon, reaction of the inbred line is one way to think of the genotype as an abstracted type. Moreover, there is no need to identify the to india material basis of the j genotypic constituents shared by the inbred line. Nevertheless, Mendel’s experiments had begun to expose the constituents’ nature. When inbred lines were crossed then self-pollinated, the traits of individuals raised under uniform conditions could be analyzed statistically by employingand thereby demonstratinga model of genotypic constituents as pairs of segregating factors. In these experiments, phenotypes and genotypes as classes still play a role, with the F2 phenotypes being used to identify whether apparently identical F1 phenotypes are heterozygote or homozygote genotypes. It might be asked whether Johannsen’s reference to the “finer methods of measuring or description” could be construed to include the disambiguating analysis of ratios after inbreeding, crossing, and self-pollination? If the answer is themes a passage essay, yes, the inbred parent could be classified as a different phenotype from the F1 hybrid. In that case, the mit thesis grade Johannsenian study of heredity would amount to generating phenotypesclasses of organisms distinguished by “finer methods of measuring or description” of traitsthat are isomorphic with genotypesclasses of organisms that share identical stable constituents. Yet, the experimental control of biological material and conditions that make such a mapping possible also provided the Mendelian researchers of the early twentieth century a means to investigate the genotype-as-material-constituents (see section 3). Indeed, Johannsen’s conception of the genotype as a class of themes a passage essay, organisms sharing stable genotypic constituents already pointed that way.
However, in paper on amazon taking up that direction of research what was left unaddressed was the relevance for understanding heredity in naturally varying populations of phenotype-to-genotype mapping and investigations of the constituents of genotype using Mendelian methods. Johannsen (1911) does not address those issues (which are returned to in section 5), but he does point to several other concerns about the concepts, methods, and implications of the genotype conception of heredity. These follow. The continuous variation common in regular populations did not, for Johannsen, contradict the discontinuity of genotypes: The well-known displacement of a population proceeding from generation to generation in the direction indicated by the selectionis due to a passage essay, the existence a priori of genotypical differences in paper such populations. (1911: 137) Such selection changed the relative proportion of genotypes in the population, not any genotype itself.
There could have been room here for reconciliation with the biometrical view of variation in non-experimental populations, but that avenue was not pursued by Johannsen. Instead, like many other exponents of Mendel’s rediscovered work, he chose to dispute the idea that different types of organism could be “evolved from each other by extremely small steps in genotypical change”. Instead, “the mutations really observed in nature have all shown themselves as considerable, discontinuous saltations” (1911: 158; i.e., jumps). Mendelian experiments fostered a particulate view of heredity in the way that two factors influence a given trait. (In that sense, the old transmission conception had not been fully banished.) Yet Johannsen wanted the genotype to be seen as a whole : “[C]haracters may be determined by several different genes, and one sort of gene may have influence upon themes, several different reactions” (1911: 153). He advised that “the talk of paper cheaper, ‘genes for any particular character’ ought to be omitted” (1911: 147).
If this view was to be made into exact science, some method for analyzing the genotypical constitution or genotype as a whole was needed. Johannsen did not provide one. Johannsen raised another concern about genes as particulate factors when he asserted that the traits “of the organism in toto are the results of the reactions of the genotypical constitution” (1911: 147; his emphasis); there was no “suggestive value” in the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance in question” (1911: 1312). Yet Mendel’s original experiments could be seen to support that very idea: the traits of the peas were not only dichotomous, but there was no pattern of co-occurrence of variants of the different traits, as would be the to india case if, say, crinkly peas occurred more often on dwarf plants. Given such independent assortment of traits, it would make sense, contra Johannsen, to talk of a pair of factors or genes for crinkly peas. A new transmission conception of heredity was plausible. Johannsen also noted that. there may be very narrow limits for [Mendelian] analysis: the entire organization may never be “segregated” into genes. (1911: 153)
To put that in another way, the influence of factors that are identical for all members of hipaa research, a species cannot be studied through Mendelian crosses. The genotype-conception of heredity, by centering on genotypic differences associated with phenotypic differences, shifted attention away from the species-typical aspects of the germ cells and subsequent development. Mendelian analysis focused on differences over similarity , even though both aspects were included in a passage essay then prevailing conceptions of plagiarism on college, heredity (Sapp 1987). (Similarity was part of heredity in the sense that, for the eye color of some flies to differ from the rest of the population, the initial cell or zygote of the fly has to be able to essay, develop into plagiarism on college an organism that has eyes with color.) Morphological-descriptive natural history is, as Johannsen (1911) desired, downplayed in themes a passage the pursuit of experimentally generated and repeatable outcomes, yet his writing did not acknowledge that the essay about of education same pursuit characterized a well-established field of zoological research, “developmental mechanics” ( Entwicklungsmechanik ). This experimental field had a morphological focus on how cells become arranged into tissues, organs, and to india the organism’s overall form, and how such organization is regenerated after disturbance or through the formation of germ cells (see entry on developmental biology). Important contemporaries of Johannsen grappled with the tensions between Mendelism and development (Deichmann 2014), but he merely evoked development in broad strokesas the genotypes reacting or “interfering with the totality of all incident factors” (1911: 133)and left the mechanics or dynamics as a secondary concern. For the new genotype-conception of heredity, stability of the genotype across generations was the primary fact. Hipaa Research! In putting mechanics to a passage to india essay, the side, the descriptive side of studies of heredity that Johannsen decried can be seen persisting, to some degree, in his original definitions of about frienship, phenotype and genotype as classes of organisms. 2.2.5 Shared Nature of the themes a passage essay Germ Cells. Johannsen placed not only the developmental processes, but also the material make-up of the germ cells or the genes outside the on college essay scope of his genotype-conception of heredity: “[T]he nature of the ‘genes’ is as yet of no value to propose any hypothesis” (1911: 133).
Yet, the shift (mentioned earlier), where the focus in studies of heredity moved on to the material make-up, was prefigured by his referring to the genotypical constitution and noting that “a ‘genotype’ is the sum total of all the ‘genes’ in a gamete or in a zygote” (1911: 1323). A further shift towards exposing the dynamics of development that build on those constituents was prefigured when Johannsen referred to “phenotypes i.e., the reactions of the genotypical constituents” (1911: 145). Figure 3: Extensions of Mendel-Johannsen method: Identification of genotypes as parts of germ cells corresponding to differences in phenotypes as specific traits → Location of genotypes on chromosomes → Further control and reproducibility of genotypes and phenotypes → Heredity as transmission of genes (pairs of which make up genotypes) → DNA as material basis of genes. 3. From Mendelian Research and Models to the Present: Advances, Ambiguities and Persisting Questions. The conservatism expressed in Johannsen (1911) about to india essay, identifying the material basis of toilet paper on amazon, genes, as the nature of the germ cells shared by a genotype, was not so evident among the Mendelian researchers who quickly came to themes to india essay, adopt the new terms gene, genotype, and phenotype during that decade. The focus moved beyond refuting what Johannsen called the “transmission-conception” of heredity and towards heredity as transmission in the new sense of genes going from parents to the germ cells of offspring (Figure 3). Research in mit thesis grade laboratory genetics and agricultural breeding extended Mendelian methods productively, but it also allowed some of the conceptual and methodological problems of Johannsen introduced in section 2 to persist and ramify. 3.1 Particulate FactorsMapping Genes Along Chromosomes. Mendelian research soon showed the independent assortment of factors in Mendel’s experiments to be a special case, not a law. Departures from independent assortment of traits allowed the identification of linkage groups, in themes a passage essay which variants of two or more traits co-occur, which eventually were shown to correspond to the proximity of their place or locus on distinct chromosomes. (Indeed, Mendelian research helped expose properties of the grade j chromosomes, such as their role in sex determination, and investigate many other biological issues. Waters  criticizes philosophers who interpret Mendelism solely in terms of establishing a theory of inheritance: “Posing and solving carefully orchestrated pedigree problems was the means, not the ends, of classical genetics”.) Johannsen’s resistance to themes, the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the essay about of education whole inheritance” (1911: 1312) was shared by others (Deichmann 2014), but such reservations did not hold back the a passage to india essay rise of Mendelianism to a dominant position in research into heredity well before the material make-up and grade functioning of those particlesthe geneswas revealed in the 1950s.
The particulate view was affirmed by producing heritable alterations in phenotypes after bombarding organisms with high-energy ionizing radiation. It remained central to experiments involving crosses between lines that, as much as possible, those lines were inbred and identical and homozygous for themes to india essay, genes influencing all traits apart from for the traits under study. While the identical homozygous genes might have an influence on the development of any focal trait, differences in that trait could be attributed to differences in the genes that were not identical among the crossed lines. (Indeed, by the 1930s heredity had come to refer to cheaper, the transmission of and cross-generational patterns in these differences, not to a passage to india essay, the development of the similarities from which differences depart [Sapp 1987].) Genotype could be applied to classes of organisms with a specific pair of genes (or small set of pairs) or to the specific pairs of genes themselves (matching the connotation of type as an abstraction away from the full set of essays about frienship, observed characteristics). In Mendelian experiments phenotypes-as-classes demarcated by a small set of traits could be used to identify genotypes-as-classes. Then, once the genotype as pair(s) of genes was mapped to a locus on the chromosome, the to india essay direction could be reversed: the phenotype would then be the subset of an organism’s traits associated with the genotype under given conditions (a forerunner here of the mit thesis j predominant current-day meaning). 3.2 Identification of Phenotypes and GenotypesComplications. Mendelian methods of inference based on a small set of traits and pairs of essay, genes were complicated by phenomena that came to be called epistasis, expressivity, penetrance, and on college incomplete dominance and, to a lesser extent, by a background level of mutation for themes, any gene being studied. Muriel Wheldale’s genetic analysis of the color of snapdragon flowers, for example, showed that plants with one or more dominant alleles (i.e., variants of the gene) at a certain locus would show color patterns that she was able to associate with the on college essay genotype at three other loci, but plants with two recessive alleles at the first locus would be white no matter whatthe homozygote recessive genotype had an epistatic effect over the other genotypes. Themes Essay! A range of phenotypes may be shown to correspond to the same genotype expressivity . A phenotype that is associated with a certain genotype may be observed for only a fraction of individuals in or with that genotype penetrance . With respect to frienship, expressivity and penetrance, researchers try to link the observed variation to conditions occurring during development, stochastic developmental noise, or differences remaining at to india essay, loci not under study, and to decide where in the range of the trait, say, melanin pigmentation, to demarcate one phenotype from another. Incomplete dominance means the occurrence of an questions about brown, intermediate phenotype (e.g., pink snapdragon flowers resulting from a passage to india crosses of white and five essay power point red inbred lines). Incomplete dominance removed some of the themes ambiguities in using phenotypes to distinguish genotypes, but the toilet paper cheaper on amazon combination of the four phenomena and linkage for to india, multiple loci meant that Mendelian researchers had to distinguish among multiple hypotheses about the genotypes consistent with observed patterns of traits in the offspring of crosses.
Background levels of essay, mutation, including mutations in non-germ cells during the themes a passage to india essay lifetime, ensure that even genotypes-as-classes consisting of clones or of identical or monozygotic twins are not made up of questions v. board of education, strictly identical members. Nevertheless, with suitable organisms and for certain traits, and under the inbreeding and control of conditions typical of Mendelian experiments, the painstaking work of inferring genotypes (as pairs of genes) from phenotypes could bear fruit. Not all aspects of the a passage essay study of heredity could be made an experimental endeavor through Mendelian methods. There were many traits for which the continuous variation could not be subdivided into discrete phenotypes, let alone linked to paragraph power, genotypes, especially for traits in agriculture of economic interest such as yield of to india, plant and plagiarism essay animal varieties or breeds. Themes A Passage! By the end of the 1910s Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright had begun to address the need to essays about, reconcile the discreteness of genotypes with continuous variation in a passage many observable traits. In the mathematical models of a field that came to be known as quantitative genetics , differences between unobserved theoretical genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes) at each of a large number of loci contribute to differences in essay power the trait, modulated by degrees of correspondingly theoretical dominance and themes to india epistasis. Under the research papers reasonable assumption that more of the genes are shared among relatives than in the population as a whole, data on a given trait as it varies across genealogically defined lines or groups of a passage essay, specified relatedness could be analyzed so as to provide predictions of changes in the average value of the trait in the population under selective breeding. Of course, the trait values and thus the predictions depended on frienship the conditions in which the themes essay organisms developed, but in the laboratory and, to varying degrees, in agricultural breeding, conditions could be replicated.
For the breeder, the focus of the quantitative genetic data analysis on differences in the trait makes practical sense; it is not necessary to know the mechanisms through which the grade traits developed as organisms reacted to conditions. Themes A Passage! In other words, the meanings of genotype, phenotype, and their distinction again make sense as an abstraction through practices of control over biological materials and conditions in agricultural and laboratory breeding and the allied use of models and analysis of data. It should also be noted that, in agricultural breeding, the lines or other genealogically defined groups became called genotypes as well. Genotypes in five paragraph power point this sense are classes of individuals related by genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors. A Passage Essay! The relatedness takes a variety of formsnot only pure (inbred or cloned) lines, but also offspring of a given pair of parents or a set of ancestors or an open pollinated plant variety in which the genes vary within replicable bounds among the generations of hipaa papers, individuals in the class. The corresponding phenotype is then the range of values of the trait or set of traits as they are observed to themes to india, vary for the genealogically defined line or group in the given location(s) or situation(s). In this sense the phenotypes from different lines may overlap; organisms are divisible into phenotypes as classes for the purpose of quantitative genetic analysis not through “finer methods of measuring or description”, but because the essays lines or groups are separable. (Quantitative genetics extended to humans does not involve controlled breeding, but does rely on relatedness that differs between, say, monozygotic and dizygotic (i.e., fraternal) twins. Even though a twin pair is not conventionally referred to to india, as a genotype, human quantitative genetics has followed the on college essay same idea for data analysis as used in agricultural breeding.)
3.4 Continuous Variation; Particulate Factors. The mathematical models of quantitative genetics could be readily extended from selective breeding to evolutionary change by essay having theoretical genotypes from a large number of loci each contribute to plagiarism on college essay, parameters for themes a passage, surviving and leaving offspringso-called selection coefficients . Data on the variation for a trait in a specific group or population could be analyzed so as to estimate the parameters in the model that would generate the observed changes in the average value of the plagiarism essay trait over time. Themes! Thinking about evolution in the terms of quantitative genetics meant that it was no longer necessary, contra Johannsen (1911: 138) (and others), to insist that evolution proceeded through “considerable, discontinuous saltations”. Notice, again the separate theoretical genotypes and their contributions, this time to selection coefficients, remain unobserved; the focus of the research data analysis could be on differences in a passage essay the trait, not the mit thesis j mechanisms of trait development. The complexity of developmental mechanisms, which involve interactions with the themes to india environment, was collapsed in the models into the selection coefficients modulated by parameters for papers, dominance between alleles (i.e., variants of a gene) within, and epistasis between, theoretical genotypes. A parallel development, initiated again by Fisher and themes to india Wright, as well as by J.B.S. Haldane, involved mathematical models of theoretical genotypes at one or a few loci each contributing to the parameters for surviving and leaving offspring. In this field, which came to be known as Population Genetics, estimation of selection coefficients of mit thesis, genotypes inferred from distinct phenotypes was possible, albeit more readily when the populations were subject to artificial selection in the laboratory than when frequencies or changes over to india, time were observed in the wild (which was studied in the new field of ecological genetics ). Just as in quantitative genetics, the focus in population genetics was on difference in traits; complexities of development in five paragraph essay point its ecological context were typically collapsed into themes a passage to india essay the parameters of the models. 3.5 Shared Nature of the Germ Cells; Mechanics of Development; Material Basis for Genes. Some Mendelian researchers extended the investigation of the material basis for genes to their role in developmental processes.
For example, the eyes of fruit flies, normally red, are sometimes white. Geneticists identified the location on the chromosomes that corresponds to the white-eye mutation (Morgan 1919) and later investigated the pigment-formation metabolic pathway and the enzymes (proteins that modulate biochemical interactions) involved as fruit fly eyes develop the brown v. board of education normal or mutant color (e.g., Beadle Ephrussi 1936). Research since World War II that came to be known as molecular genetics or molecular biology went on to identify DNA as the a passage essay chemical basis of genes and the mechanisms of DNA replication, mutation, transcription to RNA, and translation to j, polypeptides (components of proteins). Researchers probed the feedback networks that regulate these mechanisms, first in themes to india essay viruses and bacteria, then in complex, multicellular organisms; mapped and modified the specific DNA sequence of organisms; compared sequences among taxonomic groups (i.e., groups in different branches of the classification of life) so as to assess the degree of genetic variation in populations and to classify taxonomic groups into phylogenies; traced where and when in development specific genes are active; and examined the role of DNA sequences not associated with genes (Griffiths Stotz 2013). Such research, which now occupies the center of biology, renders it plausible to many researchers and commentators that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences on the organism over time of identified DNA variants (see entry on gene). 4. Philosophical Issues Brought into Play by Attention to Control of frienship, Biological Materials and Conditions. Johannsen, as noted earlier (and conveyed in the contrast between the method of figure 2 and the theory of figure 1), provided no method to divide a natural varying population into phenotypes as classes of organisms, let alone to use these classes to identify genotypes as classes within such populations. Themes To India! What would be required then in order to apply his terms and distinction in questions brown v. board of education the study of heredity for natural varying populations? A number of pathways can be delineated:
reintegrate develop methods to bring back and tie together what had been de-emphasized through the control of themes essay, biological material and conditions employed in the experiments that provided the basis for his original presentation of genotype and phenotype and for subsequent developments in the study of essay, heredity; engineer retain the themes to india essay experimental control within an increasing range of hipaa research, contexts; generalize theoretically use the theory and models that inform the control and engineering as a basis for explaining and/or intervening more broadly (Hacking 1983; Cartwright 1999; entry on the structure of scientific theories); liken think or act as if observations in natural varying population or less controlled situations derived from similar theory and models; and experiment more do not pursue reintegration, but continue to employ Mendelian methods to learn more about the biology of organisms (Waters 2004). As a sociological, not a logical matter, success in engineering may underwrite theoretical generalizing and both may, in turn, make more plausible any assumed extension to naturally varying populations. Together with further experiments, these pathways may eventually lead to a passage to india essay, success in re-integration. It could be imagined that the processes exposed in controlled conditions would eventually explain heredity in grade j naturally varying populations. Themes A Passage To India Essay! This might happen by essay questions researchers identifying the material constituents of the genotype passed to to india, the organism by its parents and then tracing how all these constituents influence the development over time of the organism’s traits or phenotypeperhaps first in controlled conditions, and five paragraph power point then in variable ecological situations (see entry on reductionism in biology). Themes A Passage Essay! However, there is no guarantee that the about original experimental basis for the genotype-phenotype distinction or subsequent developments must lead to effective engineering, theoretical generalization, or likening that clarifies. Indeed, as a sociological not logical matter, pursuing such steps may distract attention from the project of re-integration. Section 5 reviews what would be entailed in reintegration, doing so in order to problematize the status of the original experimentally based distinction as a basis for the study of heredity for natural varying populations. The rest of section 4 points to several areas of philosophical discussions brought into play and extended by experiments followed by the pathways and steps above. The “New Experimentalism” counters or complicates a traditional emphasis in philosophy of themes a passage essay, science on theories by five paragraph essay studying what goes on in laboratories, or, more generally, the practical methods of achieving reliable results (see entries on experiment in biology the structure of scientific theories). As noted earlier (section 2), attention is themes to india, also warranted to the ways that an area of biology, such as the study of heredity, becomes experimental in toilet paper on amazon the first place.
Experiments in biology may lead to the engineering of new phenomena or objects, such as knockout mice (i.e., a line with a specific gene deactivated), but, at the same time, they leave open the question of the themes a passage significance of what gets de-emphasized through the control of on college essay, biological material and conditions employed in to india the experiments. To continue the knockout example: does the effect of a gene knocked out in a highly inbred line of mice extrapolate to its effects in naturally variable populations of mice, let alone other species? In other words, the demonstration of genes in knockout lines that have defined effects could be a textbook case of essays frienship, something representedthe DNA sequence as genewarranting the status real given the reliable effect of its absence. Yet antirealists could point to what has not yet been observed given the special experimental conditions of Mendelian research and subsequent molecular biology (see entry on scientific realism). Such an objection notwithstanding, if there is a method that is productive of results, there will be scientists who apply it even if the results do not address questions that once motivated their line of inquiry (as evident, for example, when, as noted earlier, the study of heredity came to focus on differences not similarity and development). Themes! How is any such pragmatism to be viewed?are experiments in biology like a philosophical pragmatism concerned with truth or one concerned about achieving goals and formulating further goals that can be pursued in practice (see entry on pragmatism). Or is five paragraph power, it a pragmatism highlighted more in sociology than philosophy of science, in which the researcher or the a passage to india interpreter of science considers how difficult it is in practice to essays about, modify what has been established as knowledge (Latour 1987)?
The last sense fits well with this entry’s attention to abstraction in themes a passage to india essay the form of the material practices of control over essay, biological materials and conditions advanced in to india essay modern experimental biology and agricultural breeding. It should be noted, however, that this form of abstraction centers on objects that are concrete, not therefore conforming to the contrast abstract versus concrete (see entry on abstract objects). The interrelated issues concerning pragmatism, scientific realism, and abstraction become even more pertinent when the theory and models that inform experiments, such as the genotype-phenotype distinction in Mendelian research, are extended to less-controlled situations, such as agricultural breeding trials, and to analysis of data derived from them. As noted earlier, quantitative genetics relies on essays frienship models of a passage essay, contributions from unobserved, theoretical genotypes. Analyses of data using those models allow breeders to essay questions about brown v. board, decide which traits to enhance through selection even though they have no evidence independent of the data to confirm the assumption in their models about a passage to india, theoretical genotypes and their contributions (Lloyd 1988). Yet, as publications, careers, release of varieties, software packages, and hipaa so on get built on such a foundation, it becomes ever more difficult in practical terms for researchers to promote alternatives that do not rest on the unobserved and unconfirmed entities and properties. Indeed, unconceived alternatives , the possibility that Stanford (2006) highlights, may well include theories that entail methods that are, for various reasons, impractical . Essay! The pragmatic issue of five paragraph power, needing a practical method applies in turn to philosophy: When philosophers make distinctions or otherwise point to issues that scientists have left unclear or under-examined, by themes a passage what means do they envisage influencing the scientists to change their views or practices? That question is left open by plagiarism this entry. The genotype-phenotype distinction has been positioned in this entry in themes essay relation to control of biological materials and conditions, thus drawing attention to mit thesis, the challenge of reintegrating what had been de-emphasized through that control.
Yet, no method is provided for philosophers to get the themes to india challenge taken up beyond the implication that the descriptionthe framingwould be a helpful starting point. Hipaa Research Papers! In other words, the entry has positioned the genotype-phenotype distinction in line with the descriptive emphasis in the New Experimentalism on scientific practice, a prescriptive possibility of reintegration, and an open question about the method needed to themes essay, shift actual practice. (The contrast of descriptive versus prescriptive perspectives is explored in Stegenga’s 2009 review of Weber’s contribution to philosophy of experimental biology.) The description versus prescription contrast also comes into play in relation to the different kinds of meaning given to the genotype-phenotype distinction. Should philosophers descriptively trace the shifts in meaning from Johannsen to the current day, or should they prescriptively disambiguate different meanings that may coexist among the work of different groups of researchers or even within a given group (see entry on on amazon ambiguity)? Or should it be simply and descriptively noted that coexisting meanings make the genotype-phenotype distinction a “boundary object” that allows various fields (or “social worlds”) to interact even though the a passage to india fields use the term to plagiarism, different ends (Star Griesemer 1989)? Perhaps the different meanings given to the term serve as a reminder of the disunity of science that follows once rationality and objectivity are seen not as “universal or necessary [matters], but local and contingent, relative to scientific interests and purposes” (entry on the unity of essay, science; Cartwright 1999). Descriptively, philosophers could tease out the different, sometimes incommensurable, interests and purposes that make a line of inquiry rational.
Prescriptively, they may highlight where they disagree with a given field’s interests and purposes, but they could also advocate pluralistic acceptance of different sciences that reflect. the complexity of the phenomena under investigation in interaction with the mit thesis grade j limitations of human cognitive capacities and themes a passage the variety of pragmatic interests in representations of those phenomena. (The Social Dimensions of Scientific Knowledge; on “pragmatic interests”, see also references on social and mit thesis grade economic history of heredity at the end of section 1). However, two other possibilities remain, namely, ambiguity in the use of the genotype-phenotype distinction obscures shortcomings in themes a passage to india theories and methods and allows the advances in one field (e.g., molecular genetics) to questions brown v. board, be seen to render more plausible the empirically and conceptually unrelated claims of another (e.g., quantitative genetics) (see sections 5.2.1, 6.4, and themes a passage 6.5). Sections 2 and j 3 described how the original genotype-phenotype distinction was operationalized under special, controlled conditions, namely, the growing and crossing of inbred lines raised under uniform conditions. Section 4 laid out pathways from the experimentally based distinction: reintegrate, engineer, generalize theoretically, liken, and experiment more. Yet biology and philosophy of a passage, biology have not emphasized the need to essay questions about brown v. board of education, reintegrate what has been abstracted away as a necessary step if the genotype-conception of heredity is to be extended beyond those special conditions (Figures 2 and 3) and applied to the study of heredity for natural varying populations (Figure 1). Therefore, to themes a passage to india, highlight the implications of basing the genotype-phenotype distinction in controlled conditions, this section considers what control and essay brown v. board possible reintegration might entail in the different realms reviewed so far. For inbred lines, in contrast to the realm of natural varying populations, the phenotype-as-class is not used to identify the to india genotype-as-class; indeed it is recognized as a phenotype because the mit thesis genotype, which is the inbred line, is given. As far as Johannsen’s experiments could discern, the genotype-as-material-constituents could be the whole germ cell or seed. Reintegration would entail conceptualizing the action of these constituents of the genotype-as-whole-cell and finding methods to a passage, investigate their influence on the development over time of the organism’s traits (see entry on developmental biology).
Such a program had proponents, especially in the first half of the twentieth century, but came to questions brown of education, be eclipsed by Mendelian genetics and discounted by historians and philosophers of a passage to india essay, heredity (Sapp 1987). Mendelian experiments require further control than for inbred lines, because the lines have to be raised in of education uniform conditions, crossed, and self-pollinated. Phenotypes can then be used to discriminate among multiple hypotheses about genotypes, where the phenotype is a class of organisms that share only some part of the themes essay whole set of the organisms’ traits and the genotype is a class or organisms that have some part of five paragraph point, their germ cells in common. The relevant part of the genotype was shown to be pairs of genes located along chromosomes as long as, given the control entailed by Mendelian experiments, the focus lay on differences in traits, not on how an offspring develops to have the trait at all. Themes A Passage Essay! Recall, as Johannsen noted, that Mendelian experiments are limited in on college essay examining the species-typical aspects of the germ cells and subsequent development.
Again, a program for reintegrating what is abstracted away through experimental control can be imagined: researchers identify the material constituents of the genotype and to india then trace how all these constituents influence the questions about brown development over time of the species-typical traits. From the composite of these influences the organism as a structured whole might emerge. A Passage To India! Two emerging features of the study of heredity, however, work against such a reintegration program: Heredity, as mentioned earlier, has become equated with the transmission of and cross-generational patterns in the differences. That means development became a separate and secondary matter (Sapp 1987); analysis of the dynamics of species-typical development of morphological structure was eclipsed by genetics. It is not strictly correct to assert that Mendelian experiments are unable to examine species-typical traits.
For example, all individuals of all species of the fruit-fly genus Drosophila have exactly three simple light receptors, ocelli , arranged in a symmetrical triangle on frienship the midline of the top of essay, their heads. Toilet! The simplest assumption is that there is no variation in themes a passage to india essay genotypes (in the sense of material constituents) that influence this trait and its development is resistant to normal environmental disturbance. However, if the development of the fly is sufficiently disturbed, some flies with two or fewer ocelli are observed. If those with fewer than three ocelli are used as parents for the next generation, they produced more abnormal flies than the parental generation. When the process of selective breeding from abnormal flies is continued over mit thesis grade, many generations, a line of flies is produced that consistently has two ocelli, even in the absence of a passage to india, any external disturbance of development (Maynard Smith Sondhi 1960). The success of this and other selection experiments in the same vein shows that the original uniformity of the essay about v. board trait is not an indication that there is uniformity in all of the genotypes that may, under certain conditions, influence the themes a passage essay trait’s development (Rendel 1967). Any investigation of how the toilet on amazon diverse genotypes result in the development of the typical three-ocelli pattern now has to explain the occurrence of the aberrant pattern as well. Although Johannsen (1911) gave almost no attention to the dynamics of development, recall (from section 2) that he wanted the genotype to be seen as a whole and saw no value in the idea that “discrete particles of the chromosomes are ‘bearers’ of special parts of the whole inheritance in question” (1911: 1312). Yet, Mendelian experiments seemed to show that the a passage discrete-particles idea was justified. Much progress in restoring what was abstracted away has come through the productive research program of molecular genetics (as summarized at the end of section 3).
This is not to say that any catalog or database of grade, genes and DNA variants for themes a passage to india, any organism remotely resembles a literal “blueprint” or “program” for questions brown v. board, its development . Nevertheless, with ever-improving knowledge about genetics at the molecular level and a passage to india technologies to manipulate DNA, the field of genetics is now involved, not only in accounting for how one organism differs in essays about a trait from a passage to india essay another, but also in questions about v. board illuminating the networks of gene activity and feedback ( gene regulation ) and the major branch-points of to india essay, development of the organized structuresbiochemical, physiological, and behavioral, as well as morphologicalwhich phenotypes-as-traits are variants of. Whether this progress eventually leads to plagiarism essay, an account of the a passage to india operation of the genotype as a whole (or even of some delimited parts of the essays about genotype), and then to the species-typical development of structure, remains to a passage to india, be seen (Robert 2004, entry on developmental biology). The need for toilet cheaper on amazon, such reintegration is, however, often discounted. This is evident when, for example, it is assumed that genes descended from a common ancestor ( orthologs ) should have the same function and influence the same traits across taxonomic groups descended from that ancestor (e.g., PAX6 gene in relation to the eyes of mammals and fruit flies). What that assumption overlooks is the themes a passage to india possibility that traits depend on the genotype as a whole in the development of the organism as a whole and the possibility that a gene may be conserved through roles that shift in the evolving lineages. Notwithstanding the advances of molecular genetics, its methods involve another significant form of paragraph essay point, control. The uniform conditions typical in themes essay molecular genetics exclude dynamics of development in ecological context, a context, moreover, that the organism, with its traits, helps shape (Gilbert Epel 2009; Lewontin 1983). It could be imagined that genetic investigations of the hereditary basis of traitsor, at least, of differences among traitsfor inbred organisms in on amazon tightly controlled situations might permit successful extrapolation to the development of traits in an ecological context (as pursued, for example, in investigations of strategies of growth and reproduction over the life course and plasticity of traits under environmental variation [“phenotypic plasticity”; developmental biology]). Yet, again, the need for reintegration of these aspects of naturally variable situations may readily get discounted.
Consider animal experiments viewed as models for human medicine. Themes A Passage To India! Questions are routinely raised about the validity of, say, mice as a model for humans. However, even to speak of “mice” and “humans” is an abstraction that discounts the variation among mice and the variation among humans. If, instead, the variation were paid attention to, the first step would be to note that highly selected strains of laboratory mice are less variable than undomesticated populations (Rader 2004) and experiments made on such mice involve tightly controlled situations. To what extent, it could then be asked, do experimental observations hold for individuals from undomesticated populations raised in varied and far more complex situations? If mechanisms have been exposed using laboratory mice (Tabery 2014), to what extent do they depend on the controlled value of factors that are not typically enumerated when describing the mechanism? Of course, this line of research papers, questioning is preempted when biotechnology expands its capacity to control conditions and harness genetically engineered organisms to produce desired products. (Biotechnology can be seen as the industrial manifestation of analytic biology , the themes a passage to india program that seeks to understand organisms by cutting them up into some appropriate small parts. Five! Relevant here are the politics, economics, and cultural dimensions of the rise of biotechnology and, before that, genetics itself in the areas of agriculture, health, food science, the legal system, and more.
All that lies beyond this entry’s scope; see Müller-Wille Brandt 2016.) 5.2 The Use of Models for Selective Breeding. The use of models in themes a passage quantitative genetics and population genetics is also based on control of biological materials and conditions. Questions About Of Education! For these fields, as indicated in themes a passage this section, it is paper, more difficult to formulate programs that reintegrate what had been de-emphasized. Mendelian experiments crossing inbred lines met the goal of Johannsen (and biologists following him) of a passage, giving repeatable outcomes and exposing hidden processes, but quantitative genetics, designed to analyze continuous traits (see sections 3.3 and 3.4), bore an ambiguous relationship with that goal. Models allowed breeders to plagiarism on college, predict outcomes under different mating designs; the outcomes were not strictly repeatable given that what was actually achieved typically varies from what was predicted. A Passage Essay! Moreover, while researchers could imagine that the hidden processes were like the theoretical ones in the models, the cheaper theoretical genotypes forming the themes a passage basis for quantitative genetic models were unobservable (see entry on scientific realism). Nevertheless, material practices of control of materials and conditions ensure that the model-based analyses continue to be useful. In particular, when there are discrepancies between outcomes and predictions, which may result from the hidden processes being unlike the theoretical ones in the models, breeders can always compensate: they can discard the undesired offspring and breed from the desired ones. And, as breeding programs are elaborated that build on the models (e.g., Holland et al. 2003), it becomes ever more difficult in practice to implement data analysis that would build up from an alternative model (see entry on pragmatism and section 4).
Note, because quantitative genetics involves statistical analysis of grade, data on continuous traits, it must be possible to analyze the data on trait variation using models that avoid reference to what is not observed (Taylor 2012). A Passage! However, this possibility has not been pursued in quantitative genetics (and thus becomes a potential case of Stanford’s  unconceived alternatives mentioned earlier). Mit Thesis Grade J! Indeed, the difficulty of applying any alternative to quantitative genetic models extends to analysis of themes to india essay, data on five power point variation in human traits, even though in that realm breeding is not an option and control of to india, biological material and brown conditions is minimal. If it is themes to india, difficult in practice to implement breeding programs and data analysis based on models that avoid reference to what is not observed, it is difficult to conceive such alternatives without the following prescriptive disambiguation. Here a restoration more than a reintegration can be entertained, that is, to insist on the distinction between variance in actual observable genotypes and genotypic variance (sometimes shortened to genetic variance , where variance is the statistical measure of variation in a given quantity).
The latter term stems from breeders using the term genotypic value for the average value of a trait over all locations in which they raise or grow the about frienship genotype (in the sense of classes of a passage, individuals related by essay about brown v. board genealogy from a common ancestor or set of ancestors; see section 3). The variation among these genotypic values is, as shorthand, called the genotypic variance. In other words, the quantity derives from essay statistical analysis of variation among related and mit thesis j unrelated individuals in their phenotypes (in the themes to india essay sense of observed traits ), not in their genotypes (in the questions about brown v. board sense of DNA). Not only does genotypic variance vary with the mix of genotypes and locations, its statistical estimation does not reference measurable genetic or environmental factors influencing the development of the traits. Unfortunately, it is common for researchers and commentators, including philosophers, to speak of genotypic or genetic variance in to india essay terms like the essay “contribution of genetic differences to observed differences among individuals” (Plomin et al. 1997: 83) as if variation in traits and variation in genotypes had some obvious relationship. The conflation may derive from quantitative genetic models being based on genotypes (in the sense of pairs of to india, genes). But those are theoretical genotypes, unobserved and, as noted above, not essential to the analysis of five essay point, trait variation. (To add to the potential for confusion, the technical term for themes a passage to india, the ratio of the genotypic variance to cheaper, the total variance observed in essay the trait in question is paragraph essay, Heritability, which has no relation to the existence of a connection between parent and essay offspring traits through transmission of genes [Taylor 2012].) To enhance the disambiguation, Taylor (2012) recommends the use of essay about brown v. board of education, terms familiar in agricultural trials: variety instead of genotype (in the sense of classes of individuals related by genealogy from themes a common ancestor or set of ancestors), location instead of environment, and trait instead of phenotype (given that this last term implies a connection with a set of genotypes, in the sense of pairs of genes). Plagiarism On College Essay! Whether or not the alternatives terms get more widely adopted, once the gap between statistical patterns from quantitative genetics and measurable underlying factors is recognized and consistently observed , it becomes difficult to follow the reasoning of accounts that conflate or slip between the disparate meanings of “genetic”.
This difficulty extends to accounts of the interaction between genes or genotypes and environment that overlook the distinction, proceeding then as if interaction as defined in quantitative genetic analyses of variation has some conceptual or empirical connection with statistical interaction between measured presence of themes a passage essay, genes and environmental variables. About! (It is beyond the scope of this entry to review such accounts by scientists or philosophers; see Taylor 2015 as well as discussion in Section 6.5 on what the conflation or ambiguity signifies.) There is an alternative to restoration of the distinction between genotypic variance and variation in actual genotypes, which is to focus on themes a passage the latter. As determining the sequence of essays, DNA at themes a passage essay, any stretch of the genome (i.e., of the genotype-as-material-constituents) has become routine, Genome-Wide Association (GWA) studies allow estimation of the fraction of the variation in the trait that is associated with measurable genetic variants. (The variants studied are single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], which are not held to be the DNA influencing the about frienship trait, but simply somewhere close to those factors on the genome.) It turns out, however, that, even when many genetic variants are examined together, only a small fraction of the variation in the trait is a passage, associated withor in statistical terms, “accounted for” bythe genetic variants (McCarthy et al. 2008). This finding has led to discussions about missing heritability (e.g., Manolio et al. 2009).
This new heritability has, however, no conceptual or empirical connection with the heritability of quantitative genetics. To the extent that the additional ambiguity in use of the term heritability is associated with the unfulfilled expectation that high heritability means genetic variants might account for a large fraction of trait variation, the restoration identified in the previous paragraphs is warranted. One plausible explanation of the limited success of GWA studies depends on the distinction between genotypic variance and variance in actual genotypes being clearly made. Even if the classical quantitative genetic heritability is high and similarity between twins or a set of close relatives is associated with the similarity of essay questions, yet-to-be-identified genotypes or genetic factors, the factors may not be the a passage to india same from one set of relatives to the next, or from one location (environment) to the next . Mit Thesis Grade J! In other words, the underlying factors and the pathways of development that they influence may be heterogeneous . Themes To India! It could be that pairs of alleles, say, AAbbcbDDee, subject to a sequence of environmental factors, say, FghiJ, are associated, all other things being equal, with the same outcomes as alleles aabbCCDDEE subject to a sequence of environmental factors FgHiJ (Taylor 2012). The possibility of heterogeneous factors underlying similarity in traits obviously recedes if the biological materials and about frienship locations are close to the original set of relatives and environmental factors.
The corollary is that, when users of quantitative genetic models overlook that possibility, they are, in effect, assuming tight control of biological materials and conditions. Some degree of reintegration of what is unobservable in the classical use of a passage, quantitative genetic models has occurred through the technique of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL)regions of the genome containing genetic factors associated with variation in plagiarism on college a continuously variable trait. Yet QTL mapping has had most success in animal and plant varieties that can be replicated and raised in a passage to india essay controlled conditions; reliable QTL results for human populations are few (Majumder Ghosh 2005; but see the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2007). Plagiarism! Indeed, reintegration of the complexities of development in themes a passage essay its ecological context, which are collapsed into the parameters of the models, remains scarcely developed in quantitative genetics (as evoked for the human case by Turkheimer 2004). In population genetics, the complexities of development in its ecological context are also collapsed into mit thesis grade the parameters of the models, such as the themes a passage essay parameters for surviving and leaving offspring.
Not surprisingly then, the estimation of the papers selection coefficients of genotypes (in the sense of pairs of genes) is more readily done when the populations are subject to artificial selection in the laboratory than when frequencies or changes over themes a passage essay, time are observed in the wild. Lewontin (1974a) provides grounds for doubting the likelihood of some day restoring what is abstracted away in those selection coefficients. Measurements of selection coefficients and other parameters of the model are possible, Lewontin concludes, only hipaa papers, when a single allelic substitution is associated with a large difference in a passage to india the trait, not when the effects of gene substitutions make only small differences. This led him to remark that: “What we can measure is by definition uninteresting and what we are interested in is by definition unmeasurable” (1974a: 23). The problem of relating population genetic models to observations becomes astronomically worse when there are multiple, linked loci (1974: 317). About Frienship! He suggests that population genetics should shift its attention to the selection coefficients for long segments of chromosomes. This program, like Johannsen’s wish that the genotype be seen as a whole, has scarcely been pursued. Even if it had been, ecological genetic analysis of variation in natural populations, with all its complexity (e.g., Clausen et al.
1958), would still be needed to begin to reintegrate ecological context into population genetics. 6. What the Genotype-Phenotype Distinction Signifies. That special experimental conditions are entailed in the original formulation of the terms genotype, phenotype, and themes a passage essay the distinction between them also has implications for the issues that might seem to have been settled by the adoption of Johannsen’s genotype-concept of five point, heredity. 6.1 Barrier Between Traits and What is Transmitted to to india, the Next Generation. To the mit thesis grade j extent that the DNA transmitted to the next generation has been shielded from most of the interactions that occur during the organism’s lifetime (both within the organism and with the environment), there is a barrier to to india, “peculiar” traits (Johannsen’s label for mit thesis j, traits acquired during the specific development of the parents) being passed on to their offspring. (A key part of this shielding is the a passage essay one-way transcription of DNA to RNA [which then codes for the amino acids that make up proteins], not, in general, transcription in the other direction.) While the mit thesis genotype-phenotype distinction can be seen to signify the existence of this barrier, there is a long history of researchers claiming to show ways around it. Most notably, the modern science of epigenetics, building on ever-increasing information about DNA sequences and how genes function, shows how chemicals from outside the themes a passage to india essay cell can modify the activity of papers, genes for the rest of an organism’s life and sometimes even into a passage essay subsequent generations (Stotz 2006). Developmental Systems Theory (Oyama, Griffiths, Gray 2001), Evolutionary developmental biology (“evo-devo”) (Moczek et al. 2015), and a Post-genomic Synthesis in Behavior and Cognition Research (Stotz 2008) also argue for attention to extended inheritance , which includes transmission not only of epigenetic modifications, but also of resources outside the organism, such as when reptiles lay their eggs in places that ensure the right temperature for incubation. Mit Thesis J! This last example also fits under the themes a passage ambit of Niche Construction theory (Odling-Smee et al. 2003). Hipaa Research! This field investigates the significance of organisms shaping the ecological context in which they develop their traits, survive, and reproduce, as epitomized by a passage to india beavers living in the ecosystem of ponds formed by the dams that they build and maintain. (Whether or not epigenetic and extra-organismal resources have the same causal status as genes is a matter of philosophical debate beyond the scope of mit thesis grade j, this entry; see Waters 2007; Stotz 2006; Griffiths Stotz 2013; entry on themes a passage to india inheritance systems, and section 7 below.)
6.2 Evolution Defined as Change in Gene Frequencies. Biological evolution, in its most general construal, is modification by descent, that is, change over time in frequency of research, observed traits or forms in a passage a population or a taxonomic group derived from a common ancestor. A narrower definition, however, arose with the paper cheaper rise of a genotypic conception of heredity, namely, only with changes in a passage to india frequencies of genes is evolution deemed to be happening. The barrier to so-called inheritance of acquired characteristics is held to make irrelevant any changes in forms without changes in gene frequencies. Exponents of extended inheritance disagree, including in their definition of evolution the changes in the developmental system and its constructed niche (Griffiths Stotz 2013). Adjudication of the disagreement comes down, in part, to a matter of quantity: How significant are resources other than the genotype (in the paper cheaper sense of the DNA of the whole genome) in development of traits that influence survival and a passage reproductive success?
Significance may depend on the number of generations that the resources are transmitted. The disagreement, however, becomes qualitative, even radical, if attention is given to the dynamics of essay questions about, development in an ecological context that had been abstracted away in demonstrating the original genotype conception of heredity. Reintegrating developmental dynamics entails more than noting the essay existence of developmental noise, such as when Drosophila individuals are not symmetric in the number of bristles on each side. The next subsection elaborates. 6.3 Development as a Genotype to Phenotype Relationship. Several of the programs of reintegration sketched in section 5 rest on the idea that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences of DNA variants on the organism.
An alternative approach is to observe that germ cells are organized structures, which means that development is always a process of essay questions about of education, further organization emerging from initial organization. That emphasis was evident, not only in developmental mechanics ( Entwickslungsmechanik ), but also in a mid-twentieth century form of a passage to india, epigenetics centered on hipaa research papers embryological or developmental pathways. Conrad Waddington, for example, undertook experiments on variation in themes a passage essay certain characters that was originally seen only in about response to an environmental stress, e.g., enlarged anal papillae (a fleshy protuberance) of Drosophila larvae that arose in higher salt concentrations (Waddington 1959). In populations that had been selected for that responsiveness, eventually the trait occurred even when that stress was withdrawn. Waddington’s interpretation is that a genotype (in the sense of a specific set of essay, pairs of paper cheaper, genes) had arisen in the population that switched on themes essay development of hipaa, large papillae. Presumably, this could happen through reassortment of genes into new genotypes, not a random mutation. Themes Essay! An alternative hypothesis, which places more emphasis on the dynamics of development, is that, if many pathways in a non-inbred population can produce the same response (e.g., enlarged anal papillae in response to paragraph essay point, salt), selection results in a population of individuals that have a concentration or redundancy of the various pathways.
If pathways arise within this concentration where large papillae develop without the salt stress, that is not a logical process to be modeled by population genetic or quantitative genetic models, but a contingent outcome of the dynamics of themes, development in a realm in which a variety of genotypes can influence a variety of paths to a trait. Essays Frienship! In this light, to call traits phenotypes, and thus suggest that they have a direct association with a specific genotype, is to make it more difficult to conceive and pursue a program of reintegration in which researchers examine cases of traits that are acquired as an appropriate response to environmental condition and themes to india essay then increase in frequency in a population. Moreover, even if such cases turn out toilet cheaper on amazon not to essay, be common, they trouble the premise that the individual-to-individual barrier to a trait being transmitted back into the genotype barrier means that acquired characters cannot increase in plagiarism on college a population during evolution. 6.4 What Counts is Underneath or Inside the Observable Surface. The genotype-phenotype distinction can also signify that the themes a passage to india essay surfacephenotypeis mere appearance; what is v. board, underneath or inside that surfacethe genotypeis what counts. A small irony, given that the phenotype originated in relation to inferring genotypes (in the sense of a class that shared something unobservable), is to india, that, to the extent that molecular biology has made DNA sequences observable, especially at brown of education, sites in themes a passage which the sequences vary from one group to another, each genotype (in the sense of a pair of genes or DNA sequence) becomes another phenotype (Nachtomy et al. 2009). During the development of an organism, each of these genotypes-as-phenotypes at time 0 interacts with the rest of the phenotype and about frienship environmental factors to produce the phenotype at to india essay, time 1, 2, and so on.
It may well be the case that germ cells arise at some point in the life course that are buffered from essay most of these interactions. However, with respect to conceptualizing development from time 0 till death, nothing logically makes the genotype not also a phenotype. In any case, the view is widespread that what counts is underneath or inside. It is evident in the definition of themes a passage to india, evolution as change in gene frequencies and the idea that development of traits will eventually be understood in terms of a composite of the influences of DNA variants on the organism. It can also be seen in many other features of discourses around heredity, such as the following: An oft-repeated assertion is that random mutations in genes are the j ultimate source of variation on which evolution builds. Essay! This assertion discounts the reassortment of genes into new combinations of genotypes (in the grade sense of themes, pairs of toilet, genes) that occurs with every sexual reproduction and with the recombination after crossing over of chromosomes that occurs in many species, as well as with niche construction and novel response to environmental conditions that can occur during development. Discussions of the themes a passage to india unit of selection, typically a gene or genotype (in the sense of on amazon, a specific pair of genes), often assume or imply that, when organisms are shown to enjoy differential survival and reproductive success because of the effect of some trait they possess, it is actually because they possess some gene or genotype. In some accounts, the organism becomes the “selfish” gene’s way of making copies of itself. Such a picture is a variant of a theme with a long history, namely, the living being is an agent directed by some other agent, such as in theology when the soul is given by the grace of God.
The use of the term phenotype for a trait suggests a direct association with some genotype even when there is no program, let alone a method, to expose which genotypes influence the trait. The claim is made that all disease is genetic. The corresponding programs of genetic medicine, personalized genomics, and essay precision medicine, propose or promise to essay about brown v. board, identify and to india make therapeutic use of genetically determined disease susceptibility in toilet paper individual patients. Themes A Passage! Not only do such programs discount the environmental and social aspects of epidemiological trends in many diseases, but, as evident when genetic oncologists use the term “familial cancer” in contrast to hereditary cancers, this conception of heredity brings back what Johannsen had sought to essays about, expunge, namely, thinking about the transmission of themes a passage to india, peculiar or acquired traits. Invocation of “genetic tendency” without a method to infer it from analysis of traitseven when done by commentators critical of claims made about genetics, as in research “simply because a genetic tendency exists does not mean it will be phenotypically expressed” (Jesser 2002, 42). It is now popular to boast that “it’s in our DNA”, in the sense of a core value that is beyond question for an organization or group. 6.5 Findings About Heredity Derived Using One Meaning of Terms Affirm Findings Derived Using a Different Meaning. With genetics held to get at the fundamental thing that counts in heredity, it makes it plausible to take research using methods based on one kind of meaning of the terms genotype, phenotype, and the distinction between them to affirm research based on another meaningthey are all contributing to an understanding of that fundamental something. In this spirit, the themes essay ascendance of the predominant current meaningDNA versus traitshas not necessitated rejection or even disambiguation of the other meanings of the terms evident in Johannsen (1911) and that have coexisted sinceclass, abstraction, or material constituents; whole or part; natural units or products of experimental control (sections 13). Not being troubled by the ambiguity of different meanings and methods is essay, especially evident when commentators speak of themes a passage to india essay, “the nature-nurture debate” as if it were unimportant to specify which nature-nurture science is essays frienship, being debated. In practice, at least five nature-nurture sciences can be readily distinguished (Taylor 2015):
Researchers in laboratory and themes a passage agricultural breeding or human quantitative geneticists compare how much variation in a trait is associated with differences among means for varieties, locations, variety-location combinations, and residual contributions (i.e., genotypic, environmental, genotype-environment interaction, and essay brown residual variance where genotype here means a line or genealogically defined group; see section 3.3) Researchers compare how much variation in a trait is associated with differences in measured genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interaction, and a residual component (where the genetic factors are typically genotypes in the sense of a pair of genes). Through either of the above forms of analysis, researchers try to compare the themes a passage to india variation within groups (e.g., among Euro-Americans and among African-Americans) to the difference between the averages for essay questions, the groups. A Passage To India! Through investigations that might extend any of the preceding kinds of analysis of five essay point, observational data, researchers piece together a picture of the processes of development of a trait and, on that basis, speak to a passage, the fixity versus flexibility of traits. (The multiple meanings of genotype, summarized above, arise in research and discussions on this topic.) Researchers provide an five power, evolutionary account of the increase in frequency of a trait through natural selection based on the trait’s superior function in the environment (see section 6.2). These nature-nurture sciences entail not only different methods but also different control of materials and conditions, so, in practice, results are difficult to translate from one of them to the next. Discussion of the nature-nurture debate (even in critical accounts where nature and nurture are said to interact or shape each other) signifies, among other things, that the specialness of the conditions involved in the original formulation and themes to india essay demonstration of the plagiarism essay genotype-phenotype distinction may be overlooked. As a consequence, for example, control of materials and conditions that is practical in laboratory and agricultural breeding gets built into evolutionary thinking when the to india latter uses models and terms from breeding as if there were also a selector in naturally variable populations. Granted, as noted earlier, biotechnology has a growing capacity to control conditions and harness genetically engineered organisms to produce desired products. Questions About V. Board Of Education! However, to the extent that biological theory is still meant to address naturally variable populations, then concepts, methods, and models are needed through which what has been controlled or de-emphasized might be brought back and re-integrated into the scientific accounts. The framing of this entry in a passage to india essay terms of control and reintegration has been designed to draw attention to the space around the genotype-phenotype distinction that remains open for conceptual clarification and methodological advances. The introduction noted that, if the genotype-phenotype relationship had been the focus of this entry, more attention would need to hipaa research, be given to philosophical arguments about causality and about abstraction as it relates to causal claims. Yet, realizing any of the programs of reintegration mentioned in this entry would entail rich causal analyses: networks of gene regulation linked to themes, organized structures that branch into more organized structures, epigenetic modifications during and across lifespans, organisms shaping the dynamics of the ecological context in which they develop their traits, and grade j frequencies of traits changing in populations over generations.
This said, in realms of experimentally controlled biological materials and conditions, a simpler sense of causality may seem plausible, namely, a difference that makes a difference (see entry on a passage to india causation and manipulability). Research! (The serious debate about whether statistical analysis can distinguish causal from non-causal differences that “make” a difference should be noted; Hernán et al. 2002.) The connection between an association within some population and causal mechanisms is susceptible to disconfirmation by experiments. At the same time, doing such experiments invites scrutiny of the relationship of experimentally altered dynamics to the original dynamics that generated the data that were analyzed to show the original statistical association (Taylor 2015). Most importantly given the themes a passage essay framing of this entry around control and reintegration: Any experimental as well as statistical association is also conditional on the subset of the population or species studied and the situations where they are observed (Lewontin 1974b). Understanding associations and formulating manipulations based on them requires attention to what has been experimentally or, at least, statistically held constant. In other words, in controlled conditions the direction of the arrow labeled identification in Figures 2 and 3 may be reversed and given a causal connotation, but the causality is conditional on toilet paper on amazon the factors, including the rest of the organism, held constant. The understanding and manipulations may well extrapolate beyond the original, controlled population and situations (and thus match the general theory summarized in Figure 1), but, absent an actual program of reintegration, there is themes a passage, no basis for about, assuming that they will.
While Waters (2007), Tabery (2014) and others would give greater status to differences that have actually been observed to make a difference (Griffiths Stotz 2013), this entry has pointed to the control of a passage to india, biological materials and conditions that excludes many factors genetic as well as environmental, structural as well as particulate from being seen to paper on amazon, make a difference . Ironically, if appearances are not to mislead and obscure, or be spun into speculative theories (section 2), the science of themes essay, heredity needs methods that bring back what was abstracted away under the experimental control that made Johannsen’s original genotype-conception meaningful. Beadle, G.W. Boris Ephrussi, 1936, “The Differentiation of Eye Pigments in Drosophila as Studied by Transplantation”, Genetics , 21(3): 225247. Bonneuil, Christophe, 2016, “Pure Lines as Industrial Simulacra: A Cultural History of Genetics from Darwin to on college, Johannsen”, in Müller-Wille and Brandt 2016: 213242. Cartwright, Nancy, 1999, The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Churchill, Frederick B., 1974, “William Johannsen and the Genotype Concept”, Journal of the History of Biology , 7(1): 530. doi:10.1007/BF00179291 Clausen, Jens, David D. Keck, William M. Hiesey, 1958, Experimental Studies in to india the Nature of Species, III. Environmental Responses of Climatic Races of grade, Achillea , (Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication, 581), Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of themes a passage to india essay, Washington Deichmann, Ute, 2014, “The Concept of the Causal Role of Chromosomes and plagiarism on college essay Genes in Heredity and Development: Opponents from Darwin to Lysenko”, Perspectives in Biology and themes essay Medicine , 57(1): 5777. doi:10.1353/pbm.2014.0007 Deichmann, Ute, Michel Morange, Anthony S. Mit Thesis Grade! Travis, 2014, “Special Issue: The Changing Concept of the themes a passage to india essay Gene: Recurrent Debates on the Causal Role of Genes”, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine , 57(1).
Gilbert, Scott F. David Epel, 2009, Ecological Developmental Biology , Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. Paper Cheaper! Griffiths, Paul Karola Stotz, 2013, Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511744082 Hacking, Ian, 1983, Representing and essay Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511814563 Hernán, Miguel A., Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Martha M. Werler, Allen A. Mitchell, 2002, “Causal Knowledge as a Prerequisite for Confounding Evaluation: An Application to Birth Defects Epidemiology”, American Journal of Epidemiology , 155(2): 176184. doi:10.1093/aje/155.2.176 Holland, James B., Wyman E. Nyquist, Cuauhtemoc T. Cervantes-Martínez, 2003, “Estimating and Interpreting Heritability for Plant Breeding: An Update”, Plant Breeding Reviews , 22: 9112. Jesser, Nancy, 2002, “Blood, Genes and Gender in on college essay Octavia Butler’s Kindred and Dawn ”, Extrapolation , 43(1): 36 61. doi:10.3828/extr.2002.43.1.05 Johannsen, W., 1911, “The Genotype Conception of Heredity”, The American Naturalist , 45(531): 129159. Latour, Bruno, 1987, Science in a passage essay Action: How to power, Follow Scientists and themes a passage to india Engineers through Society , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Lewontin, Richard C., 1974a, The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change , New York: Columbia University Press. Five Power! , 1974b, “The Analysis of Variance and the Analysis of Causes”, American Journal of Human Genetics , 26: 400411 [reprinted with commentaries in International Journal of Epidemiology , 35(3): 520537 (2006) doi:10.1093/ije/dyl062]. , 1983, “The Organism as the Subject and Object of themes a passage essay, Evolution”, Scientia , 118: 6382. Lloyd, Elisabeth A., 1988, The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory , New York: Greenwood Press. Majumder, Partha P. Saurabh Ghosh, 2005, “Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in frienship Humans: Achievements and Limitations”, Journal of themes essay, Clinical Investigation , 115(6): 14191424. doi:10.1172/JCI24757 Manolio, Teri A., Francis S. Collins, Nancy J. Cox, David B. Goldstein, et al., 2009, “Finding the Missing Heritability of Complex Diseases”, Nature , 461(7265): 747753. doi:10.1038/nature08494 MaynardSmith,John K. Sondhi, 1960, “The Genetics of a Pattern”, Genetics , 45(8): 10391050. McCarthy, Mark I., Gonçalo R. Abecasis, Lon R. Cardon, David B. Grade! Goldstein, Julian Little, John P. A. Ioannidis, Joel N. Hirschhorn, 2008, “Genome-Wide Association Studies for Complex Traits: Consensus, Uncertainty and Challenges”, Nature Reviews Genetics , 9(5): 356369. doi:10.1038/nrg2344 Moczek, Armin P., Karen E. Sears, Angelika Stollewerk, Patricia J. Wittkopp, Pamela Diggle, Ian Dworkin, Cristina Ledon-Rettig, David Q. Matus, Siegfried Roth, Ehab Abouheif, Federico D. Brown, Chi-Hua Chiu, C. Sarah Cohen, Anthony W. A Passage Essay! De Tomaso, Scott F. Gilbert, Brian Hall, Alan C. Love, Deirdre C. Lyons, Thomas J. Sanger, Joel Smith, Chelsea Specht, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Cassandra G. Extavour, 2015, “The Significance and Scope of Evolutionary Developmental Biology: A Vision for the 21st Century”, Evolution and Development , 17(3): 198219. doi:10.1111/ede.12125 Morgan, Thomas Hunt, 1919, The Physical Basis of Heredity , Philadelphia: J.B. Plagiarism! Lippincott Company. Müller-Wille, Staffan, 2008, “Leaving Inheritance Behind: Wilhelm Johannsen and the Politics of Mendelism”, in Müller-Wille 2008b: 718.
Müller-Wille, Staffan Christine Brandt (eds.), 2016, Heredity Explored: Between Public Domain and Experimental Science, 18501930 , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Themes A Passage To India! Müller-Wille, Staffan, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, John Dupré, 2008a, “Introduction”, Müller-Wille et al. 2008b: 35 (eds), 2008b, A Cultural History of five paragraph essay, Heredity IV: Heredity in the Century of the Gene , Berlin: Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. Nachtomy, Ohad, Yaron Ramati, Ayelet Shavit, Zohar Yakhini, 2009, “It Takes Two to Tango: Genotyping and Phenotyping in Genome-Wide Association Studies”, Biological Theory , 4(3): 294301. doi:10.1162/biot.2009.4.3.294 Odling-Smee, F. John, Kevin N. Themes A Passage Essay! Laland, Marcus W. Feldman, 2003, Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution , Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Oyama, Susan, Paul E. Griffiths, Russell D. Gray (eds.), 2001, Cycles of essays about frienship, Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Plomin, Robert, John C. Defries, Gerald E. McClearn, Michael Rutter, 1997, Behavioral Genetics , 3rd edition, New York: W.H. Freeman. Rader, Karen A., 2004, Making Mice: Standardizing Animals for American Biomedical Research, 19001955 , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Rendel, James Meadows, 1967, Canalization and Gene Control , London: Academic, Logos Press. Robert, Jason Scott, 2004, Embryology, Epigenesis, and themes to india Evolution: Taking Development Seriously , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511498541 Roll-Hansen, Nils, 2014, “Johannsen’s Criticism of the Chromosome Theory”, Perspectives in Biology and five essay power point Medicine , 57(1): 4056. A Passage To India! doi:10.1353/pbm.2014.0005 Sapp, Jan, 1987, Beyond the grade Gene: Cytoplasmic Inheritance and the Struggle for Authority in Genetics , New York: Oxford University Press. Stanford, P. Kyle, 2006, Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and the Problem of themes to india essay, Unconceived Alternatives , New York: Oxford University Press. Paper Cheaper! doi:10.1093/0195174089.001.0001 Star, Susan L. and themes a passage essay Griesemer, James, 1989, “Institutional ecology, ‘translations’ and boundary objects: Amateurs and professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 19071939,” Social Studies of plagiarism essay, Science , 19: 387420. doi:10.1177/030631289019003001 Stegenga, Jacob, 2009, “Marcel Weber: Philosophy of Experimental Biology,” Erkenntnis , 71: 431436. Themes A Passage To India Essay! doi: 10.1007/s10670.009.9180.z Stotz, Karola, 2006, “Molecular Epigenesis: Distributed Specificity as a Break in the Central Dogma”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences , 28(4): 533548. , 2008, “The Ingredients for a Postgenomic Synthesis of Nature and Nurture”, Philosophical Psychology , 21(3): 359381. doi:10.1080/09515080802200981 Tabery, James, 2014, Beyond Versus: The Struggle to hipaa research, Understand the Interaction of Nature and a passage to india essay Nurture , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Taylor, Peter J., 1987, “Historical Versus Selectionist Explanations in Evolutionary Biology”, Cladistics , 3(1): 113. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1987.tb00493.x , 2003, “Gene-Environment Complexities: What is brown v. board, Interesting to Measure and to Model?”, The Evolution of Population Biology: Modern Synthesis , Rama S. A Passage! Singh Marcy K. Uyenoyama (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 233253. , 2012, “A Gene-Free Formulation of Classical Quantitative Genetics Used to Examine Results and Interpretations Under Three Standard Assumptions”, Acta Biotheoretica , 60(4): 357378. doi:10.1007/s10441-012-9164-2 , 2014, Nature-Nurture? No: Moving the Sciences of Variation and Heredity Beyond the Gaps , Arlington, MA: The Pumping Station. , 2015, “Distinctions that Make a Difference?”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences , 51: 7076. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2015.03.002 Turkheimer, Eric, 2004, “Spinach and Ice Cream: Why Social Science Is So Difficult”, Behavior Genetics Principles: Perspectives in Development, Personality, and research papers Psychopathology , Lisabeth Fisher DiLalla (ed.), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 161189. Waddington, C.H., 1959, “Canalization of Development and themes a passage Genetic Assimilation of Acquired Characters”, Nature , 183(4676): 16541655. doi:10.1038/1831654a0 Waters, C. Kenneth, 2004, “What Was Classical Genetics?”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A , 35(4): 783809. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2004.03.018 , 2007, “Causes that Make a Difference”, Journal of Philosophy of Science , 104(11): 551579. On College! doi:10.5840/jphil2007104111 Weber, Marcel, “Experiment in Biology”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2014/entries/biology-experiment/. Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, 2007, “Genome-Wide Association Study of 14,000 Cases of Seven Common Diseases and 3,000 Shared Controls”, Nature , 447(7145): 661678. doi:10.1038/nature05911 Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt, 2014, “James and Dewey on Abstraction”, The Pluralist , 9(2): 128. doi:10.5406/pluralist.9.2.0001. Lewontin, Richard, “The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/genotype-phenotype/. [This was the to india essay previous entry on the genotype/phenotype distinction in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see the version history.] History of Genetics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (maintained by Michael Dietrich) MendelWeb Plant Breeding: Science + Creative Problem Solving “Wilhelm Johannsen’s Genotype-Phenotype Distinction” at the Embryo Project Encyclopedia 6 min silent movie showing Johannsen in action as teacher and scientist. Discussions with many colleagues, including those who saw the genotype-phenotype distinction to be a boring topic, stimulated the revision of this entry. Comments on drafts by Jonathan Kaplan, Barbara Mawn, Rasmus Winther, and an anonymous reviewer also helped. Paper On Amazon! Some passages in this entry have been carried over from the previous SEP version by Lewontin; some sentences have been adapted from Taylor (1987, 2003, 2014, 2015). The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support.
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2006 essay ged test Braille Monitor May 2006. by Doris M. Willoughby. From the Editor: Doris Willoughby is a distinguished blindness educator, who lives in the Denver area and teaches at the Colorado Center for the Blind. The following article brings together valuable information for anyone interested in helping blind people earn this important credential. She hopes other educators in this field will contact her. This is what she says: The GED Testing Service, which is themes to india essay, part of the American Council on Education, provides the test and its rules. The individual states vary somewhat in details of how the test is administered. In Colorado, for example, community colleges and other adult-education centers give the test, but they are strictly regulated by the Colorado Department of Education.
If you do not know where to essay questions brown of education find a test site, inquire of your state department of education. One of my students did apply for themes to india essay use of a reader. We wrote a rather detailed justification, and the request was approved. Unfortunately, however, that student ultimately did not proceed with the research papers actual test. I would like to know whether anyone else has successfully requested the use of a live reader, received permission, and proceeded with the test. A scribe, a live person to record answers, is typically approved without question. As one might expect, misunderstandings and errors sometimes occur in arranging accommodations. A notable problem is themes a passage to india essay, that, since one-and-one-half the five essay standard amount of time is typical for people with learning disabilities (and using inkprint), officials often specify this time increase for anyone asking for themes to india essay extended time--this in spite of the GED Examiner's Manual clearly stating that twice the standard amount of about frienship, time is themes a passage, usual for a taped or Braille test.
Some students have had to reapply, with a cover letter, in order to receive the accommodation they deserve. Since diabetes is essay v. board of education, a major cause of blindness, some applicants need to consider the possibility of a reaction during the themes a passage to india essay test. The student would typically need to stop, eat something, and take some time to recover. One of hipaa papers, my students applied for the accommodation of frequent supervised breaks, enclosing a letter from his doctor. The approval came back to allow him to test for fifteen minutes and a passage, then take a ten-minute break. In other words they want him to schedule his reactions according to their plan!
We considered this incredible response and essays about frienship, decided to ask for three times the standard testing time. This was approved, and I suggest this approach for anyone subject to frequent diabetic reactions or any other condition that is likely to require interrupting the test at unpredictable intervals. Whether or not there are disagreements, the process of receiving approval for accommodations is often slow. The student is well advised to themes a passage essay apply for accommodations as soon as he or she decides to pursue the essay about of education GED, rather than waiting until almost ready for testing. Themes A Passage To India Essay! Testing is available continually (in contrast with tests such as the ACT, which are offered only on infrequent, specific dates). Some schools, especially in urban areas, are accustomed to including blind students. Many, however, will have no experience with blindness. Moreover, it is increasingly common for there to be no actual classes--instead, the work is done individually on a computer (where accessibility may be doubtful). Independent study is paper cheaper, entirely possible, especially for stronger students. Students can take practice tests in themes to india essay, each of the five areas, and then proceed with any indicated strengthening. GED study books are generally oriented toward independent study, with plenty of practice questions and answers.
Preparation--with or without a teacher--needs to essay involve alternative techniques in addition to the kind of preparation needed by everyone. How will the essay applicant handle long, detailed passages with complex questions afterward? How will the essay questions of education essay be done? New tape-recorded study materials are available from Recording for themes the Blind Dyslexic (RFBD), which charges a modest fee for enrollment and for annual renewal. Most study materials contain pretests and post-tests. Also, the Steck-Vaughn publishing company offers a set of official practice tests in taped form (as well as large and regular print). Computer-based study materials are becoming increasingly common. I have not used these thus far and would like to hear from students and teachers who have. New Braille materials have been slower in becoming available. There now is at least one: GED Basics (Third Edition), by Nancy Lawrence, published by ARCO.
It is relatively compact for a book covering all five tests, having only 234 pages in inkprint. This book is available for loan through the National Library Service. It may also be purchased through the American Printing House for the Blind (APH). The Minnesota State Services for the Blind has produced a number of Brailled study materials. Grade J! Minnesota educational institutions are entitled to them, and those in other states can purchase them. As a sighted teacher (although literate in to india, Braille and able to hipaa research papers use tapes) I find it convenient to obtain for a passage myself an about frienship, inkprint copy of the main materials used by my students.
Also, of themes a passage to india essay, course, inkprint study materials can be read aloud or Brailled by anyone assisting the student. Study materials labeled GED generally assume that the student begins at essentially the high school level?ninth grade or above. A student whose starting level is below ninth grade will need materials called Pre-GED (or perhaps Adult Basic Education). Paragraph Essay Point! American Printing House for to india the Blind (APH) 1839 Frankfort Avenue. Louisville, Kentucky 40206. GED Testing Service.
American Council on power, Education. One DuPont Circle NW. Washington, DC 20036-1163. 4255 W. Touhy Avenue. Themes A Passage To India! Lincolnwood, Illinois 60712. Minnesota State Services for the Blind.
2200 University Avenue West. St. Paul, Minnesota 55114. National Library Service for the Blind. and Physically Handicapped (NLS) Library of Congress. 1291 Taylor Street NW.
Washington, DC 20542. (Note that at least one affiliated local library exists for every state.) Recording for the Blind Dyslexic (RFBD)
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Free Essays on a passage, Descriptive Paragraph On A Closet. THE FOUR TYPES OF PARAGRAPHS (With Examples) There are four types of paragraphs we write. They include: narrative, informative, descriptive , and persuasive. All paragraphs have certain elements, but the four types are also different from one another in how they are composed. On College! Look at the outline. • What is a paragraph ? • A paragraph is themes a passage essay a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. • Learning to write good paragraphs will help you as a writer stay on plagiarism on college essay, track during your drafting and revision stages. • Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece. Humility: Paragraph and a passage essay Central Idea. father had died from alcoholism and my mother lived in Phoenix Arizona with her “new” family), I became dependent upon my new mother-in-law who was a closet drug-addict. Eventually, I found my way to questions, Portland and into the arms of another man, who would become my second husband and the father of my. 1. Descriptive essay writing An essay is a written composition of moderate length exploring a particular issue or subject.
Descriptive essays, derived from the word describe, is a genre of essay that asks the student to describe something—object, person, place, experience. ? Descriptive versus Narrative This essay is to compare-contrast a narrative and descriptive essay The essays I chose were, “Are the Rich Happy?” written by Stephen Leacock (1916) for the narrative essay and “Homeless” written by Anna Quindlen (n.d.) for the descriptive essay. The title of a passage to india essay, both essays. Descriptive essay example If you are having problems with writing of a descriptive essay you should certainly look for a descriptive essay example (or even maybe several examples). Descriptive essays have their distinctive features and compulsory elements. A writer has to paragraph, develop chosen topic. RES 732 UOP Courses Tutorial / Uoptutorial. Individual Assignment Sampling for Huffman Trucking RES 732 Week 2 Individual Assignment Sample Size Worksheet RES 732 Week 3 Individual Assignment Descriptive Analysis Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Statistical Inference Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Selecting a Statistical. think the themes essay skills I have learned in this class have enabled me to move on to English Composition I and paper cheaper on amazon complete it successfully.
In the following paragraphs I will give several examples of a passage to india, what I have learned and how it will help me in English Composition I. Research Papers! I learned how to themes to india, diagram sentences my first. ?UOP PSYCH 610 Week 8 Learning Team Assignment Course Summary. the main points of the course. In about a paragraph each, summarize what you learned about the plagiarism on college following: 1. A Passage! Research and the scientific method 2. Research ethics 3. Meaning of reliability and validity 4. Overview of basic research designs Define descriptive and interferential statistics and give an. has been reversed in this story. Reversed in cheaper, a way that real life and themes to india many modern day family situations have been replicated.
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Descriptive Paragraph Joyce Parrish ENC 1101: Rivers At twelve pounds and less than a foot tall, my best friend, Jada, is a ball of energy. On College Essay! My pekingese dog resembles a gremlin with mammothly clever eyes that always seem to be smiling, and themes to india a protruding under bite announcing crooked teeth to the. Individual Assignment Sampling for v. board Huffman Trucking RES 732 Week 2 Individual Assignment Sample Size Worksheet RES 732 Week 3 Individual Assignment Descriptive Analysis Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Statistical Inference Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Selecting a Statistical. effective paragraphs . THE PARAGRAPH A successful, good or effective paragraph is themes a passage essay not merely an amalgamation of hipaa research papers, related units of thoughts called sentences. It serves as a building block of an a passage argument, an instrument of frienship, persuasion, a stirrer of a narrative, or a distinctive of a descriptive . It is the. Instructions and themes Worksheet for Writing a 5-Paragraph Essay.
Instructions and paragraph power point Worksheet for Writing a 5- Paragraph Essay Step 1: Determine a Purpose for a passage essay your Essay The following are the most common purposes for essay-writing: Narrative. an essay can narrate a sequence of events (i.e. the events surrounding the fall of man in the Garden of Eden; the events. PSYCH 610 WEEK 8 LEARNING TEAM ASSIGNMENT COURSE SUMMARY. the main points of the course. In about a paragraph each, summarize what you learned about the grade j following: 1. Themes Essay! Research and essay v. board of education the scientific method 2. Research ethics 3. Meaning of reliability and themes essay validity 4. Overview of toilet paper on amazon, basic research designs Define descriptive and themes interferential statistics and hipaa papers give an. ? English 9A, Unit 2 Descriptive Portfolio Your second portfolio will be a descriptive essay about your favorite location. You will not be focused on to india essay, building characters or telling a story in this paper - Your paper will purely describe. Remember that your descriptions should use imagery and. ENG 121 UOP COURSE TUTORIAL/SHOPTUTORIAL. Narrative Essay ENG 121 Week 4 DQ 1 Elements of Description ENG 121 Week 4 Descriptive Essay Draft ENG 121 Week 5 DQ 1 Appeals to Logic and Reasoning ENG 121 Week 5 DQ 2 Looking Back and grade Looking Forward ENG 121 Week 5 Final Descriptive Essay ------------------------------------------------------------------------- . ?How to Write a Descriptive Essay Descriptive essays are often subjective tasks. The first issue at hand is to make sure you know what type of paper you are writing.
The descriptive essay is to india essay often creative, personal, or simply artistic. Discuss the assignment with your professor or teacher before you. ENG 121 ASH Course Tutorial/UOPHELP. Narrative Essay ENG 121 Week 4 DQ 1 Elements of Description ENG 121 Week 4 Descriptive Essay Draft ENG 121 Week 5 DQ 1 Appeals to hipaa papers, Logic and Reasoning ENG 121 Week 5 DQ 2 Looking Back and Looking Forward ENG 121 Week 5 Final Descriptive Essay ENG 121 Week 1 Diagnostic Essay For more course tutorials. RES 732 UOP Course Tutorial / Shoptutorial. Individual Assignment Sampling for Huffman Trucking RES 732 Week 2 Individual Assignment Sample Size Worksheet RES 732 Week 3 Individual Assignment Descriptive Analysis Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Statistical Inference Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Selecting a Statistical.
Types of Paragraphs Types of themes, Paragraphs There are three main types of paragraphs : 1. Narrative 2. Descriptive 3. Expository The Narrative Paragraph This type of paragraph describes one primary topic and narrates or tells its story This topic usually involves one main event, adventure, scene, or happening. The Ideal Pet: A Descriptive Paragraph Most of the about frienship writing we will do in our lives is expository: writing in to india essay, which we explain something to someone else. We’ll begin with simple descriptive expository paragraphs and on college essay then progress to themes to india, more sophisticated persuasive essays. Your first assignment is. pagination, and grade the placement of name, class, etc. The essay will be typed, in 12-point font (preferably Times New Roman). Structure: Paragraph 1: This paragraph establishes the relationship between the target audience and the advertisement. Themes A Passage To India Essay! The writer should establish the essay about characteristics of the. BSCE-2A What is a paragraph ? A paragraph is a group of themes essay, sentences that are all about one specific idea. It should begin with a topic sentence, that is, a sentence which addresses the subject of the paragraph . The other sentences in the paragraph should supply information.
and reflects on what he will become, “the purpose of myself , has not yet been fulfilled” (Baraka 34). Hipaa Research Papers! The imagery used by essay Baraka in the beginning paragraph paints this inner voice as a dark and research lonely place starting with the beginning line that states starkly that it is essay raining. Throughout the plagiarism on college story Baraka. Can a person's closet be a reflection of the type of person that person is? Well let's see, after reading the selection uI Was Just Wondering/u, by a passage Robert Fulghum, I've decided to do a little research of my own. Paper Cheaper! I decided to observe my best friend's closet to see if her closet reflected her. 121 Week 3 Final Narrative Essay ENG 121 Week 4 Descriptive Essay Draft ENG 121 Week 4 DQ 1 Elements of Description ENG 121 Week 5 DQ 1 Appeals to Logic and Reasoning ENG 121 Week 5 DQ 2 Looking Back and a passage Looking Forward ENG 121 Week 5 Final Descriptive Essay . Writing Handout E-7: Descriptive Essay Structuring a Descriptive Essay A descriptive essay simply describes something or someone by appealing to the reader’s senses: sight, sound, touch, smell and taste.
Here are the basic steps to writing an effective descriptive essay: 1. Select a subject . ?What is j Paragraph Development? It develops paragraphs in a passage to india essay, a variety of patterns that reflect your thinking about the material. Questions About! As you write the topic sentence and its supporting sentences, look for ways to structure your thinking. Where one author advances his or her material by themes narrating a series of. Three Basic Parts of a Paragraph Topic Main Idea Supporting Details Main Ideas #1 1School bullies have been around as long as there have been schools. 2Studies reveal several reasons why some children become bullies. 3Research shows that a certain combination of toilet paper cheaper on amazon, size and personality may. Research Strategy 1. Compose one paragraph that describes your research strategy that you used to themes a passage essay, find one source in essay, the Capella Library.
Your composition needs to be clearly written with descriptive words. Avoid overusing pronouns. Themes A Passage! Include the following items within the paragraph : When researching my topic. Writing A Descriptive Paragraph When you write a descriptive paragraph , you need to questions about of education, try to paint a word picture, so the a passage to india essay reader receives a clear impression of what you are trying to portray. The writer uses all five senses in his word pictures. He uses sound, tastes, smells, feelings, and about sights. Up From Slavery Descriptive Essay Janelle Green 2. ? Descriptive Essay Rubric CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Student Score Title Title is creative, sparks interest and is related to the topic.
Title is related to the topic but needs to be more creative. Title is present. No title present. Themes A Passage To India Essay! 4 Introduction (Organization) The introduction is inviting, states the main. Expository Paragraph: the essays Best of D’youville. Expository Paragraph : The Best of d’Youville There are many clubs, teams and extra-curricular activities offered at St. Marguerite d’Youville. But, in to india essay, my opinion, the best by paper cheaper on amazon far is themes d’Youville drama. Hipaa Papers! Whether you join the tech crew, the cast, or you’re chosen as a stage manager, you get to themes a passage, have fun. Individual Assignment Sampling for Huffman Trucking RES 732 Week 2 Individual Assignment Sample Size Worksheet RES 732 Week 3 Individual Assignment Descriptive Analysis Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Statistical Inference Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Selecting a Statistical. MAT 510 WEEK 5 DISCUSSION QUESTION.
MAT 510 WEEK 5 DISCUSSION QUESTION “Reflection to paragraph essay power point, Date” Note: Online students, please select one of the two subjects to discuss. Themes A Passage To India Essay! • In one (1) paragraph , reflect on what you have learned so far in this course. Determine the most interesting, unexpected, or useful piece of plagiarism on college, knowledge that you have learned. Dropbox no later than midnight. Short answer essay Requirements: You must write at themes a passage to india essay, the very least one paragraph . I expect each paragraph to j, be seven sentences or more. Be as descriptive as possible. Be sure to themes a passage to india, write a clear, organized response with an argument or topic sentence that is supported. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays, descriptive essays strive to five paragraph essay, create a deeply involved and vivid experience for themes essay the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. Plagiarism! What do. ENG 121 ASH Course Tutorial / Uoptutorial. Narrative Essay ENG 121 Week 4 DQ 1 Elements of Description ENG 121 Week 4 Descriptive Essay Draft ENG 121 Week 5 DQ 1 Appeals to Logic and to india Reasoning ENG 121 Week 5 DQ 2 Looking Back and Looking Forward ENG 121 Week 5 Final Descriptive Essay -----------------------------------------------------------.
Writing Handout E-7: Descriptive Essay Structuring a Descriptive Essay A descriptive essay simply describes something or someone by appealing to the reader’s senses: sight, sound, touch, smell and papers taste. Themes A Passage To India! Here are the basic steps to writing an effective descriptive essay: 1. Select a subject Observation. reason lifts us up to the level of human dignity and research freedom? Is this eternal . 6. My College Paragraphs amp; Essays What Are You Passionate About . Essay! www.wattpad.com/3171669-my-college- paragraphs -%26-essays-what-ar. ? Jan 17, 2012 - When I was in j, high school, I hated writing essays. We were. The purpose of descriptive writing is to make our readers see, feel, and hear what we have seen, felt, and heard. Whether we're describing a person, a place, or a thing, our aim is to reveal a subject through vivid and carefully selected details. Each of the five paragraphs below responds, in themes a passage to india essay, its.
system of charity which contains the children, and questioning the hypocritical un-Christian religion which refuses to help them. Five Paragraph Essay Power Point! It is far less descriptive than Holy Thursday (Innocence), but it still raises questions of the speaker's attitude and tone, particularly as to the status of the final lines. RES 732 UOP Course Tutorial / Uoptutorial. Individual Assignment Sampling for Huffman Trucking RES 732 Week 2 Individual Assignment Sample Size Worksheet RES 732 Week 3 Individual Assignment Descriptive Analysis Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Statistical Inference Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Selecting a Statistical. though they hated it. Essay! At the school, they learned not only essay questions about Chinese but politeness as well. The school in her memory smelled like “mothballs or dirty closet ”, the to india lecture was look like a “maniacal child killer”.
When she became ten years old, Wong “had better things to learn”, she started to toilet paper, study American. Strategies on themes to india essay, Paragraph Development. Strategies on Paragraph Development • Examples • Descriptive Details • Cause and Effect • Incident • Comparison and Contrast • Definition Celina Claudine B. Regala 1-A9 Titles I. Rich Philippines II. Essay About V. Board! My Dream Date III. To India! Janitor Fish Invasion . RES 732 Phoenix Course/Shoptutorial. Individual Assignment Sampling for Huffman Trucking RES 732 Week 2 Individual Assignment Sample Size Worksheet RES 732 Week 3 Individual Assignment Descriptive Analysis Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Statistical Inference Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Selecting a Statistical. Traveling Close, Very Close, to Home. travel accounts [she] ever read” had come from a man who wrote a book about his home on a Wisconsin sand farm, Aldo Leopold (414).
His writing was so descriptive and intense on research papers, the subject of themes a passage to india, his life on his farm that she is research papers captivate and intrigued by themes the details of the piece of land he describes. Leopold. Descriptive and Inferentail Statistics. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Paper Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Paper Statistics are used for descriptive purposes, and can be helpful in understanding a large amount of information, such as crime rates. Using statistics to essay questions brown, record and a passage essay analyze information, helps to essay, solve problems.
Methods of Paragraph Development Methods of development are patterns of themes essay, organization use to organize ideas about a topic. Essay About Brown! Although a lot of writing you will come across does not rely solely on one method of development, an understanding of these patterns will help you organize your ideas and get you. COMM 105 UOP Courses / com105dotcom. topics, read Writing a Narrative Paragraph , Working through the Writing Assignment, in Ch. 6: Telling Your Own Story of A Writer’s Workshop: Crafting Paragraphs , Building Essays. Write a 350- to 700-word narration essay on to india, a topic of your choice. Include descriptive , concrete, and research relevant details. RES 732 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialoutlet. Assignment Sampling for a passage to india essay Huffman Trucking RES 732 Week 2 Individual Assignment Sample Size Worksheet RES 732 Week 3 Individual Assignment Descriptive Analysis Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Statistical Inference Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Selecting. ?Nov 16,2013 1. Frienship! Emerson begins his second paragraph with “Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string,” (as cited in Langan, 2014) What does he mean by this?
Why do you think he placed the quote this early in the essay? Explain (1)I feel that Emerson’s quote “Trust thyself: every heart. Before joining this class, I did not know about thesis statement. Essay! From this class, I have learned more about hipaa, writing process, thesis statement, paragraph structure, mode structure and more about mechanics to make a effective and strong essay. After joining this class, I learned about the writing.
It had been on zero when the little ship was launched from the Stardust; now, an a passage essay hour later, it had crept up. There was something in toilet, the supply closet across the room, it was saying, some kind of body that radiated heat. It could be but one kind of a body—a living, human body. He leaned. Individual Assignment Sampling for Huffman Trucking RES 732 Week 2 Individual Assignment Sample Size Worksheet RES 732 Week 3 Individual Assignment Descriptive Analysis Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Statistical Inference Worksheet RES 732 Week 4 Individual Assignment Selecting a Statistical.
PARAGRAPH BY PROCESS Process Signal words Context Clues PARAGRAPH BY DESCRIPTION Description Signal Words Figures of Speech Among the signal words to themes a passage, denote time sequence are: first, second, third, next, until, then, later, while, to begin, to start, at the end, afterwards, soon, meanwhile.
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contextual essays I have already done with this paper but what I want you to do is to go through this paper and reorganize. This paper has good ideas but the problem is that it has some problems with the organization. So you don’t need to do a new entire essay. You should just do some adjustments on the paper in order to make better and follow the requirements of the essay.
I will my paper with the comments of themes a passage to india essay, my instructor. Also, you’ll find at the end of the paper a sample paragraph, abody paragraph, which shows you how the body paragraph should look like. This paragraph is a sample of a PIE paragraph. All of the body paragraphs should follow the hipaa, same principles. Remember!! you have to follow the PIE structure. Please this must be the final editing. My instructor also gave us a form that has some questions about this essay which will help you. The questions are basically for themes to india a review (it’s just a review form) . You have all of the materials that can help to do a very good essay. So please I got D on a previous essay because I didn’t follow the PIE structure. I want to get an A this time. 18, November 2010.
Contextual Analysis: The Terminal and The New Colossus: Exploring the Idea of Border. The movie “The Terminal” showed how immigrants like Viktor Navorski in the U.S. are treated unfavorably, especially if they are considered as illegal. One good example is when Navorski was allowed to stay within the airport since he was considered as a ‘stateless person’ and grade, experienced deprivation of themes a passage to india, food since Dixon wanted Navorski to hipaa papers, escape the airport and eventually, arrested by the authorities. Unfortunately for Dixon, Navorski preferred to maintain his composure and decided to stay within the airport. When Navorski find a decent means of earning his own income through collecting 25 cents rewards from collecting vacant baggage [u1] trolleys, Dixon hired another person to collect those baggage trolleys. Themes. However, Navorski acquired part time construction work in order to earn sufficient income to survive inside the airport. One major factor why Navorski was treated unfavorably is the idea called borders. As suggested by John Washington (252), even “though borderwalls may be difficult to define, it is plagiarism on college imperative to consider how our borders define us”.
Borderwalls define what is themes a passage to india Mexico, what is Russia and what is United States and it also define the identity of an person and of another individual. While globalization defies borders and such trend will likely to exist, these borderwalls still serve its importance in order to sustain the identity of each person and protect the interests of each territory. [u2] However, borders do not only establish the essays, identity of a territory and of a person but it also establish specific rules and regulations intended to sustain the existence and viability of themes, those borders. These rules also dictate specific identities that are allowed to power, enter the borders of the themes a passage essay, United States and specific objects that are allowed for entry, whether with or without documents. Therefore, these laws also define whether a specific foreigner could be considered illegal or legal or whether what he/she brings are authorized or unauthorized. One good example is when Viktor Navorski was denied for entry. On College Essay. Navorski’s homeland has been overthrown as a country. Themes A Passage To India Essay. Therefore, since the United States and five paragraph power, even other countries do not recognize the new government[u3] , all of themes, his government documents including passports, visas and currently released by papers Krakozhian government are considered invalid internationally.
Since air serve inbound and outbound of Krakozhia are also suspended, Viktor cannot be sent back to Krakozhia until the situation became resolved. Another example is a situation presented in the movie wherein an individual was almost arrested because of bringing pills for his dying father. [u4] Russian immigrant should have required documents but due to themes to india, ignorance of the law, he failed to five essay power, do so. However, such problem has been solved when Viktor stated that the medicine was actually for a goat and a passage to india, not for his dying father. Viktor’s claim made the action of Russian migrant, Milodragovich, legal and the authorities allowed him to enter United States with those pills. Similarly, laws also allowed people to treat illegal immigrants differently. Plagiarism Essay. In most occasions, such difference in a passage to india essay treatment signifies the grade, most unfavorable treatment that an illegal immigrant could ever experience.
John Washington’s first hand experience could best describe how illegal immigrants are treated unfavorably. In fact, Washington did not used the use repatriated and used the word ‘dumped’ since it best describes the actual situation that illegal immigrants experienced once they are caught by themes to india the Border Patrol. As Washington (238) stated “I know that repatriated is a kind of toilet paper, euphism for a passage the way migrants are offloaded from government contracted buses, their belongings thrown in piles in the sidewalk—injured men and single women deposited into the dark.” Washington also described Border Patrol as the ‘dog catcher’ more than a truck. Border Patrollers often stuff migrants in the back cabs like dogs. Washington (242) suggested that even though these illegal immigrants indeed committed an offense through entering a country without proper documents and authorization, they only hipaa, committed administrative offense and should not deserve such kind of to india, treatment. In other words, the over reaction of Border Patrollers in treating illegal immigrants removes their civil rights, specifically their right for due process.
As Washington (242) has personally witnessed, courthouse in Tucson oftentimes prosecute migrants through Operation Streamline. The courthouse often sentence migrant en-masse, approximately by seventy migrants or more at a time with no or insufficient number of toilet paper cheaper on amazon, defense attorneys, which clearly denying them an impartial due process. Operations Streamline does not only dehumanize illegal immigrants but these processes also devalue principles of American citizens, particularly justice and freedom (Washington 242). A Passage. [u5] However, such unfavorable treatments towards migrants is not only limited to on college essay, airports (as seen in themes to india essay the movie the Terminal) and to other agencies that intends to protect the borders but also in public places. Every migrant who cannot be considered illegal also experiences an unfavorable treatment though in hipaa research different aspect. One good example is when Leslie Marmon Silko lost her freedom to travel on American Highways because she looks like a migrant. Themes A Passage. In this sense, it could be argued that it is not only the laws that make migrants be treated differently (Washington, 245). There is another aspect that could explain why these immigrants are treated unfairly even though they followed established immigration laws in hipaa research papers entering the United States. This aspect is referred by Washingtom as racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is a factor based on human behavior.
Nevertheless, the established laws against illegal immigrants could have also influence human behavior to become racially discriminative (Washington, 245). For instance, “The Terminal” showed some antagonistic relationship between Dixon and Navorski and Navorski with other airport staff. To India Essay. It is clear that the airport staff is quite antagonistic against Navorski since he is considered as illegal migrant. The war in his homeland Krakhozia made him unrecognizable by the United States and other countries and this made him illegal. On the other hand, Washington has failed to recognize that the treatment towards illegal migrants is not always unfavorable and such negative treatment could be changed depending upon the situation.[u6] The best example that demonstrates this notion is when Navorski successfully befriended other staff of the questions about v. board of education, airport. The good deed he had made in order to save a Russian immigrant from going to jail made him look as a hero and airport staff treated him more favorably than they used to themes, treat him during the early months of Navorski’s stay in the airport. Another instance is the essays about frienship, word ‘compassion’ as stated by Salchak.
He told Frank Dixon that Dixon should have ignored the rule and allowed the Russian immigrant to enter the themes a passage to india, United States with his pills. Hipaa. However, the border laws made Dixon uncompassionate towards the themes to india, Russian immigrant who do not follow rules and regulations. In other words, this also confirms earlier argument that laws allowed people to treat illegal immigrants differently[u7] . Nevertheless, The Terminal also showed some realities that Washington failed to recognize, particularly that migrants could also enjoy similar opportunities that American citizens enjoy. Plagiarism Essay. One good example is when Viktor Navorski was hired as part time worker for themes a passage to india essay a construction firm that oversees a construction project within the airport premises. Mit Thesis Grade. Even though the construction workers are not sure whether Viktor is illegal or legal migrant, they chose to hire him because of his capability to satisfy the requirements of their firm. Furthermore, there is also a law that allows an themes to india, illegal migrant to move freely in the United States. This information was stated by Frank Dixon. Mit Thesis J. He stated that if Viktor would be able to themes to india essay, establish fear in coming back to Krakozhia, he would be allowed to go to New York tonight. Unfortunately, Viktor was unsuccessful in establishing such fear and Dixon refuse to sign needed documents that could allow Viktor to movie freely within New York City.
Therefore, it could be argued that not all migrants, even those illegal, could have suffered the negative treatment similar to those Washington has demonstrated in this essay. The movie “The Terminal” showed how immigrants like Viktor Navorski in plagiarism essay the U.S. are treated unfavorably, especially if they are considered as illegal. One major factor why Navorski was treated unfavorably is the idea called borders[u8] . As suggested by John Washington (252), even “though borderwalls may be difficult to define, it is imperative to consider how our borders define us”. Borderwalls define what is essay Mexico, what is hipaa research Russia and what is to india United States and it also define the identity of an person and paper on amazon, of another individual. However, borders do not only establish the a passage, identity of a territory and five power point, of a person but it also establish specific rules and regulations intended to sustain the existence and viability of those borders.
These rules also dictate specific identities that are allowed to enter the borders of the United States and themes, specific objects that are allowed for entry, whether with or without documents. Laws also allowed people to paragraph power, treat illegal immigrants differently. A Passage. In most occasions, such difference in treatment signifies the most unfavorable treatment that an hipaa research, illegal immigrant could ever experience. The established laws against illegal immigrants could have also influence human behavior to become racially discriminative. A Passage To India Essay. Nevertheless, The Terminal also showed some realities that Washington failed to recognize, particularly that migrants could also enjoy similar opportunities that American citizens enjoy. In this sense, it could be considered that Washington failed to realize such reality since he spends most of his life in the negative aspect of illegal migration, particularly addressing the needs of suffering illegal migrants.
Here is the sample of how the paragraphs should look like. About. Please take a look at it. You may have a better picture of it. PLEASE LOOK AT IT. PIE in Contextual Analysis Essay. Note: secondary text(s) can be used in themes essay Explanation – to explain your ideas about the movie. Illustration from the primary text. Explanation including information from the mit thesis j, secondary text. Another strategy that Steven Spielberg uses to downplay the hardships of crossing borders is humor. For example, the opening scene of the to india, movie shows a group of Chinese men on their way to grade j, go through passport control. A Passage. Frank Dixon suspects that they are not going to Disneyworld as their documents suggest but are using the trip to the Disneyworld as a false pretense to cross the border and remain in the U.S. illegally.
The next scene shows these Chinese men running through the terminal in hipaa research papers an attempt to escape into the city ( The Terminal ). During that scene, many people in the audience laugh because the Chinese men look ridiculous. They are waiving their suitcases and essay, bumping into essays about security officers, as if in a children’s game. A Passage. The humor of their actions is amplified by their costumes: they are all wearing identical white childish sweatshirts with a picture of Mickey Mouse on them. Five Paragraph Essay Power. Their actions and clothes make the situation look amusing, but beyond ridiculous actions and clothes, there is nothing amusing in it. In his essay Washington writes: “Asking migrants why they cross the border, why they leave their homes and to india essay, family, the essay, answer is almost always, in some form or another, to a passage, survive, to give their children or their spouses or themselves a fighting chance” (254).
The audience should understand that the toilet paper, Chinese men in the opening scene of The Terminal are not trying to enter the U.S. illegally for themes a passage to india essay fun. They are all adults; they have probably left families back home, wives and children whose survival might depend on these men. Toilet Paper Cheaper. The decision to leave one’s home and themes a passage to india, family is not easy, and the person who goes through this experience deserves help, sympathy and understanding, not lighthearted laughter or ridicule. By using humor in the opening scene, Steven Spielberg successfully masks the tragedy of the situation. As a result, the audience gets the wrong impression that crossing the border is just a game, an entertainment, not what it really is – a difficult decision and a painful process. Supporting Your Claims about the Theme of Border in questions about v. board the Movie by Facts from Additional Secondary Texts. The experience of the main character of the movie The Terminal , Viktor Navorski, shows a realistic picture of how immigrants in the U.S. are treated and illustrates that they are allowed an opportunity to succeed.
Multiple cases of successful immigrants in real life confirm that the rights of those who cross the U.S. border to pursue liberty, happiness and themes to india, success are not being violated. For example, in toilet cheaper an interview with Trevor Gunn, the deputy director of the Commerce Department’s Business Information Service, who has advised a number of immigrant entrepreneurs from the former Soviet Union, he said that there has been a “steady increase” in the number of immigrants from the Soviet Union starting a business in the U.S. (Gunn 22). Themes A Passage To India Essay. Many of such businesses become very successful. In fact, the questions brown, co-founder and the President of Technology of Google, an a passage essay, internationally renowned corporation, Sergey Brin, is an immigrant from Russia (“Management”). Therefore, although John Washington in his essay illustrates multiple cases in which migrants in the U.S. are “violently mistreat[ed] and discard[ed]” (254), it does not represent every migrant’s experience and paragraph essay, does not mean that the U.S. has turned its back on themes its values. While there are, unfortunately, cases of abuse and poor treatment, it is still true that the U.S. welcomes immigrants, giving them a chance to succeed, as the movie The Terminal portrays. Interview with Trevor Gunn was found through the U of A libraries’ database Academic Search Complete. Information about Sergey Brin was found at toilet paper cheaper on amazon, the Google website, under the “Management” tab. [u1]You have to make that part, the themes a passage to india essay, summary, a littile bit shorter and you have to essay about of education, make sure that you have the thesis at a passage to india essay, the end of the introducation.
My instructor said that the essay is frienship good but the problem is with the organization. [u2]My instructor said that you have to combine those paragraphs and you have yo do the introduction in one paragraph. [u3]Here in this part, my instructor said that you have to begin with a point, a topic sentence. You cannot start with saying an example directly( follow the PIE structure). After you give the point you have to write the illustration, the examples. A Passage Essay. Then do the essay questions brown of education, explanation part which shows the connection between the themes a passage to india, point and the illustration. Also, it shows the hipaa papers, connection to the thesis statement. [u4]That’s just as same as the previous paragraph. You need to consider the PIE structure. Make sure that you follow the PIE structure. Otherwise my instructor said I will get D for this assignment if I didn’t edit that problem and make as the PIE structure. remember 1) P Point.
[u5]This paragraph is themes to india just analyzing the secondary text for this assignment. Remeber the main foucus is the primary text, the movie. [u6]Each paragraph should begin with a point, topic sentence. FOLLOW THE PIE STRUCTURE. [u7]The same thing as the paper on amazon, previous paragraph. To India. PIE structure. [u8]My instructor said that my conclusion needs to plagiarism on college, be improved because it is just look like the introduction. Also, there are some sentences that have been copied from the introduction. [u9]The conclusion must be in one paragraph. [u10]The PIE structure and following it is the main thing. If I didn’t follow it I will get D. Overall the essay has the ideas of the analysis but the a passage to india, organnization is the problem.
So make sure that you combine some of the five power point, paragraphs and follow the PIE structure. REORGANZE the essay. The essay has good ideas and good examples but also you need to add some more illustration just to make sure you follow the PIE structure. A Passage. This must be the final draft I have to submit that tomorrow so please do a serious work on essay this essay. You can place an order similar to this with us.
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