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Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium Difficile. Uniform Interface? Published: June 2014. CHAPTER SECTION LINKS. The term antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) refers to a benign, self-limited diarrhea following the use of antimicrobials. Typically, no pathogens are identified and the diarrhea is caused by changes in the composition and function of the intestinal flora.

Most patients respond to child observation supportive measures and discontinuation of antibiotics. Interface? On the other hand, Clostridium difficile diarrhea refers to a wide spectrum of essay diarrheal illnesses caused by the toxins produced by this organism, including cases of severe colitis with or without the presence of uniform pseudomembranes. Assignment? The occurrence of AAD varies greatly and is influenced by a number of factors, including nosocomial outbreaks, patterns of interface antimicrobial prescription, and individual susceptibility. It is estimated that 10% to 15% of all hospitalized patients treated with antibiotics will develop AAD. Most important, twice as many will become asymptomatic carriers.

Risk factors include compromised immune status, advanced age, abdominal surgery, comorbidity, types and prolonged use of antibiotics, reduced gastric acid, and the length of hospitalization. For example, infection rates for C. difficile are reported to be around 10% after 2 weeks of hospitalization but may reach 50% after 4 or more weeks. 1. All groups of antibiotics may cause AAD, but those with broad-spectrum coverage -- in particular cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, extended-coverage penicillins, and clindamycin -- are the most common culprits. 2 C. difficile diarrhea is largely a nosocomial disease and is the most frequent cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Its occurrence in the outpatient setting, other than in patients confined to nursing homes, is much less common. Prompt Education? 1 Although a few earlier studies have not shown an association between gastric acid suppression and C. difficile infection (CDI), recent meta-analysis suggests a significant association. 3. Epidemiologic studies have shown that C. difficile is often isolated in hospital wards, including the floors, door handles, and furniture; even weeks after patients with AAD have been removed from the area. Less frequently, similar observations have been made among asymptomatic medical personnel and in interface hospital wards occupied by unaffected patients.

Patients readmitted after recent hospitalizations are found to have a high prevalence of C. difficile colonization, representing an important source of infection. Because of the sporulating properties of introduction child observation essay this organism, all these observations have suggested an important role for cross-contamination between patients, contact with environmental surfaces, and transmission via hands of uniform interface medical personnel. 4 The overall incidence and severity of CDI has been increasing since the last decade. During the cheaper on amazon past few years, there has been renewed interest in C. difficile diarrhea reflecting a form of uniform disease that is more frequent, more severe, and more refractory to standard treatment. These observations are explained by the presence of a new strain of C. difficile , designated NAP-1, that produces more toxins A and B in vitro, produces binary toxin that is romeo and juliet essay, of uncertain significance, and is resistant to fluoroquinolones. The prolonged use of multiple antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum agents with poor intestinal absorption or high biliary excretion, induces a change in the composition and function of the intestinal flora and therefore results in a higher incidence of uniform interface AAD. 1,5 The degree of alteration will be influenced by the ability of the normal flora to resist colonization and essay, the type of antibiotic used. Uniform Interface? A decrease in the colonic anaerobic flora interferes with carbohydrate and bile acid metabolism. Osmotic or secretory diarrhea may occur. Overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens takes place as a result of microbiologic and essay, metabolic alterations.

C. difficile , an uniform interface, anaerobic gram-positive rod, accounts for 15% to 20% of worksheets all AAD cases. In particular, this organism can be isolated in a great number of AAD cases with evidence of colitis and in all those with pseudomembranes. The spores are widely present in the environment, may survive for a considerable time, and are transmitted by the fecal-oral route to susceptible individuals. It is considered part of the normal flora of infants and can be isolated in about 5% of uniform healthy adults and in up to one third of asymptomatic or colonized hospitalized patients. Both C. difficil e toxins A and B exhibit potent enterotoxic and cytotoxic effects that are responsible for the clinical manifestations. The mechanism of action is by toxin binding on intestinal receptors, leading to disruption of the cellular skeleton and intracellular junctions. Protein synthesis and paper cheaper on amazon, cell division are inhibited. Important inflammatory mediators attract neutrophils and monocytes, increasing capillary permeability, tissue necrosis, hemorrhage, and edema. Serum and fecal antibodies to CDI are detected in many infected patients. The host’s immune response appears to be critical in the clinical outcome.

Elevated levels of uniform serum immunoglobulin G and mercutio, A (IgG and IgA) and fecal IgA against uniform, toxin A have been demonstrated in asymptomatic patients and in those with mild forms of C. difficile colitis, in contrast to those with severe illness, showing that antibodies provide a protective function. 6. Paper On Amazon? Histologically, three different stages in C. Interface? difficile colitis can be identified. Initially, focal epithelial necrosis, along with fibrin-rich exudates and uk, neutrophils, is present. In the second phase, a marked exudate protruding through an area of mucosal ulceration represents the classic volcano lesion (Fig. Interface? 1). The third stage is characterized by diffuse and define statement, more severe mucosal ulceration and necrosis, often associated with a pseudomembrane composed of fibrin, leukocytes, and cellular debris. 7. The clinical manifestations of AAD may vary from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. 8 The severity of C. Uniform Interface? difficile colitis appears to romeo and juliet mercutio be influenced by a myriad of uniform interface factors, including age, comorbidity, a host’s immune response, and the use of antiperistaltic agents. Bacterial genotype and toxin production may also play a role.

9 The cardinal symptom of the disease is romeo and juliet mercutio, diarrhea, which commonly develops during treatment but may appear as late as 8 weeks after discontinuation of antibiotics. In most cases of AAD, patients present with loose stools, minimal signs of colitis, and no constitutional symptoms. The diarrhea promptly responds to supportive measures and withdrawal of the antimicrobial agent. 8. In contrast, typical cases of CDI manifest with a profuse, mucous, foul-smelling diarrhea associated with cramps and tenesmus. Frank bleeding is rare, although fecal occult blood and leukocytes are frequently detected. The abdomen is generally soft, with increased bowel sounds and mild tenderness over uniform, the left-lower quadrant. Constitutional symptoms are common, and include nausea, vomiting, dehydration, and low-grade fever. Mild leukocytosis is frequently present and may occur even in creative worksheets for middle school the absence of diarrhea. An occasional leukemoid reaction has been reported.

For colitis limited to the right colon, prominent findings of localized abdominal pain, leukocytosis, and fever can be found in the presence of minimal diarrhea. In severe cases, toxic megacolon may occur along with the deceiving findings of “improved diarrhea.” A dramatic clinical picture of marked colonic distention, peritoneal irritation, fever, and elevated white blood count, and lactic acidosis is uniform, commonly found. Hypoalbuminemia, hypovolemia, and ascites are common. Define Statement? A plain abdominal x-ray may show marked colonic distention or thumbprinting, with or without pneumatosis intestinalis. Uniform Interface? Computed tomography often reveals colonic wall thickening, lumen obliteration, pericolonic fat stranding, and assignment online uk, ascites. Surgical intervention is often required, and carries significant morbidity and mortality. 10. Interface? The diagnosis of and juliet essay AAD should be considered in any patient recently treated with antibiotics and presenting with new-onset diarrhea.

Exposure up to 8 weeks before onset to any antimicrobial, including antifungal agents, should be considered. Clinical presentation, laboratory data, imaging studies, and endoscopic examinations are all useful. Uniform? Atypical subtle presentations, especially in ambulatory patients with a remote and toilet paper, brief antibiotic exposure, require high suspicion. Leukocytosis, fecal leukocytes, and fecal occult blood are supportive of the diagnosis but not always present. Imaging studies, including plain radiographic films and computed tomography, are of marginal benefit as diagnostic tools but become helpful in severe cases to identify complications. The cornerstone of the diagnosis of C. difficile colitis is interface, identification of C. difficile toxins in essay the stool. Interface? Culture assays are considered to be the and juliet mercutio gold standard, based on uniform interface the demonstration of toxin B cytopathic effects on cell culture monolayers.

This test carries great specificity and sensitivity, detecting minimal toxin concentrations. Unfortunately, cell culture tests are expensive, time-consuming, and assignment, rarely used in clinical practice. Until a few years ago the diagnostic method of choice for C. difficile colitis was the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), based on toxin detection in the stool. While ELISA is fast, relatively inexpensive, and has excellent specificity; its sensitivity, however, is variable and ranges between 75% and 85%. The other ELISA test is based on the detection of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). However, the test is non-specific as nontoxigenic strains of C. difficile , may also produce this enzyme. GDH can be used as a screening test but must be followed by another confirmatory test. The newest and current preferred methods of uniform interface diagnosis are the writing worksheets for middle school nucleic acid amplification (LAMP) tests.

These may include the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification tests. Uniform Interface? Both the tests detect the toxin A and B genes responsible for mercutio, the production of toxins. They have a sensitivity of 90% to uniform 100% and a specificity of 94% to 100%. And Juliet Mercutio Essay? Only loose stools from interface symptomatic patients suspected of CDI should be tested, as PCR can also detect asymptomatic carriers. There is no benefit to testing multiple stool specimens or repeat testing following a positive test (test of cure). Endoscopy is a rapid but invasive and expensive diagnostic test for C. difficile colitis. Often, nonspecific findings of colitis such as edema, erythema, and loss of vascular pattern are the only findings. In cases of pseudomembranous colitis, endoscopy is diagnostic, because it may reveal typical raised, yellow nodules over areas of normal mucosa or minimal erythema.

In more severe cases, coalescent nodules forming extensive areas of pseudomembranes over a background of inflammation and ulcerations are found (Fig. 2). In most cases, pseudomembranes are distributed throughout the colon and are readily identified within the reach of the sigmoidoscope. In a few cases, the essay prompt pseudomembranes are confined to the right colon. Endoscopy should be used with caution and reserved for uniform, patients with severe colitis of unclear cause in whom a prompt diagnosis is needed. The current guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) for the initial management of C. difficile colitis are clear and widely accepted (Box 1). 11 In the thesis vast majority of patients AAD is a mild and self- limited illness that responds to the discontinuation of antibiotics, supportive care, and fluid and electrolyte replacement. On the uniform other hand, in cases in which signs and symptoms of colitis develop, the use of effective oral antimicrobial agents against C. difficile is often necessary. Child? Although the diagnosis of C. difficile colitis should always be established before antimicrobial therapy is implemented, we strongly agree with the interface current ACG guidelines in that empirical therapy should be initiated in highly suggestive cases of severely ill patients. 11 In patients with suspected or confirmed CDI, the prompt education use of antiperistalitic agents to control diarrhea should be limited or avoided as they may obscure symptoms. Many antimicrobials have been used to treat C. Uniform Interface? difficile colitis.

Oral vancomycin and metronidazole used for 7 to 10 days are considered the first line of therapy by most clinicians and introduction child essay, current guidelines. 11 Multiple studies have reported initial response rates greater than 90% and interface, comparable failure rates of 15% to and juliet essay 20%. 12 Current ACG guidelines for interface, management of CDI are based on classification of disease severity as mild, moderate and severe. 11 Mild disease is defined as CDI with diarrhea as the only symptom; moderate disease is defined as CDI with diarrhea but without additional symptoms/signs meeting the definition of severe or complicated CDI; severe disease is CDI with hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin 3g/dl) and either of the following: white blood cell count 15,000 cells/mm 3 or abdominal tenderness. Complicated CDI presents with or develops at least one of the following: admission to intensive care unit, hypotension with or without required use of vasopressors, fever ≥ 38.5C, ileus, or significant abdominal distention, mental status changes, white blood cell count ≥ 35,000 cells/mm 3 or 2,000 cells/mm3, serum lactate levels 2.2 mmol/L, or any evidence of toilet paper cheaper end organ failure. 11 For mild-to-moderate CDI, metronidazole at uniform a dosage of 500 mg orally three times daily for 10 days is writing for middle, recommended by most clinicians and ACG guidelines as the drug of choice for the initial treatment of C. difficile colitis. These recommendations are largely based on efficacy, lower costs, and concerns about the development of vancomycin-resistant strains. Major disadvantages of metronidazole include a less desirable drug profile and contraindications for children and pregnant women. Fidaxomicin is uniform interface, a macrocyclic antibiotic and introduction child essay, has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of C. difficile colitis.

For mild-to-moderate CDI the dosage is 200 mg orally two times per day for 10 days. It has been shown to be associated with a decrease risk of recurrent disease for patients infected with non-NAP-1 strains of the organism. 13. An albumin level of 2.5 g/L and intensive care unit stay were predictors of failure of metronidazole therapy for C. difficile - associated diarrhea. These patients may benefit from interface oral vancomycin at the outset.

Patients with severe CDI should be treated with vancomycin at a dosage of 125 mg orally four times daily for 10 days. It is romeo mercutio, safe, well tolerated, and achieves stool levels 20 times the required minimal inhibitory concentration required for uniform, the treatment of C. difficile . Higher doses of the drug have failed to show significant benefits. 12 Main disadvantages with this agent are cost and the potential development of vancomycin-resistant strains. We concur with the current ACG guideline in considering vancomycin the online uk drug of choice for severely ill patients and for those in whom the use of uniform interface metronidazole is precluded. Patients with complicated CDI should be treated with high dose oral vancomycin at a dosage of online 500 mg, four times a day plus parenteral metronidazole, 500 mg three times a day. The treatment of patients with complicated CDI with severe ileus or toxic colitis is challenging. ACG practice guidelines suggest the use of oral vancomycin at the dosage of 500 mg four times daily and per uniform interface, rectum (vancomycin enema) at toilet paper the dosage of 500 mg in 500 mL saline three times a day plus parenteral metronidazole at the dose of 500 mg three times a day. 11. Because of interface their potential role in binding C. difficile toxin, anion exchange resins such as cholestyramine and colestipol were introduced in the management of AAD in an attempt to decrease relapses. These agents, in particular colestipol, have been shown to reduce titers, concentration, and romeo mercutio, time exposure of the C. difficile toxin in the colons of infected patients. 14 Although subsequent binding of vancomycin occurs with cholestyramine, the minimal inhibitory concentration for C. difficile is maintained.

Other antimicrobial agents, in particular bacitracin and teicoplanin, were used with some success in the past. Today, however, their use is limited to special situations in which metronidazole or vancomycin cannot be used or has failed. 15. The NAP-1 strain has forced us to uniform take a closer look at the current therapeutic options; therefore, newer drugs have been proposed for the treatment including Nitazoxanide and introduction child, rifaximine both of which achieve high colonic levels and have been used for other indications and others including ramoplanin a new lipoglycodepsipeptide. Tolevamer, a nonantibiotic polymer that binds C. difficile toxins A and B to neutralize biologic activity had promising results in phase 2 clinical trials, but in phase 3 trials it was shown to be inferior to metronidazole and uniform interface, vancomycin for initial therapy; although relapse rates were significantly lower again suggesting the limitations of treating AAD with antibiotics. 16. Probiotics, a group of agents designed to resist colonization and restore normal flora, have been tried in treating AAD. The most promising probiotic agent is Saccharomyces boulardii, a live nonpathogenic yeast shown to have some benefit in the treatment of AAD by binding to the glycoprotein receptor site for toxin A at the intestinal brush border.

When given prophylactically to patients receiving antibiotics in a prospective, double-blind, controlled study, 17 S. Define You Create? boulardii was shown to be safe and beneficial in reducing the interface incidence of C. difficile colitis in comparison with placebo (22% versus 9.5%). Lactobacillus GG , another popular probiotic, has been shown to assignment uk improve intestinal immunity by increasing IgG and IgA levels at the intestinal mucosal level and may be effective against interface, CDI. A recent meta-analysis on the efficacy of probiotics for the treatment and prevention of AAD suggests that probiotics are associated with a significant reduction in AAD. 18. Define You Create? Surgical treatment of C. difficile colitis is reserved for patients with complicated CDI, toxic megacolon and those who do not respond to medical therapy. Uniform? Surgical treatment is associated with significant morbidity and carries a mortality rate close to 40%. Comorbidity and late intervention are largely responsible for child, the poor outcomes of these patients. Early surgical consultation is therefore suggested for complicated CDI and has been shown to be associated with better outcomes. Segmental resections are commonly ineffective and associated with higher mortality than those treated with subtotal colectomy.

Early intervention with subtotal colectomy with end-ileostomy is the interface recommended approach. 10. The most difficult problem in the management of C. difficile -associated colitis is paper, recurrence, reported to occur in uniform 15% to 20% of cases within 30 days, regardless of the initial treatment used. Recurrence appears to be facilitated by the sporulating properties of C. difficile and child, is caused by the same strain or a different strain. The most important risk factor is antibiotic use initiated for another infection before completion of CDI treatment. Interface? Other conditions identified as potential markers for recurrence include previous recurrences, chronic renal failure, marked leukocytes, and mercutio, continued antibiotic use. 19. Uniform Interface? For a first recurrence, the current guidelines of the essay ACG recommends treating patients with the same regimen that was used for the initial episode.

11 Patients with severe or complicated CDI should be treated with vancomycin (125 mg four times a day for uniform interface, 10 days). After the first recurrence, rates of further recurrence are said to assignment online uk increase to 40% to 65%. Confirmation of the diagnosis and avoidance of unnecessary antibiotics is strongly advised. Patients with a second recurrence of CDI should be treated with a tapered or pulsed vancomycin regimen as continued use of metronidazole puts the patient at interface a cumulative risk of peripheral neuropathy. In patients with a third recurrence after a pulsed vancomycin therapy, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) should be considered. FMT is a promising new modality of treatment for recurrent CDI and appears to be safe. In a randomized controlled trial of donor feces on patients with recurrent CDI, FMT was significantly more effective than the use of vancomycin. Essay? 20 However, data from the long-term follow up of uniform FMT is limited. Most of the recommended regimens, although reported to be effective, are based on small studies and should be interpreted with caution. Currently, there is limited evidence for creative writing for middle school, the use of uniform interface adjunct probiotics to assignment decrease recurrences in patients with recurrent CDI. However, in some smaller studies, probiotics such as S. boulardii in combination with vancomycin or metronidazole have been shown to have some benefit.

Tolevamer can also be used to prevent recurrence. 16 In cases of multiple recurrence or refractory disease, consider the use of probiotics, intravenous immunoglobulin, or steroids. However, in uniform interface all cases, contact precautions and strict isolation of the patient is essential for controlling the introduction essay spread of the disease to other patients. Most AAD cases are mild and self-limited. Most patients recover completely with supportive measures and antibiotic withdrawal.

Relapses are unlikely in this group of uniform interface patients. In cases of well-established colitis that is cheaper, probably associated with CDI, specific antimicrobial therapy is needed. Interface? Most patients respond to treatment and recover without sequelae, but recurrences are common. The rates of recurrence in this group of patients vary but can be as high as 65% after the first recurrence. Antibiotic use in the months to come should be avoided unless strictly necessary.

In general, medical therapy is effective and surgical intervention is rarely necessary. Medical failures, particularly in cases of fulminant colitis, require prompt surgical intervention. Essay Prompt Education? These patients tend to be older and suffering from other comorbid conditions. Total colectomy with ileostomy is the interface recommended approach. Mortality in these patients has been reported to be as high as 40%, in contrast with the prompt education minimal mortality in medically treated patients. Preventive strategies are based on the fact that AAD is usually a nosocomial disease. Preventive measures for colonization of hospitalized patients with C. difficile are widely recommended and uniform interface, supported, as stated in the ACG guidelines. 11 Avoidance of paper cheaper on amazon unnecessary use of antibiotics is of paramount importance.

Hospital antibiotic use should be limited and regulated. Medical personnel should be enforced to follow simple enteric precautions and educated about the disease and its epidemiology. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is the most common cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients, representing an important source of morbidity, mortality, and cost. Although no infectious agent is found in most cases of AAD, Clostridium difficile is frequently identified in patients with signs and symptoms of uniform interface colitis. All types of antimicrobial agents have been implicated, leading to a wide range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic carrier state to severe pseudomembranous colitis.

Most cases of AAD respond to supportive measures and withdrawal of antibiotics. In patients with severe and persistent symptoms, effective antibiotic therapy is available, but recurrences are common. Bartlett JG. New antimicrobial agents for patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2009; 11:2128. Cheng SH, Lu JJ, Young TG, et al. Essay? Clostridium difficile -associated diseases: comparison of symptomatic infection versus carriage on the basis of risk factors, toxin production, and genotyping results. Interface? Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25:157158. Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al.

Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 updated by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31:431455. Fekety R. Guidelines for the diagnosis and define statement you create, management of Clostridium difficile -associated diarrhea and colitis. American College of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastroenterol 1997; 92:739750. Gorbach SL, Chang TW, Goldin B. Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Interface? Lancet 1987; 2:1519. McDonald LC, Killgore GE, Thompson A, et al.

An epidemic, toxin genevariant strain of observation essay Clostridium difficile . N Engl J Med 2005; 353:24332441. Tedesco FJ. Treatment of recurrent antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 1982; 77:220221. McFarland LV. Epidemiology, risk factors and interface, treatments for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Essay Prompt Education? Dig Dis 1998; 16:292307. Wistrom J, Norrby SR, Myhre E, et al. Frequency of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in 2462 antibiotic-treated hospitalized patients: a prospective study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001; 47:4350.

Deshpande A, Pant C, Pasupuleti V et al. Association between proton pump inhibitor therapy and Clostridium difficile infection in uniform a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 10:225233. Fekety R, Kim KH, Brown D, et al. Epidemiology of antibiotic-associated colitis: isolation of and juliet mercutio Clostridium difficile from the hospital environment.

Am J Med 1981; 70:906908. Bulusu M, Narayan S, Shetler K, Triadafilopoulos G. Leukocytosis as a harbinger and surrogate marker of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients with diarrhea. Uniform? Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95:31373141. School? Warny M, Vaerman JP, Avesani V, Delmee M. Human antibody response to Clostridium difficile toxin A in relation to clinical course of infection. Infect Immunol 1994; 62:384389. Price AB, Davies DR. Pseudomembranous colitis. J Clin Pathol 1977; 30:112. McFarland LV, Mulligan ME, Kwok RYY, Stamm WE. Nosocomial acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection.

N Engl J Med 1989; 320:204210. Walker SA, Eyre DW, Wyllie DH, et al. Relationship between bacterial strain type, host biomarkers and mortality in interface Clostridium difficile infection. And Juliet Mercutio Essay? Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56:15891600. Grundfest-Broniatowski S, Quader M, Alexander F, et al. Clostridium difficile colitis in the critically ill. Uniform? Dis Colon Rectum 1996; 39:619623. Essay Prompt? Surawicz CM, Brandt LJ, Binion DG, et al. Guidelines for uniform interface, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections.

Am J Gastroenterol 2013; 108:478498. Fekety R, Silva J, Kauffman C, et al. Treatment of antibiotic-associated Clostridium difficile colitis with oral vancomycin: comparison of two dosage regimens. Am J Med 1989; 86:1519. Louie TJ, Miller MA, Mullane KM, et al. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med 2011; 364:422431. Chang TW, Onderdonk AB, Barlett JG. Anion-exchange resins in antibiotic-associated colitis. Mercutio? Lancet 1978; 2:258259. Young GP, Ward PB, Bayley N, et al.

Antibiotic-associated colitis due to uniform Clostridium difficile: double-blind comparison of vancomycin with bacitracin. Gastroenterology 1985; 89:10381045. Bartlett JG. New drugs for introduction child, Clostridium difficile infection. Uniform? Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43:428431. McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN, et al. Introduction Essay? A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in uniform interface combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease.

JAMA 1994; 271:19131918. Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, et al. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2012; 307:19591669. Fekety R, McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, et al. Recurrent Clostridium difficile diarrhea: characteristics of and risk factors for patients enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 24:324333. van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, et al. Essay Prompt Education? Duodenal infusion of interface donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile . N Engl J Med 2013; 368:407415.

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Marin Mersenne: A Priest at uniform interface the Heart of the Scientific Revolution. In late 1644, the Minim friar Marin Mersenne (1588-1648) travelled to Florence and assisted Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) in repeating his famous barometric experiment. When Mersenne returned to France, he shared Torricelli’s discovery with his network of assignment uk correspondents, “giving rise to flourishing experimental and interface, theoretical activities,” 1 including the famous work on romeo and juliet the weight of air conducted by Blaise Pascal (1623-1662). This is one of many contributions Mersenne would make to the scientific enterprise. Called “an architect of the uniform interface, European scientific community” 2 and “one of the most important figures in the history of modern thought,” 3 Mersenne is virtually unknown to essay education, non-historians, although mathematicians may recognize his name from Mersenne Primes. 4. Mersenne was one of the greatest facilitators and correspondents in the history of uniform interface science, acting as a “clearing house for scientific and statement one, philosophical information in the decades just prior to the appearance of the first learned journals.” 5 In 1635, Mersenne created the Academie Parisienne, a precursor to the Academie des Sciences. One of Mersenne’s closest collaborators was Rene Descartes (1596-1650). Both men had attended the uniform, Jesuit College at La Fleche, although Descartes was several years younger. Later, Mersenne would assist in child, the publication of uniform Descartes’ Discourse on Method , and, after Descartes relocated to the Dutch Republic, Mersenne would keep the Father of Modern Philosophy updated on French intellectual developments, while acting as “Descartes’ mouthpiece to the republic of creative worksheets letters.” 6 Furthermore, it was in Mersenne’s quarters that Pascal met Descartes, 7 a meeting of the minds in the truest sense. In addition to Torricelli, Pascal, and Descartes, Mersenne’s friends and correspondents included the interface, mathematicians Pierre de Fermat 8 and Girard Desargues, 9 philosopher Thomas Hobbes, 10 and the churchman-astronomer Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc.

11 In total, Mersenne corresponded with 140 key thinkers from define you create one throughout Europe (and as far away as Tunisia, Syria, and Constantinople), 12 and his compiled correspondence now fills 12 volumes. Mersenne, however, offers us much more. He made several other important contributions to the scientific enterprise, especially in the fields of uniform acoustics, scientific methodology, telescope and pendulum theory, and in the study of the motion of prompt education falling objects. Mersenne is interface, often credited as one of the introduction child observation essay, founders of acoustics. In this field, he pioneered “the scientific study of the upper and lower limits of audible frequencies, of harmonics, and of the measurement of the speed of sound, 13 which he showed to be independent of pitch and loudness.” Furthermore, he “established that the intensity of uniform sound, like that of light, is paper cheaper, inversely proportional to the distance from its source.” 14 His work in acoustics is immortalized in his eponymous three laws describing the relationship between frequency and the tension, weight, and length of interface strings. As one of the most influential proponents of the mechanistic philosophy of nature, 15 Mersenne’s contributions to uk, scientific methodology are also significant.

Mersenne, who was inspired by Francis Bacon, 16 was an ardent defender of the rationality of nature, as well a strong opponent of interface magic and introduction observation, the occult. His “insistence on the careful specification of uniform interface experimental procedures, repetition of experiments, publication of the romeo and juliet mercutio essay, numerical results of actual measurements as distinct from those calculated from theory, and recognition of approximations marked a notable step in the organization of experimental science in the seventeenth century.” 17 The Catholic Encyclopedia (a sympathetic voice, to be sure) goes as far as identifying the work of Mersenne and Galileo in experimenting with the uniform, weight of air as “the beginning of the development of the experimental method” 18 (This experimentation was not his only connection to the great Italian scientist: Mersenne translated Galileo’s work on mechanics 19 and helped to spread Galileo’s ideas in France). In his work with pendulums, Mersenne discovered that “the frequency of a pendulum is inversely proportional to the square root of its length.” 20 He also discovered the creative writing worksheets school, length of a seconds pendulum, and (against Galileo) that pendulum swings are not isochronous. Furthermore, Mersenne’s suggestion to Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) that the pendulum could be used as a timing device partially inspired the uniform interface, pendulum clock. 21. Mersenne did much more than contribute significantly to the scientific enterprise. He engaged and embraced the thesis statement you create, best ideas and minds of his time. In his century of genius, the power of the interface, human mind reached new heights in its ability to understand the laws of nature. Against this backdrop, Mersenne championed the unity of truth.

22. Encouraged by his order and always a loyal son of the toilet paper, Church, 23 Mersenne was operating at the heart of the Scientific Revolution. And he demands the uniform interface, attention today of define thesis statement both Catholics and uniform interface, atheists. “Torricelli, Evangelista.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 13. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008.

439. #8617; “Mersenne, Marin.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Define Statement. Vol. 9. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. Uniform. 316. #8617; Popkin, Richard H. The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes . Assen: Van Gorcum, 1960. 131. #8617; In mathematics, Mersenne also made a study of the online, cycloid, worked with combinations and permutations in his music theory, and edited works of Greek mathematicians. #8617; Collins, James. God in interface, Modern Philosophy . Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1959.

51. #8617; The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar Observatories . Paper. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. 183. #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 316. #8617; Fermat’s theorem on sums of two squares was announced in a letter to Mersenne. #8617; See “Desargues, Girard.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Uniform. Vol. 4. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. 47. #8617; “The Englishman, Thomas Hobbes, first began to develop his views on the physical universe after he made contact with Mersenne and his friends.” (Butterfield, Herbert. The Origins of Modern Science. New York: The Free Press, 1965. 83-84. #8617; “Mersenne and Peiresc regularly exchanged letters, discussing news of books, experiments, observations, and the theories and opinions that were opening fresh perspectives on knowledge of the natural world.” (“Peiresc, Nicolas Claude Fabri De.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography.

Vol. 9. Introduction Child. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. 489.) #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 316. #8617; Mersenne and Pierre Gassendi “estimated the speed of sound as 1,038 feet per uniform interface second, a passable approximation for the time.” (Gassendi, DSB, 5, 288) #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 319. Essay Prompt Education. #8617; “In the circle around Mersenne in the 1630’s the idea of a complete mechanistic interpretation of the universe came out into the open, and its chief exponents were the most religious men in uniform, the group that we are discussing. Education. They were anxious to prove the adequacy and the perfection of Creation—anxious to vindicate God’s rationality.” (Butterfield, 85) #8617; Although an admirer, Mersenne reproached Bacon for not keeping up with the uniform, progress of the sciences (Mersenne, DSB, 9, 317) #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 318. #8617; “History of Physics.” The Catholic Encyclopedia . Thesis. Vol. 12.

New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. Uniform. #8617; “Galilei, Galileo.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 5. Cheaper. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. 239. #8617; Mersenne, DSB, 9, 319. Interface. #8617; Buckley, Michael J. At the Origins of Modern Atheism . New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987. 65. #8617; Mersenne wrote that “the true philosophy never conflicts with the belief of the writing for middle school, Church.” (Mersenne, DSB, 9, 317) #8617; For example, Mersenne dedicated several works to prominent Churchmen. #8617; Andrew Kassebaum is the uniform interface, Evangelization Coordinator for the Archdiocese of and juliet mercutio St. Interface. Louis. Before stepping into this role, Andrew earned a Master's degree in theology from essay Ave Maria University.

After years of skepticism and uniform interface, reductionism, Andrew's life changed forever upon reading Pope Saint John Paul II's writings on the human person. Andrew is fascinated by the question of why science developed in Western Europe at a unique time in history. Note: Our goal is to cultivate serious and respectful dialogue. Cheaper. While it's OK to uniform interface, disagreeeven encouraged!any snarky, offensive, or off-topic comments will be deleted. Before commenting please read the Commenting Rules and Tips . Romeo And Juliet Mercutio. If you're having trouble commenting, read the Commenting Instructions . I also believe he introduced, or perhaps re-introduced the idea of a sustaining creator, on-going creation that has been discussed here previously.. Am I correct in uniform, this belief, -does anyone know? I have read into (partially) his critique of essay Descartes, vis-a-vis their correspondence. He no doubt had an influence there, as well. I was vaguely familiar with Marin because of an encryption algorithm: Quick research only shows he was a disciple of Descarte, but very important for interface the development of acoustics. I like his positions against magic and occult (too bad that garbage is still around today).

Sir Isaac Newton could have learned something from child essay him, Newton seemed more interested in alchemy than physics. I think Gregor Mendel was another important priest in science history. I was unable to find anything interesting regarding his relationship with Descartes, though. However, (and I am thoroughly impressed by your understanding of computers, math, etc.) perhaps with your acumen you might be able to join the interface, club who are looking for more primes. grin grin http://www.mersenne.org/primes/ Loreen: You weren't able to online, find anything interesting regarding Mersenne's relationship with Descartes? Is seems that the interface, two were close friends and discussed metaphysics. Hope this will be of interest. The philosopher wrote the letter on May 27, 1641 at Endegeest castle, close to Leiden, the Netherlands. Essay. It is part of an uniform interface, intensive exchange between Descartes and his friend Marin Mersenne concerning the publication of Descartes’ Meditations on introduction Metaphysics. Thanks Gray. I'm glad it went back to uniform, the French institute.

Loreen: You weren't able to thesis one, find anything interesting regarding Mersenne's relationship with Descartes? and this guy, although he was only a Canon lawyer not ordained: Lemaitre definitely made important contributions, some argue Hubble's law should be renamed after him. You might want to leave Copernicus out, his views were condemned as heresy because they were against Catholic teaching, and uniform interface, the views held in the Hebrew Bible. This ended up getting Galileo imprisoned until he died. Not a good moment for Catholicism. This is when the tables started to turn, and science began to dominate theology instead of toilet vice versa. The Catholic church has come a long way since then :)

But i don't think Copernicus was killed for uniform interface his discoveries by statement you create one the church was he? No, they weren't condemned until after he died. Interface. He died naturally. Hmm that's weird, seriously i didn't know that his theory was considered heretical until after his death. i didn't know that his theory was considered heretical until after his death. He didn't publish his theory until he was near death.

He knew the sort of reception it would get. he was also from eastern europe. Essay. i wonder why it took a catholic from that region to figure out the uniform interface, earth wasn't stationary. incredible if you think about it. Not so incredible if you read his biography and learn that he studied in Italy for several years - where he probably had access to Byzantine sources. Do you also wonder why it took a Greek heathen to do the same many centuries before? so was copernicus not the first to prove mathematically that the assignment, earth goes around the sun? William: There is no doubt that the Galileo Affair is a significant black mark in uniform, the history of the Church's relationship with the scientific enterprise. But the situation is quite a bit more nuanced than usually presented. For example, Copernicus was encouraged by several prominent Churchmen to introduction child observation, publish his theories, and De Revolutionibus was dedicated to Pope Paul III.

Furthermore, Galileo really wasn't imprisoned (see Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and Religion). Finally, as my article mentions, Mersenne actively promoted the work of Galileo. We really can't speak of a monolithic response. I agree, I was warning Mike for future reference, he didn't seem to know who Copernicus was. Galileo was under house arrest, that's imprisonment, just not IN prison. Notice my comment about the Church coming a long way since then :) I think we have to be careful here. It would be easy for someone to equate Galileo's 'imprisonment' with the modern notion of imprisonment. If you have time, I would be interested in hearing more about why you think the Church has come a long way since Galileo. Thanks! Since Galileo, the Church has learned to uniform interface, accept scientific views of the world over those in scripture, primarily the Hebrew Bible.

That was really the problem, a problem many fundamentalists still have (not all protestants of course). I sympathize with your desire to have more Catholic scientists, and I can't speak for every one but I will tell you my central problem with Christianity, I can't believe in miracles. (technically I'm an engineer not a scientist but I think much like a scientist). I think most scientists find themselves believing in determinism, and the rationalist God doesn't break his own rules. He also does not chose a special people (he's not a racist God). Personally, my favorite religion is Buddhism, and I'm not anti-Christian, I just don't think we can say very much about God, he is much more mysterious than even the Bible admits. Einstein summed it up well: . there is introduction, found a third level of uniform religious experience, even if it is seldom found in a pure form. I will call it the cosmic religious sense. This is hard to make clear to those who do not experience it, since it does not involve an anthropomorphic idea of education God; the individual feels the vanity of human desires and aims, and the nobility and uniform, marvelous order which are revealed in nature and in the world of thought. Cheaper. He feels the uniform interface, individual destiny as an imprisonment and seeks to experience the totality of existence as a unity full of significance.

Indications of online this cosmic religious sense can be found even on earlier levels of development—for example, in the Psalms of David and in the Prophets. Interface. The cosmic element is paper, much stronger in uniform, Buddhism, as, in particular, Schopenhauer's magnificent essays have shown us. The religious geniuses of all times have been distinguished by this cosmic religious sense, which recognizes neither dogmas nor God made in man's image. Consequently there cannot be a church whose chief doctrines are based on the cosmic religious experience. It comes about, therefore, that we find precisely among the heretics of introduction observation all ages men who were inspired by uniform interface this highest religious experience; often they appeared to their contemporaries as atheists, but sometimes also as saints.[28] Can Catholicism become like Buddhism? I don't know if it can and still be Catholicism. This doesn't mean that there won't be a place for assignment online Catholicism in the world for a long time, but it is problematic for those of us with a strong cosmic religious sense. In the Galileo Affair, there was a little bit more in play than how the Church interpreted the Hebrew Bible.

Numerous Greek thinkers proposed a geocentric universe, most notably Aristotle and Ptolemy. The reason the Greeks and Jews proposed this system is that it accorded with common sense experience. It took decades to work out the science of uniform interface heliocentrism. I cannot say much about Einstein's subjective views of Buddhism. The passage you shared is nebulous, at least for thesis you create me. Interface. As it stands right now, I am cautious of claims connecting Buddhism and scientific thought. Buddhism has failed to define thesis statement you create one, produce first-rate scientific thinkers, and I don't see a Buddhist culture as particularly conducive to the creation of the institutions necessary for science to flourish. Furthermore, Buddhism, as a non-Western phenomenon, has not been exposed to interface, centuries of skeptical thought and essay, questioning (like we see with Christianity). Out of interface curiosity, what would it look like to you, if Catholicism became more like Buddhism?

Your criticisms of Buddhism are valid, and someone who sits around and meditates all day does NOT make the essay prompt education, world a better place like a Christian who goes out and helps the poor. Probably the biggest strength of Buddhism is its complete absence of dogma. I've always been fond the uniform interface, of the parable of the blind men and mercutio, the elephant when it comes to uniform, viewing God. Sure, there is a fact of the matter, an introduction, elephant is an uniform interface, elephant, but the writing worksheets, blind men's perception limits them so much one thinks the elephant is a rope, the other a tree. Often somethings strength is interface, also its weakness, and the idea that we are too limited to prompt education, understand God and reality prevented them from trying, this is probably why Buddhism never contributed to science historically (but Buddhists are now, look at uniform Japan and Korea). Unlike Buddhism, Christian theology promoted thinking and philosophy in an attempt to understand God better. Arguments over who had it sadly led to physical conflict at times, but it also produced a sort of progress as consensus about the nature of God moved forward. In my mind, however, we have evolved God from a man-like being who walked the assignment uk, Garden of Eden and wrestled with Jacob to uniform interface, a being so unlike man we cannot so anything very coherent about essay, him in human terms, I tend to look at God as being itself. Uniform Interface. This is where I think scientists and Christianity tend to diverge. To answer your question, one major thing that would help is to change the requirement to essay, believe in the resurrection to a requirement to believe in Agape love for your fellow human being.

This would allow humanists and people like me who see a rationalist/deterministic God to join in a shared mission of uniform interface helping to make the world a better place. Romeo Mercutio Essay. Let the person who sees a rope go with what he sees when he looks for God. Uniform Interface. I am not a Christian because I am honest about what I believe. Hell is also a HUGE problem for me. A just God would create no such contrivance, especially on romeo and juliet the grounds of what someone believes (I know Catholics think accurately think there is more to it than Sola Fide, but belief still plays a huge roll). I hope that is helpful, I think Christianity has many things to uniform, offer that Buddhism does not, but it comes with too much baggage I simply cannot agree to. For the record, I find Christian theology interesting, though my beliefs are heretical, and I am largely a Christian philosophically, there is a ton of truth in Christianity, but I reject the idea that it is THE TRUTH. I think THE TRUTH exists, but none of writing for middle us are there yet, and may never be there. I think even Paul thought this way if you read 1 Corinthians 13: 8 Love never ends. But as for prophecies, they will come to an end; as for tongues, they will cease; as for interface knowledge, it will come to an end.

9 For we know only in part, and we prophesy only in assignment online, part; 10 but when the complete comes, the partial will come to an end. 11 When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child; when I became an adult, I put an interface, end to childish ways. 12 For now we see in a mirror, dimly,[b] but then we will see face to face. Now I know only in part; then I will know fully, even as I have been fully known. 13 And now faith, hope, and love abide, these three; and the greatest of these is love. While I don't disagree with anything you say here it is also interesting that Buddhism includes the introduction child observation, Dalai Lama who says. If scientific analysis were conclusively to uniform interface, demonstrate certain claims in Buddhism to essay, be false, then we must accept the findings of interface science and abandon those claims. Sure, my critique was mostly directed at classical Buddhism, and thankfully Buddhist would likely accept the child observation, criticism with a smile on their faces. Uniform. I'm a fan of this guy. He also considers himself a scientist first, and draws only what is viable from statement you create Buddhism.

Let's call it scientific Buddhism. His book Wherever you Go, There you Are is a must read for anyone, in my opinion. Your post discusses topics that have occupied philosophers and theologians for centuries: the nature of God, truth, love, Hell, etc; I am largely unqualified to add anything new to interface, these discussions. Assignment Online. But, when properly understood, I think the Catholic Church provides reasonable answers to these ultimate questions. I wouldn't expect the Church to change its teachings on interface the Resurrection anytime soon, especially when considering Paul's teachings on this central Christian event (a fun aside: it was the Catholic Church trying to determine the date of the celebration of this Resurrection that gave us the Gregorian Calendar and a host of other scientific goodies. For more, see the opening paragraphs of Heilbron's The Sun in the Church). I would argue that agape love is intrinsic to Catholicism and that the Church has been the greatest witness to this love, in the history of the world. Is dogma always restrictive? Then you should praise communism as well. i've never heard of alex f, but thanks.

Loreen: I can't provide a definitive answer to this question, as I have chosen to focus more on Mersenne's scientific work. But everything was interrelated for him. It would be interesting to examine how this possible belief in an ongoing creation worked with his mechanistic views. One of define statement my references for the article was At the Origins of Modern Atheism by interface Michael Buckley. School. It contained a fairly lengthy discussion of Mersenne's theological views. Unfortunately, I consulted a university library copy and don't have access to it now. It seems I was confusing Mersenne with Malebranche. I was thinking specifically of the theory of 'Occasionalism'. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11195b.htm. Thanks for clarifying, Loreen. This makes sense.

As one of the interface, most influential proponents of the mechanistic philosophy of mercutio nature, “In the circle around Mersenne in the 1630’s the uniform interface, idea of a complete mechanistic interpretation of the child essay, universe came out into the open, and interface, its chief exponents were the most religious men in the group that we are discussing. They were anxious to prove the adequacy and the perfection of assignment uk Creation—anxious to vindicate God’s rationality.” It's strange that this receives only a passing mention. We know now that a mechanistic conception of uniform nature does not lead to a very religious place. So if the Thomists are correct, then Mersenne's contributions to introduction child essay, science could well be overshadowed by his support for a bankrupt philosophy of nature that would ultimately lead to many of the various heresies of Late Modern thought. But if the mechanistically-inclined naturalists are instead, his philosophical and scientific contributions are an almost unqualified positive.

I'm interested to see whether commenter approval of his work divides along the interface, axis and in the direction that I've predicted. It's strange that this receives only a passing mention. We know now that a mechanistic conception of nature does not lead to writing for middle school, a very religious place. This depends on how you define religious. For me, seeing the beauty of the universe and understanding its secrets via mathematics has always been a religious experience. But the uniform, God of define this rational universe would almost certainly be diametrically opposed to miracles and breaching his on rules. Uniform Interface. Heck, even if he wanted to, it may not even be possible for him to break the rules. One way of looking at romeo and juliet essay it is interface, that the rules themselves are the actual mind of God at work, if God has anything like a mind. The phrase machina mundi (the machine of the world) was quite common in assignment online, the Middle Ages. Interface. Nicole d'Oresme (later bishop of Lisieux) compared the world to define statement one, a clockwork. But the Early Moderns were living in the first era when machines were common enough to serve as models for a mechanistic world-view. Uniform. (Similarly, Darwin, living in an England of laissez-faire capitalism, had a ready model for his natural selection theory.) Today, the old mechanistic view has been collapsing under the influence of quantum theory, and a new view informed by software has been replacing it.

Context matters. Aristotle had said that anger could be understood in two ways: as a boiling of blood around the heart or as a desire for revenge. (Keeping in mind that neither blood nor heart meant quite what they mean today.) To develop medicines and toilet, such, the mechanistic viewpoint of the first way is useful; but to develop laws and jurisprudence, the second way is needed. Uniform Interface. The natural philosopher, Aristotle said, must consider it both ways. For those interested in romeo mercutio essay, learning more about Mersenne and the contributions of 17th century French mathematicians, there is a short BBC documentary available here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BV5Fl1w9UWM. I fail to see the significance and purpose of the article other than to pay homage to a Catholic priest who made important contributions to science. Uniform. Nor is he the first person Catholic or otherwise who have made important contributions to romeo and juliet, science and humanity throughout history. Interface. relatively recently and in antiquity. These facts of and juliet essay Catholic contributions to science have no bearing on whether or not god exists, benevolent or otherwise, nor do these type of interface articles contribute any evidence to support the define thesis you create one, Catholic claim that god does exist. Color me bemused. Don't you think there might be a link btw a natural law and the belief in a law giver? Wouldn't belief in the latter help foster study of the former?

Don't you think there might be a link btw a natural law and the belief in a law giver? I answered your question. I said No. Since you are the one with the question, I think that you are the one for whom the onus is upon to refute or give a reason that my answer No, is unsatisfactory to your liking. I can see where this circular reasoning is going. down the rabbit hole. no need to uniform interface, respond. Just seems like a reasonable assumption that unless ppl without a scientific base believe in order in nature they are unlikely to spend massive amounts of energy and resources looking for it. kind of like the chinese who developed lots of romeo technology but no fundamental science whereas science exploded in christian europe.

Repeat a lie a thousand times and it becomes the uniform interface, truth. How can a lie even if repeated over and over become a lie? Is this a possibility from an atheist world view? i guess what i am asking is, does atheism see lies repeated often as true bc in atheism generally there is no room for essay education objective truth? Because the repetition changes everyone's perception. Uniform. It is still a lie, but everyone thinks it is true.

Maybe read your own post again and assignment online, see if you have repeated one of those lies. do you think it's true? consider a thought experiment: 2 cultures one which doesn't believe in any god any over riding order in nature any creator and uniform interface, which doesn't proceed as if there is intention telos but just investigates things one by one by one; then think of a culture which believes in an embedded order in nature, a god who set down rules and patterns etc. Seems obv. to me that the second would feel justified in looking for the fundamental underlying patterns and laws whereas the first would have a very hard time convincing its ppl that they should sacrifice resources in pursuit of something that they thought doesn't even exist - think of worksheets for middle how many atheists today deny intention direction telos in nature. That was thrown out of science more than 200 years ago. You won't find it in interface, any scientific essay. how about in philosophy of science? It's not true.

Repeating it wont make it true. still makes more sense to introduction child, think apriori that reality is ordered and regular and patterned than that it just is brute fact after brute fact and on and on uniform interface - all scientists are theists without admitting it bc they assume that the world is intelligible and that it is regular and ordered! Do you care to evidence your claims? name one scientist who doesn't expect to find order and intelligibility in nature? how could that be possible unless there was order built into the system? . whereas science exploded in christian europe. That's the catholicized view.

A proper reading is that science exploded in Europe despite centuries of assignment christian hegemony. It could no longer be constrained by prevailing religious thought. The Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy best illustrates the change: The Enlightenment begins with the scientific revolution of the uniform, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The rise of the thesis statement, new science progressively undermines not only the ancient geocentric conception of the interface, cosmos, but, with it, the entire set of essay prompt presuppositions that had served to constrain and guide philosophical inquiry. Uniform. The dramatic success of the new science in explaining the natural world, in accounting for a wide variety of phenomena by appeal to a relatively small number of elegant mathematical formulae, promotes philosophy (in the broad sense of the time, which includes natural science) from a handmaiden of theology, constrained by its purposes and methods, to an independent force with the power and authority to challenge the old and construct the thesis statement one, new, in the realms both of theory and practice, on the basis of its own principles. but all the early scientists were devout christians, did you know that copernicus was a Canon lawyer? Check out the stephen m barr presentation i linked to; lots of entire branches of science were started not just by christians, not even just by uniform interface catholics but by actual priests! it's amazing. That still doesn't explain why there never was a Copernicus in Byzantium nor in christian Europe the 10, 12 centuries before.

For instance Augustinus of creative for middle school Hippo wasn't exactly stupid, you know. Still he didn't formulate heliocentrism. Only if you systematically ignore all the none-catholic scientists. And before you bring up Georges Lemaitre again: he was beaten by an atheist commie with three years. the chinese who developed lots of technology but no fundamental science But I suppose you define fundamental science in such a way that only western science qualifies and preferably done by catholics. whereas science exploded in uniform interface, christian europe. I'd like to see you explain. 1) why that explosion didn't happen in assignment online uk, Byzantium, a totally christian nation;

2) why it took western Europe 10, 12 centuries to light the fuse. I mean - the decimal system and especially the number zero aren't exactly christian european products. MNb: I hope you don't mind me making a few comments on your two questions. 1) Can you explain what you mean by a totally christian nation? I'd like to recommend The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages by uniform interface Edward Grant.

Grant discusses the question of why science did not arise in a Byzantine or Islamic milieu. One of the key issues he addresses is the lack of education separation between Church and state. The interplay between Church and state has bearing on the types of institutions that may or may not form, most notably universities. 2) Today's feature article discusses some of the uniform interface, issues related to this question. I am not sure that an image of toilet paper on amazon lighting a fuse is the best way to visualize the development of science in Western Europe. Can you explain this further? And when do you see this fuse as being lit?

Although incredibly important, the primary mission of the Church is not to facilitate scientific revolutions. The Church had enough trouble sharing the Catholic faith and establishing a Christian culture! Poland wasn't 'baptized' until the 10th century. Uniform. Christianity spread slowly through space and time. 1) You explained it yourself already: lack of separation between church and define thesis, state. Which wasn't there in any European country either, so that's not really an explanation - rather an ad hoc. Did you know btw that the first European university was founded in Toledo in islamic Spain? Three years after the conquest of that city (and the Moors were so nice to uniform interface, keep the library intact) the University of Bologna was founded. 2) Can you explain this further? You need to ask Mike, not me. He talked about the explosion of science, so it's rather dishonest to cheaper, ask me and uniform interface, not him.

I only used his metaphor. the primary mission of the Church is not to facilitate scientific revolutions Exactly. This effectively undermines Mike's claim that christianity is a necessary and/or sufficient condition for a scientific revolution. Thanks. Of course we need to look at the specific circumstances. There are several that contributed. First of all European contacts with the romeo and juliet essay, islamic world intensified after the interface, abovementioned conquest of Toledo, which was the assignment online, first one to make ancient manuscripts available in western Europe. In the second place the authority of the RCC, which had reached its peak in the 13th Century, had decreased, especially after the Black Plague epidemy of 1350 CE. In the uniform, third place after the fall of Constantinople many scholars fled to Italy, bringing even more manuscripts with them - in Greek, not in Arabian translations.

In the fourth place people started to realize that there was a lot to research due to the voyages of discovery begun by the Portuguese. Circumstances were favourable for independent thinkers. Funny enough the RCC is partly to credit, exactly because contemporary popes were more politcal than spiritual. One of them was highly interested in Copernicus' work; Tycho Brahe, who doesn't get enough credit, never had problems with RCC authorities either (he worked for a while at cheaper on amazon the court of the Austrian Emperor). My point is interface, just, I repeat it, that christianity is not a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a scientific revolution. Toilet Paper. It didn't obstruct it either, though, with the exception of the Galilei case.

But that was 100 years later, with the religious 30 years war in full flight. And even then it's rather a weak example compared to Giordano Bruno. For centuries, Byzantium tended towards Caesaropapism. Although there was ongoing interplay between the temporal and spiritual orders, Western Europe had a more robust understanding of the separation of Church and uniform interface, state. Medieval universities possessed unique attributes, such as courses of study, faculties, instruction by masters, degrees, and charters. Do we find these at Toledo? Also, the manuscripts at Toledo were not the first ancient manuscripts available to Western Europe.

We have to differentiate between Latin and Greek works. Irish monks and the scholars of Charlemagne's court contributed significantly to introduction child essay, the preservation of Latin manuscripts. Greek manuscripts were available to Western scholars as well, although in a very limited sense (see the work of Boethius). The translation work done in Spain and Sicily, however, greatly expanded the Greek corpus, most notably through the labors of Gerard of Cremona and William of uniform Moerbeke (among others, of course). I hope to address your other points sometime soon. Western Europe had a more robust understanding of the separation of Church and assignment online, state. In the first place there were no states. There were feudal entities ruled by interface nobles and monarchs who considered their territories as their personal properties. Essay. Hence the borders changes every few decades.

This is important because it makes the interface, expression meaningless. What matter is the relaion monarch vs. clergy. In the assignment online, second place this totally neglects that the Pope could excommunicate monarchs when he saw fit to. Emperor Henry IV's journey to uniform, Canossa shows this best. In the third place this totally neglects that either the define thesis one, Pope was politcally dominated by nobility (in the 10th Century in interface, Rome) or by monarchs (in the 14th Century in Avignon). It's typical how apologists need to essay, twist the facts to uniform interface, back up their predetermined conclusions.

Do we find these at Toledo? the manuscripts at Toledo were not the online uk, first ancient manuscripts available to Western Europe. I didn't write that. But in the first place around 400 CE there were less available in Western Europe than in the Eastern Roman Empire, simply because the intellectual centra were situated there. And by 1000 CE most of them were destroyed by barbarian invasions and other on going wars. Irish monks prove exactly that: in the 9th Century Western Europe was stunned by Johannes Scotus Eriugena, despite Charlemagne's efforts, which apparently did not make that much difference. Two centuries later all the Irish cultures were destroyed. If you want to know how low the uniform interface, intellectual level was around 1000 CE you don't have to look any further than the letter Pope Silvester II received from the Bishop of Utrecht.

The latter praised the first for explaining that if you doubled the dimensions of a room the volume did not double. Only 100 years later that was radically changed and the decisive turning point was obviously the Fall of Toledo. And that's why it's wrong to hold christianity responsible for the scientific decline since 400 CE and to praise it for the scientific revolution. As for Boethius - 1. he essentially belonged to Antiquity yet, as he was born and raised and lived in romeo mercutio essay, Rome, where culture was preserved until the disastrous Byzantine-Gothic wars; 2. there is no evidence at interface all that his scientific level was the same of Augustinus of Hippo and Synesius of Cyrene around 400 CE. Uk. So he rather confirms my point of view than yours. Same for Gerard of Cremona - he died in no less place than Toledo - and Willem of uniform interface Moerbeke, who lived in the 13th Century. They confirm that Western Europe got an enormous intellectual boost after the for middle school, Fall of Toledo - something christianity could not have pulled off on its own before. So the uniform interface, conclusion remains: christianity never has been a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a scientific revolution. Thanks for your reply. Just to clarify, I am not addressing your claim that Christianity has never been a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a scientific revolution. For me, addressing an introduction child observation essay, issue such as that would require years of engagement of uniform primary and online uk, secondary resources, preferably in the context of a doctoral program at uniform interface a prestigious university.

Until then, I remain relatively neutral. In this exchange, I am interested in addressing specific historical facts. I stated that Western Europe had a more robust understanding of the separation of Church and state. Online Uk. This is in comparison to uniform interface, Byzantium. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Here's a quote from the prominent non-Catholic historian, Edward Grant:

One of the introduction observation essay, major features of uniform Western Christianity was its differentiation from the secular state. Each had its role to define thesis statement one, play and although, at different times, church and state sought to interface, dominate each other, they usually recognized their mutually established spheres of mercutio essay jurisdiction. Uniform Interface. By contrast, Byzantium was essentially a theocratic state. The distinction between church and state was largely non-existent. The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages, 187. He agrees with your assessment that at times (or even often) one power sought to dominate the other. Assignment. This is my belief as well, as I alluded to uniform, in a previous comment.

Church and child essay, state is used colloquially to refer to uniform, the temporal and spiritual orders. This is why there is a Wikipedia entry entitled Church and state in medieval Europe. I am well aware that modern states did not exist during the time period in worksheets for middle school, question. Yes. Uniform Interface. Alas I couldn't find a source today - I'll await evidence for your claim that Toledo had a university. The link you provided in your last comment doesn't even mention Toledo. David Lindberg and writing worksheets for middle, Edward Grant are probably the uniform interface, two most respected historians of medieval science. They don't identify Toledo or any of the other Islamic institutions as universities. Neither does Wikipedia's List of medieval universities. Certainly there were schools before these universities were formed. Mercutio. We find schools in both Christian and Islamic territories.

First of all European contacts with the islamic world intensified after the abovementioned conquest of Toledo, which was the first one to make ancient manuscripts available in western Europe. Can you further explain what you mean? I took this as saying the manuscripts from Toledo were the first ancient manuscripts available in Western Europe. I want to make sure I understand your correctly. By mentioning Boethius, I wasn't making a judgment of his scientific prowess relative to uniform interface, the likes of Augustine or Synesius, nor was I positioning him into and juliet, an historical era. Rather, I was using him as an example of uniform a scholar who made some Greek texts available to essay, Western Europe. This may or may not have any bearing, depending on if I understood you correctly.

I do not doubt that Western Europe got an enormous intellectual boost after the uniform, Fall of Toledo. Essay Prompt. My previous comment praised the work of Gerard of Cremona. I am not addressing your claim that Christianity has never been a necessary nor a sufficient condition for a scientific revolution OK, sorry, thanks, that makes my previous comment largely superfluous. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? I strongly doubt it from what I know, but feel free to reject it, because I'm a total amateur. Church and state . OK. Uniform Interface. I'm just not fond of using modern terminology to describe historical phenomena. That's something I have learned from scholars.

It can be very misleading. I haste to add that many atheist amateurs make the same mistake. Online Uk. Something like the uniform interface, war between science and religion simply doesn't apply to the second half of the Middle Ages. It's meaningless and nobody back then would have understood it. So if you would reformulate it like something as the romeo and juliet mercutio essay, relation between the secular and the spiritual powers was in Western Europe much more dynamic than in Byzantium I would agree.

It remains an intriguing question though why Byzantium did not manage to make any intellectual progress (except for inventing Greek Fire), not even compared to the contemporary Arabian world. My previous comment praised the work of Gerard of Cremona. Oh, it's amazing how much intellectual progress was made after the uniform interface, University of Bologna was founded. those are all excellent observations, thanks. Scientists like Mersenne are the law givers. Wouldn't belief in the latter help foster study of the former? There are quite a few unbelieving scientists who don't need that help. how can an romeo and juliet, observer also be the author? isn't that like raskolnikov writing crime and uniform interface, punishment? isn't that circular reasoning? Gray: How teleological of you! While arguments for and against the existence of God are central to the mission of Strange Notions, the paper, possible areas of discussion are much broader (see the section titles in the website header).

But I think articles such as this ultimately do contribute to the discussion you are interested in, but in an indirect way. An historical narrative contributes to how contemporary discussion is framed and understood. And no argument has bearing on whether or not God exists. Clearly many scientists have been deeply religious, some have even been Catholic clergymen. I have been convinced that elements of Christianity likely played a causal role in the development of modern scientific thinking, commencing about uniform, a thousand years after Christ. But we shouldn't make too much of these important scientists who happen to creative writing worksheets for middle school, have been priests or monks or even religious. In the 1630's even if one was an atheist, one would have likely kept this quiet, and characterized one's thinking in explicitly religious terms. Particularly if one lived in uniform interface, a Catholic country, one had to be very Getting imprisoned as a heretic and potentially facing death for it was pretty easy, as Mercator discovered. It seems only his often travel to paper, Germany and fraternization with Protestants was sufficient to interface, have him imprisoned and we might have been deprived of his projection.

What we do see as science develops, is that any role of Christianity fades into the background and is now irrelevant to science and any field of study, other than theology in the like. It seems the necessary piece is cheaper on amazon, holding the mechanistic world-view, not a Catholic or Religious view. Most of the big names in interface, scientists turn out to and juliet mercutio essay, be protestant in the enlightenment (Kepler, Newton, Darwin, Maxwell, Plank, Bohr), and in uniform interface, the modern era we find scientists becoming more and more secular and at times atheists. These days, and for the last hundred years at least, it would be hard to make any argument that a particular theology, or lack thereof, was helpful in the pursuit of science. So it is unsurprising to find a priest was a brilliant and influential early scientist. Nor is introduction, it surprising that we find no gay, women, or atheist scientists in those days. Thanks for reading. When time allows, I'd like to respond to uniform, several of your points. On Amazon. For now, a couple comments:

1) in the modern era we find scientists becoming more and interface, more secular and at cheaper on amazon times atheists. These days, and for the last hundred years at least, it would be hard to make any argument that a particular theology, or lack thereof, was helpful in the pursuit of science. I think there is uniform, a lot of truth in romeo and juliet essay, these statements. In fact, my next article will discuss this very issue (I can't say for sure that it will be published at Strange Notions). The Catholic Church has become mostly a supporter and promoter of science. A less-than-ideal number of the first rate scientists of the 20th century were devout Catholics. Uniform Interface. This is a problem.

2) Most of the big names in romeo mercutio essay, scientists turn out to be protestant in the enlightenment (Kepler, Newton, Darwin, Maxwell, Plank, Bohr) You have listed a Lutheran, a non-Trinitarian from the uniform interface, Anglican tradition, an agnostic from the Anglican tradition, a Presbyterian, and two more from the Lutheran tradition. It is an ecclesiological error to group all such individuals under the label of Protestant. Plus, you've ignored hundreds of worksheets for middle school scientists who were Catholic. A question and some thoughts that deal with your above post:

What are your thoughts in regards to how particular subcultural environments effect the uniform interface, views of individuals found within a subculture? The particular subculture I am speaking of is academia. In general, I believe that students are more likely to child observation essay, gravitate towards academic environments they are likely to fit into, and uniform, those who spend a large amount of time with those they disagree with are likely to begin to adopt the toilet cheaper on amazon, views of the uniform interface, majority or modify their views to fit in. When one looks at the current cultural environment found within academia around the sciences, you find a cultural environment that is child observation essay, not always the friendliest to theists (often condescending and scornful) and quite open and friendly to an atheist/agnostic/questioning view towards religion and spirituality. Interface. This naturally creates an environment where those who are predisposed towards atheism/agnosticism and questioning religion will gravitate towards the sciences while those who are theistic are more likely to avoid it. Why go into a career where your views are going to statement you create one, be constantly questioned and you might be looked down upon? Students who are theists and go into the sciences in college might end up leaving the interface, sciences because they don't like the and juliet mercutio essay, environment, and also some who stay in interface, the field might find themselves agnostics/atheists by the time they are finished with their education.

While some might become atheists or agnostics due to a serious soul searching (I find commentary from you and the majority of statement you create common atheist/agnostic bloggers on Strange Notions to demonstrate this soul searching), social pressures from the uniform interface, environment they are in might get them to change their views. By the time you get through those who leave the field because they don't like the environment and introduction child observation essay, those who end up losing their faith, you probably don't have a large number of theists left. I raise these thoughts because while the majority of uniform major scientists today are not subscribing to an organized religion and romeo essay, are more and more frequently subscribing to atheism and agnosticism, I believe this has more to do with cultural influences than it does to science. Uniform Interface. Most major scientists are coming out of the west, and romeo and juliet, the west is uniform, becoming more secular. Essay Prompt Education. Those who are more educated and are wealthier are more likely to be irreligious. There are also several cultural and environmental factors that are going to cause atheists and agnostics to go into uniform, the sciences and those with religious persuasions to avoid the sciences. The above paragraph goes into some of these factors.

According to all the traditions and legends, Christianity was born and flourished in an environment that could not have been more hostile. We skeptics are continually assured that during its earliest years, you could be tortured and one, killed just for saying Christ is my savior. What does it say about modern Christianity that its adherents are so easily driven away just by uniform people saying, If you believe that, you're an idiot? It says we have serious issues. It also says that when given a choice, many individuals who are very devout will choose to walk away from a particular environment (in this case academia, but it goes into essay prompt education, other environments as well) and go to one where they will not face the same condescesion.

This isn't equivalent to early Christianity. With that population, there really wasn't anywhere to uniform, go where they wouldn't face persecution. One can be just as much of a witness to God in the sciences as within other professions, but the current cultural climate towards religion and spirituality within scientific academia simply creates an environment that is naturally going to drive many with spiritual inclinations away from romeo and juliet mercutio majors in the sciences. With that population, there really wasn't anywhere to uniform interface, go where they wouldn't face persecution. I don't believe that was actually the case, but I'll stipulate it.

Those Christians had the same option of denying their faith as any student in a modern college. Thesis Statement One. And any student does have the option of going to a school where nobody will make fun of them for believing in Christ. Ummm. I'm talking about majors in interface, the sciences, not a particular college. In general you are going to cheaper on amazon, find a mixture of attitudes at most colleges towards organized religion, but the current attitude found within the sciences is generally more negative than within other branches. I doubt most people would be willing to go to the another college in the hopes of having a more pleasant atmosphere when there is no guarantee that would actually be the uniform, case. Academic condescension is assignment online, not the same thing as persecution suffered by uniform early Christians. Essay Education. What happened in uniform, the early days of online uk Christianity would not be happening on a college campus. Jumping from one college to another does not guarantee a more accepting environment.

I'm talking about majors in the sciences, not a particular college. I have no experience as a science major, but in the science classes I took, religion was not even mentioned except in uniform interface, biology classes. I had to take introductory biology twice. The first professor mentioned evolution only briefly. He commented that some religions had a problem with it but others didn't. The second professor completely ignored evolution until the last day of class, when a student brought it up. The professor took a Bible out of and juliet his desk, read Genesis 1:1, and said that that was all anybody needed to know on the subject.

Years later I took a class on interface human evolution. Statement One. A couple of uniform interface times during the course, the professor acknowledged that some students had a problem with it because of creative writing worksheets school their religious beliefs. He just stated it as a fact, without any disparagement that I could detect, aside from the uniform, obvious implication that he believed those students were mistaken. I'm glad that your experience in your science class was positive in regards to how your prof spoke about religion. Experiences of others might be more mixed. That was sort of my point. If Christianity could flourish in the face of potentially lethal persecution, how is a bit of condescension driving so many students away from their faith? My main point is that many individuals are going to step away from sciences because their faith is going to put them into cheaper, an unpleasant/frustrating position. People generally are going to uniform interface, want to be in more accepting environments and step away/avoid less accepting environments.

An example of another population choosing to go into a particular major in college would be homosexuals going into education, majors involving theatre. Uniform Interface. Homosexuals historically have been more accepted in theatre than in romeo and juliet mercutio essay, many other settings, hence you see a large number of homosexuals in theatre majors. It is an environment that is more accepting. Back to uniform, the point I'm trying to make. Some fields are more open and welcoming to talking about assignment online, religion while others are not, and uniform, the current situation found within the sciences is one where religion generally gets the define statement one, thumbs down. In regards to why some who are in the sciences might end up losing their faith in college, especially within the area of the sciences, we now live in a time where many Christians are unchurched, don't know a lot about uniform interface, their religion, and don't know how to address questions from assignment uk skeptics. Lack of knowledge and a firm foundation in the faith creates a situation where individuals are more likely to lose their faith in an environment that is uniform interface, critical of religion. Experiences of others might be more mixed. My experience constitutes a sample size of one.

Obviously, I can't just assume it was typical. But for what it's worth, they did occur at toilet cheaper on amazon three different schools, two state junior colleges and one state university. My main point is that many individuals are going to step away from sciences because their faith is going to put them into an unpleasant/frustrating position. People generally are going to want to be in more accepting environments and step away/avoid less accepting environments. I hope you're distinguishing the subject matter from the academic environment in uniform interface, which the subject is taught.

If a well established scientific theory, such as biological evolution or a non-supernatural cosmogony, happens to conflict with a student's sectarian religious beliefs, then that student needs to be made uncomfortable, as far as I'm concerned. I am not about to excuse ridiculing any student, especially not in the classroom unless they're begging for it by being disruptive. Assignment. But the professor has to uniform, be able to say something like: What I'm about to teach you is the consensus of the define statement one, scientific community at this moment in history. The purpose of this class is to inform you of uniform that consensus. Some of it might conflict with certain religious beliefs to writing worksheets for middle, which some of you are committed.

You don't have to believe any of it to pass this course, but you do have to demonstrate some level of familiarity with it. If this makes you uncomfortable, I encourage you to seek counsel from your spiritual mentors. But the interface, major religions have well accommodated themselves to define statement you create, modern science. I don't deny that students belonging to such a religion will find, in the general academic community, a prevailing opinion that even their religion is out of intellectual fashion. The same is uniform interface, true, however, of students who share my conservative political opinions, and I see no acceptable way of compelling the academy to change itself in essay prompt education, that respect.

If political conservatives want their views to become more respected, then they just have to find better ways to defend those views in the public arena. So too for those who wish to uniform interface, make mainstream religion more respected. we now live in a time where many Christians are unchurched, don't know a lot about their religion, and don't know how to address questions from skeptics. Paper. Lack of knowledge and a firm foundation in interface, the faith creates a situation where individuals are more likely to lose their faith in an environment that is toilet paper on amazon, critical of religion. That looks to uniform interface, me like a problem that the churches should be solving. If they can't prepare their members to confront their adversaries, they can hardly expect their adversaries to do it for them. Thanks for your thoughts Doug.

Again, I'm speaking about the general environment towards religion within the statement you create one, sciences, not specific religious doctrines conflicting with science. The Catholic Church today is pretty in step with science (e.g., Pope Francis's recent comments on global warming, the church's nonliteral interpretation of the story of creation, and the pontifical council of the sciences which includes famous atheist Stephen Hawking). While there are less ordained priests, brothers and sisters within the sciences today, there still are some and those individuals are highly unlikely to uniform, take a more fundamentalist view of the Bible. It is not just teachers; the attitude of classmates can potentially be even more powerful than that of teachers. Even if teachers are respectful towards religious beliefs they disagree with, that does not mean that the atmosphere within a classroom is necessarily welcoming towards those with religious beliefs.

While I never majored in the sciences, I recall one group of friends I had while I was at UVA. Whenever the paper on amazon, topic of religion would come up, they would not necessarily bash it but they would be very dismissive and at times scornful. Uniform. Whenever I would bring up my beliefs-out of frustration at times-it was total conversation shut down. They didn't want to hear it. They talked about how they were open minded yet whenever they were confronted with ideas about God and introduction observation essay, religion that they didn't like, the conversation would stop and they would move onto something else. Were they mean? No. However, it was at interface times a deeply frustrating environment to be around. Assignment Online. I believe this might be a better example of the atmosphere within scientific academia towards religion than outward hostility/rudeness. Most students don't go around proselytizing in the classroom, but at the same time, they probably like being in an atmosphere where if they were to talk to interface, a fellow student about faith or just what's going on at their church, it wouldn't be conversation shut down with many of the people one speaks to.

For many religious people, talking about these things is just as natural as talking about thesis you create, what you did with your friends this past weekend or a tv show you saw last night you enjoyed. If in the midst of uniform a conversation you started talking about what you did with your friends/family this past weekend or a tv show you liked and your conversation partner started acting like they didn't care or they didn't want to hear it, how would you feel? Another commenter, Brian, responded to my above question and said that religion wasn't really ever brought up in the classroom because it wasn't relevant. Part of what I'm saying is that since many within the sciences don't believe that religion or spirituality is relevant, the views of those with deeply held religious beliefs are minimized and at times dismissed, and this creates an atmosphere that many religious would not want to be part of unless they had a very specific calling to the sciences. This naturally creates a situation where you are going to see less deists in the sciences than you might within some other fields. That looks to me like a problem that the churches should be solving. Introduction. If they can't prepare their members to confront their adversaries, they can hardly expect their adversaries to do it for them.

A very true comment. There is always room for interface improvement with the observation essay, way the church catechizes, and there are some religious who don't do a very good job at it. With that said, I would bring up the phrase, You can bring a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. I've met many priests who have done everything they can to try and get their parishioners interested in learning about the uniform, faith, but many of the parishioners aren't interested. I've been to churches where there are Bible studies on a weekly basis, but you don't see more than five or six people at writing worksheets the Bible study. You can't force people to learn something. There needs to be a willingness on uniform the part of those in the pews to take the time to essay, learn and many simply choose not to. I'm speaking about the uniform interface, general environment towards religion within the sciences, not specific religious doctrines conflicting with science. What kind of environment is there supposed to be? If there is no conflict, I don't see how there is education, a problem. Do you want an astronomy professor saying Here we see the glory of God when he shows the class a picture from the Hubble telescope?

Even if teachers are respectful towards religious beliefs they disagree with, that does not mean that the atmosphere within a classroom is uniform, necessarily welcoming towards those with religious beliefs. If certain opinions are irrelevant to the subject being taught, I think the prompt education, atmosphere is welcoming enough if those opinions are simply ignored. Part of what I'm saying is interface, that since many within the prompt education, sciences don't believe that religion or spirituality is uniform interface, relevant, the views of essay prompt those with deeply held religious beliefs are minimized and at times dismissed, and this creates an atmosphere that many religious would not want to be part of unless they had a very specific calling to uniform interface, the sciences. If religious beliefs really are irrelevant to define thesis statement you create one, science, then you have no grounds for uniform complaining if the scientific community treats them as irrelevant. Romeo Mercutio. If this discourages some religious people from becoming scientists, then it is not clear to me what the scientific community is supposed to uniform, do about it. Most students don't go around proselytizing in the classroom, but at the same time, they probably like being in romeo and juliet, an atmosphere where if they were to uniform, talk to a fellow student about faith or just what's going on at their church, it wouldn't be conversation shut down with many of the people one speaks to.

For many religious people, talking about these things is just as natural as talking about what you did with your friends this past weekend or a tv show you saw last night you enjoyed. Fair enough, but lots of people have interests that are of great personal importance to them but not to most other people. There are ways for students with special interests to indulge them on campus. At the last school I attended, a group of Protestant students got together every week in the Student Union for a Bible study. I went to one of their meetings just out of curiosity. They weren't bothering me, and I kept my mouth shut and didn't bother them. There is always room for toilet paper cheaper improvement with the way the church catechizes, and interface, there are some religious who don't do a very good job at it. With that said, I would bring up the and juliet mercutio, phrase, You can bring a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. If it's thirsty, you don't need to make it drink. Interface. It will drink without any encouragement.

And if it's been deprived of statement you create one water for long enough, it will be thirsty, guaranteed. The church's problem is that when people deny being thirsty, the church has nothing to say except, But you should be. Hi Doug, sorry I haven't replied yet. Super busy with work and haven't had the time to read through everything and devote some time to uniform interface, what u have said. I will get back to uk, u though. Thanks for uniform interface your thoughts Doug.

After reading through your reply, I don't think there is much left to say besides we agree to prompt education, disagree on interface a number of things. I've explained multiple times what I mean about the atmosphere within the child, sciences, and I believe a number of your replies further confirm my beliefs. In regards to your comment about a horse will drink once it's thirsty. you are incorrect. Google things like maintaining hydration in interface, horses or dehydration colic in horses. Horses can die from complications due to dehydration even when they have easy access to a water source. Regardless, it is an assignment online uk, analogy, and one that I believe is appropriate. Simply because a person needs spiritual nourishment and they have access to interface, places/people/events that can provide this nourishment does not mean that they are going to go for prompt education it. Google things like maintaining hydration in horses or dehydration colic in horses. Horses can die from complications due to dehydration even when they have easy access to a water source.

They're in interface, a pathological state when that happens. I was thinking of horses in a normal state of health. Simply because a person needs spiritual nourishment and they have access to writing for middle school, places/people/events that can provide this nourishment does not mean that they are going to go for it. As far as I can tell, spiritual starvation is an uniform interface, imaginary malady. Christianity has invented a disease so it can convince people they have it and then sell them the cure. Google things like maintaining hydration in toilet paper cheaper on amazon, horses or dehydration colic in horses. Horses can die from complications due to dehydration even when they have easy access to a water source. They're in a pathological state when that happens. Interface. I was thinking of horses in a normal state of health. Simply because a person needs spiritual nourishment and they have access to places/people/events that can provide this nourishment does not mean that they are going to go for essay education it. As far as I can tell, spiritual starvation is an imaginary malady.

Christianity has invented a disease so it can convince people they have it and then sell them the interface, cure. Christianity cannot be defeated by introduction child essay attack. Today it is simply being defeated by the truth, sorry my friend. Don't know how to reply to that besides saying I disagree. Jesus has already won with the cross. I believe that is truth. In my experience in university, I obtained degrees in the 1990s and 2000s there was no unfriendliness to theism, in fact the issue never arose.

I don't see why it would as it was irrelevant to uniform, the subjects I was studying. My speculation is that some theists feel threatened by writing for middle school things they discover in uniform, science and history that may conflict with conclusions they have reached on the basis of a religious tradition. If they were to raise religious ideas in a science class, I think such ideas would rightly be quickly discarded as irrelevant and define statement, unscientific. I doubt they would in uniform, a theology class or philosophy class. I think culture, society and peer groups are extremely influential on the conclusions we reach on issues of theism. I think religious and scientific contexts do influence us much more than the creative worksheets, kinds of discussions we have on this site. This is why I think such environments should have reality checks and mechanisms to try and uniform interface, keep the analysis as objective as possible and disregard fallacious thinking. This is basically what I think skepticism (critical thinking) and empiricism do or try to essay, do. Uniform. I think such mechanisms are woefully absent in religion, which is essay, why scientific environments tend to disregard them without need for uniform interface much serious contemplation.

Thanks for your thoughts. Very much appreciated :) Or the assignment online, shorter version: overwhelmingly, most important and interface, influential scientists have not been priests, or Catholic, and theology is paper on amazon, more or less irrelevant to scientific findings. Well the most successful scientist of all time as measured by nobels is still a person who was brought up in interface, one of the most ardently catholic places on earth, years before women even got the vote in most of for middle school europe let alone sat at the same table as the greatest modern scientists! Yup, it was a women brought up in strict Catholic eastern europe at the turn of the 20th century: Amazing eh? She's won more nobels in interface, different disciplines than any other man, ever, even einstein! Mike, Marie Curie forsook her Catholicism after her mother and sister both died, and assignment online, became at least agnostic in uniform, her early teens. [My husband] belonged to no religion and I did not practice any. well i could say something like the culture back then was mostly anti-religion so she had to say she was agnostic in order to fit into the all mall all white all atheist culture, but i won't.

ok my only point is that it is truly amazing that not only did the most decorated scientist of all time emerge out of a traditional strident catholic milieu but that it was astonishingly a WOMEN! at a time when even among most liberal societies like France and England there were no women at paper on amazon her level of achievement! Indeed i think it was another 50 years before a women would win a nobel in one of the uniform, hard sciences! well i could say something like the culture back then was mostly anti-religion so she had to say she was agnostic in order to fit into the all mall all white all atheist culture, but i won't. You won't say what you just said? Does anything said in between the phrases Well I could say something like. and . but I won't get a free pass? If you want a strident Catholic milieu to online, get the credit for Marie Curie, you're going to interface, have give Catholicism the credit and blame for everything else that happened during all strident Catholic milieus. Writing For Middle. If you can use a given theory to explain everything, it probably can't explain anything. Edit: Two words changes for clarity. no i am just saying that the uniform, fact that the most successful scientist of creative school all time came out of uniform interface a very catholic culture AND was not a MAN but was a women! and 50 years before any other women won a nobel in a hard science! is assignment, insane but true.

check our how many nobels her family has won too! 5 i think! that's just incredible. And you're trying to give Catholicism the credit for it. not directly but a world view that presupposes order, pattern, structure, intelligibility helps. i just think its very strange in light of the non-sense myths about the church being against uniform interface women and science that the prompt education, only person to win 2 nobels in 2 different hard sciences should have been 1 a women and 2 from a very catholic culture and 3 to have won her nobels 50 years before another women would win even 1 in the hard sciences. just fascinating. Fascinating, yes. And you're still trying to give Catholicism the credit for her achievements. I'd say she accomplished what she did in spite of the patriarchal religious milieu in which she was raised, not because of it as you continue to imply.

Why was it rare for a woman to achieve these things in the first place? One could argue that it was because women were generally forbidden to occupy any place of power and influence equal to uniform interface, that which a man could attain, much like how the RCC and many other Abrahamic religions continue to operate today. No not directly although i didn't even know she was raised catholic per andrew's comment below: my only point is that curie has still not been bested by any man or women in terms of and juliet nobels and interface, she came from a culture which you continue to accuse of the worst things. anyway they also made a movie: No one is writing worksheets for middle, arguing against Curie being an amazing scientist or against Curie being one of the first major female scientists. Please point me to interface, where I continue to accuse [Catholicism] of the worst things. forbidden to occupy any place of toilet cheaper power and influence equal to that which a man could attain, much like how the RCC and many other Abrahamic religions continue to operate today you do it here but i know you see everything in uniform interface, terms of power and influence so that's understandable given your worldview. Is the define statement you create, content of my quote incorrect? i know you see everything in terms of power and influence so that's understandable given your worldview. What gave you that false impression? Please explain. just seems that you equate an all male priesthood with being anti women and you equate the priesthood with an executive position in a company or gov ie a place of power over interface, ppl.

And you don't see a problem with women being forbidden to essay education, achieve the same level of power that men can achieve? Isn't the interface, Catholic hierarchy similar to the hierarchy of a large corporation? Would you be okay with women being forbidden to be in managerial roles in a corporation? no of course i don't see that as a problem, in fact i see that as one of the things that makes the church so special imho - the lib. protestants are now redefining marriage to exclude a women in toilet paper cheaper, one instance and uniform, a man in another so that could also be seen as discriminatory but that's another issue. i don't know about how similar the corporate structure is to the church but the introduction observation, word corporate is ofcourse latin in origin. if the corporation was say the sons of italy club then no i'd have no problem, why would you? do you think that the major feminist orgs should have men as presidents? that would be not right don't you think? Wow.

This is getting way too off topic, so I'll just say that, Yes, I have a problem with these types of uniform discrimination. yes it is. anyway i think women and essay prompt education, men are equal in uniform interface, value but are not the same/not interchangeable. check this out: the only women in the room, einstein is behind her: Exactly. The only woman in observation essay, the room. I'll see your picture and raise you one. How many women here?

Maybe a few in the background? Maybe? http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2013/03/28/article-2300490-18F8E2C5000005DC-827_964x629.jpg. maybe it's just me but it seems like you didn't know about uniform, marie curie? do you think that all institutions should be a mixture of men and essay, women, so should be comprised of both sexes? What gave you the impression that I didn't know about Marie Curie? Yes. What you call a mixture, I call equality. I don't think any man or woman should be forced into any institution, but I do have a problem when a person is denied the option of interface joining an institution based on define you create one her/his biological sex. Interface. Or race. Or sexual orientation.

Or basically anything that doesn't have to do with one's merit. the impression came from you throwing the all male priesthood card out of nowhere - seemed like you were trying to change the convo. ok so do you think that the assignment uk, institution of marriage should also be made up of both men and women or do you think that a marriage which excludes/bans a women in uniform, one case and say a man in the other is not unequal or discriminatory or wrong? just seems confusing bc you say the church should be diverse so wondering about other institutions too. I can't even follow your logic here. I don't think I'm being confusing.

let me explain: i asked you if all institutions should be male AND female, a mix; you said yes; so i said what about marriages in which in one case (m/m) a women is necessarily excluded and in another (f/f) a man is necessarily unwelcome. Online Uk. Just seems like you only think the church should be gender diverse or don't you think that all kids generally speaking should have exposure to interface, BOTH a mom and introduction essay, a dad? i am just pointing out that you seem to have a bias against the church. I can't believe this. Interface. You think that allowing two women to marry is romeo, discriminating against men? Mike, I can't take you seriously sometimes. There are some instances in which I think it's fair to allow discrimination, such as allowing private religious universities to base hiring decisions on whether a candidate's theology matches with the university's theology. However, I'm against most instances of discrimination, such as discrimination against uniform interface women by one many Abrahamic religions.

This has gone way too far off-topic, so I will not continue this discussion here. No not allowing 2 women but recognizing a female only or male only uniform, relationship as equal to thesis you create one, a diverse one; you seem to feel strongly about diversity in the church and all institutions which i asked you about uniform interface, but seem to make an writing worksheets school, exception for marriages which exclude gender diversity - just struck me as odd. yes and it's late, take care. I don't take Mike seriously at all, this is why I still like Mike. Did you see Mila's comment? She's proof Catholicism needs to go, it wastes valuable minds that could be used to uniform, help humanity. I couldn't have make the essay, point better than she just did if I had tried. I try to give religions the benefit of the doubt, and I don't want to be dogmatic, but how can you respond to stuff like this WITHOUT dogma.

It is so morally wrong it is uniform interface, repulsive. I don't see why women think not servicing others in the Church as a priest is a sign of being less. Toilet Paper Cheaper. God gave me the ability to feel a life inside me. Uniform Interface. Everything else is paper cheaper, straw. No Nobel prize, no career, no diploma, no earthly achievement can compare to that. If God chose women to serve Him in the Church, that would be unfair to men.

It is not the interface, Church that opposes the ordination of women. It is God. From the beginning He chose men to serve. There were no Levi women in the altar. The Church can't go against what she inherited. She has no authority to child essay, claim more authority than God. The problem is that people envy others because they no longer see their value. Uniform Interface. Women envy men, (though in prompt education, the case of women ordination is just an attempt to destroy priesthood), and men envy women. They have each lost their identity and uniform interface, self-worth. As a woman, I can tell you that I would decline being a priest, bishop, or Pope any day for just 9 months of an toilet, uncomfortable pregnacy and a lifetime of motherhood. hey i agree with you mila; btw sometimes i do wonder about how strange it is that no man will ever feel new life in his body and how weird wonderful it is that all of us were born of a women.

God gave me the ability to feel a life inside me. Everything else is straw. No Nobel prize, no career, no diploma, no earthly achievement can compare to that. OK. So the more women we can get out of the Catholic Church, the more contributions they can make to science. People like you make me both anti-Christian, and anti-Catholic. Interface. No wonder the essay prompt, religion is dying, it deserves to die. The world will be a better place once we move past Christianity, you are direct proof. Unreal! Anti-motherhood bigotry is what gotten us into this mess where family is completely destroyed.

Those who think that motherhood is less than power were all born because a woman thought differently. And they have been saying the uniform, religion is dying for 2000 years. I'm still in shock that someone would value their mother so little as to criticize her decision to be their mother. I HAVE never understood myself how this superstition arose: the notion that a woman plays a lowly part in romeo essay, the home and a loftier part outside the home. Lol, exactly how did I criticize being a mother? It is your false premise that a woman can't be a mother and something else too. Interface. Does it make it more difficult? Yes, but check out this list of great female scientists who were also mostly mothers. The Church has been teaching you non-sense for so long you just believe it to be true for no reason at all, it's called a shared delusion. It is toilet cheaper, a matter of social interest how to get the best minds in the right places, and keep them from having to chose between being a mother and having a career.

Work from home is becoming more and more viable thanks to technology. Interface. Instead of pretending something is impossible, let's make it happen. We continue to do things with science and technology that were long held to be impossible. Notice I merely said that feeling a life inside was so incredible that every thing else was straw and for middle, you reacted as if I had said that women couldn't do anything else other than motherhood. As if motherhood was so inferior that it couldn't possible measure up to being a scientist. FYI, I am a woman and uniform interface, I have done both. I know from romeo mercutio essay experience which is more important and more rewarding and more challenging. You seem to take it for granted that all women MUST think the uniform, same as you, this is quite false. I attack you in defense of for middle school my mother, my sisters, and interface, my daughter. If my daughter decides not to assignment uk, have children, I won't exactly be happy, but that is HER choice.

Not yours, not the church's, not anyone's, it is hers. Uniform. You are content for a choice to statement you create one, be taken away from other women simply because you don't want it, that is the problem I have with you. Again notice I merely said that feeling a life inside is the most incredible thing. And you come up with this? What? What? Let me repeat, feeling a life inside is interface, so incredible that nothing compares to it. Assignment Online. I know from experience.

I never said anything thing that you assumed I said. I don't see why women think not servicing others in the Church as a priest is a sign of being less. God gave me the ability to feel a life inside me. Everything else is straw. BTW here is interface, where God said women shouldn't be priests: 8 I desire, then, that in every place the men should pray, lifting up holy hands without anger or argument; 9 also that the women should dress themselves modestly and romeo and juliet mercutio, decently in suitable clothing, not with their hair braided, or with gold, pearls, or expensive clothes, 10 but with good works, as is proper for women who profess reverence for God. Uniform Interface. 11 Let a woman[b] learn in silence with full submission.

12 I permit no woman[c] to teach or to prompt education, have authority over a man;[d] she is to interface, keep silent. 13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve; 14 and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. 15 Yet she will be saved through childbearing, provided they continue in toilet paper on amazon, faith and love and holiness, with modesty. Not only should they not be priests, but they should shut up and submit. Oh yeah, and original sin is all their fault. Not only is interface, was this passage written by a sexist fool, it was written by a darn LIAR. 80% of Christian scholars think the pastorals were written by someone other than Paul, that is well past consensus.

The problem is that the introduction child observation essay, author CLAIMED to be Paul, this makes him a liar. Don't take my word for it, take Catholic resources: For the other four letters, about 80% of scholars think they were not written by Paul himself, but by one of his followers after his death: Ephesians is almost definitely a later expansion of uniform Colossians, since they are so similar in structure and theology, but quite different from Paul's earlier letters; Ephesians was probably written to serve as a “cover letter” for an early collection of Pauline letters. The Pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus) were most likely written late in the first century by some member(s) of the “Pauline School” who wanted to uk, adapt his teachings to changing circumstances.

Note: Judging a particular letter to be pseudepigraphic does not mean that it is any less valuable than the other letters, but only that it was written later by uniform interface someone other than Paul. All thirteen of the letters attributed to Paul are still considered “canonical”; all of them are still part of the Holy Bible and creative writing for middle school, foundational for the Christian Church. Distinguishing the interface, letters based on actual authorship, however, allows scholars to observation, see more clearly the interface, development of early Christian theology and practice. What you just said, your view, is the result of deception. It's despicable and if God has a mind, he can't be pleased with that. Toilet Cheaper. This isn't to say that men and women aren't different, we know that, it is about opportunity and interface, Justice. Essay. I oppose Christianity for its injustices.

OTOH, there are very good things in Christianity, one of which is considering divorce wrong, a breach of a promise. In many ways I'm a philosophical Christian, but I dogmatically reject the Church's view of women, and the self. In fact, if you go to Paul's actual words, they aren't bad, but it is almost the polar opposite of the view of whoever wrote 1 Timothy. Uniform. Look at 1 Cor 7. 7 Now concerning the prompt, matters about which you wrote: “It is well for a man not to touch a woman.” 2 But because of cases of sexual immorality, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband. 3 The husband should give to uniform interface, his wife her conjugal rights, and likewise the wife to her husband. 4 For the wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does; likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. 5 Do not deprive one another except perhaps by essay prompt agreement for uniform a set time, to devote yourselves to prayer, and then come together again, so that Satan may not tempt you because of online your lack of uniform interface self-control.

6 This I say by way of concession, not of command. 7 I wish that all were as I myself am. But each has a particular gift from God, one having one kind and another a different kind. 8 To the unmarried and the widows I say that it is well for them to remain unmarried as I am. Writing Worksheets For Middle School. 9 But if they are not practicing self-control, they should marry.

For it is better to marry than to be aflame with passion. 10 To the married I give this command—not I but the Lord—that the wife should not separate from uniform interface her husband 11 (but if she does separate, let her remain unmarried or else be reconciled to her husband), and that the husband should not divorce his wife. I hope you feel the Catholic Church betrayed you, Christianity as a whole betrayed women with lies. I didn't realize you would get so defensive for stating that to assignment uk, feel a life inside is way more incredible than anything else. That nothing can compare to it.

My bad, I guess I can't expect someone who can't to uniform, even relate to it. You don't like my opinion, how I feel, then great. Because I was expressing based on prompt my own experience what I feel is the most incredible thing. I would expect anyone to respect me as a woman to feel like that. And the interface, Catholic Church or Christianity didn't betray women. Those who devalue the online, main attributes of women actually do.

The problem is uniform interface, that some women and men think that working in a cubicle is somehow more dignified than being a mother. Online. The problem is in uniform, how society values mothers. And I used to think that the Church and Christianity had actually betrayed me also, but after many years of worksheets school being in the world that supposedly promised equality, I realize that it was only the equality to be a slave. That the perception of society was so twisted that it actually devalues the main and most important thing women do by virtue of her own nature. On the other hand, the Church elevate women to not just be contributors in a workforce but also that they are mothers. But of course, if someone doesn't see motherhood as the uniform interface, important role it plays in define thesis statement, society, they wouldn't understand it.

I, myself, rather be a mother than anything else. Everything else is interface, straw compared to motherhood. If you knew what it feels like to feel a life inside maybe you would understand. I know most women feel like this too. I think you should respect women who do not hold the writing for middle school, trendy perception that somehow working in an office is more dignified than being a mother. As a woman, I can tell you that it is uniform, very disrespectful to women to writing worksheets, say that her own nature of motherhood is inferior and thus they need to prove themselves to be great by uniform interface becoming great scientist or inventors. Women can do that too. Nobody says anything against that. I mainly said that being a mother tops them all. Whatever you need to tell yourself to sleep at night. I think the Catholic Church would have made WAY better decisions if it had allowed women in define statement you create one, the priesthood a long time ago.

I've excellent experience with teams composed of both men and women. Uniform. Groups entirely composed of men create specific problems, and groups entirely composed of women have specific problems that groups composed of both do not. Women help a great deal with group cohesion. Check out this study that showed more women than men improved group intelligence, but all women tends to have a negative effect compared to a diversified group. Mental diversity has profound benefits when it comes to creativity. The Church obviously has no interest in creativity, of course, only authority. Sad really. Perhaps Catholics need to start rethinking their stances to reverse this profound trend:

P.S. You attempt to toilet paper cheaper, say I was attacking mothers is a straw man if there ever was one. Anyone can tear down a straw man. Easy william, you're just being offensive now! I know, I'm done now. The idea that sexism is of God really ticks me off in case you can't tell ;) If the women were allowed to be priests who would wash all the vestments and arrange the flowers ? You're mistaken that only uniform interface, women do this work.

For example, in my church the essay education, priest washes his own vestments (dry cleaners). Or in a monastery, men would do this work. But to answer your question- it wouldn't change things, whomever is interface, doing the work now. This is why i always look forward to what you have to contribute bc it's always tinged with a genuine affection for sincere dialogue and mutual respect ;) To be honest, Mike, I never feel genuineness, sincerity, and prompt, mutual respect from you; rather, I see question-dodging, goalpost-moving, and word-twisting that I'm doubting can be attributable to simple misunderstanding. so you still think that all male marriages are ok but not an all male priesthood? ;) dude, take it easy! i am just trying to decipher things same as you. but i think i am following the logic a bit more closely if i may say so. ps did you get to mass today? believe it or not for the first time in my uber lefty parish i heard the priest mention BOTH chesteron and lewis, weird! This is precisely what I'm talking about. maybe you need more time to figure out just what you believe about gender diversity? No, Mike.

It's really quite simple and I'm astounded that you can't understand: I'm generally against forbidding people from having the uniform, same rights as other people. In the RCC, women do not have the same rights as men; they cannot preside over men as men can preside over creative for middle, women, which subjugates women based solely on interface their biological sex. This asymmetry is a problem for child observation essay me. Interface. In the US, same-sex couples are forbidden from having the same rights as male-female couples. This is also a problem for me. i know that that's what you think; i just think you can't hold both positions at the same time as they are contradictory imho. i think you make an creative writing school, exception for an all male marriage bc of uniform your politics and condemn the church for an all male priesthood bc it's what your politics dictate. my point was that your criticism of the rcc's priesthood is political nothing more - which is fine your opinion is just that.

seriously though don't you think that all households especially those with little kids ought to romeo and juliet, ideally be diverse be a mix of both sexes be a place where ppl learn that both are required and interface, that gender diversity is a real strength not a weakness? actually never mind don't answer as we're getting way off topic. anyway thx again for the exchange and let's catch up again on another thread. If you knew that's what I thought, why did you play dumb? My worldview dictates my politics, not the toilet paper cheaper on amazon, other way around. which subjugates women btw this is interface, really kinda rude to catholics, just in case you were wondering. especially to assignment uk, female catholics. but a world view that presupposes order, pattern, structure, intelligibility helps. And Catholicism is the only world view incorporating that presupposition? no but atheism imho can not account for those things in fact it denies them - it proceeds brute fact by brute fact by brute fact on and on and on without end. atheism imho can not account for those things. Atheism is not a world view, and it is not supposed to account for anything.

what's the point of it then? Mike, we've had this conversation before; multiple times. Uniform Interface. Don't you remember? no, really if there's no worldview no implications what's the point? How about to distinguish ourselves from theists? You're asking more of the term than it was coined to describe. When someone tells you something you don't believe, what is your point when you say, I don't believe that? depends on what it is if it's trivial i just move on but you folks don't just move on right? which makes me q your saying that's there's nothing more to it bc to me and many many others it's clear: your goal is to convince ppl to stop believing. Essay Education. which i think is uniform interface, cruel and immoral but again that's a whole other topic. btw atheism would have a MUCH more positive image if it started BUILDING UP rather than trying to tear down and creative for middle, everyone knows it. Interface. also i'd say it should start by trying to toilet paper on amazon, recruit women as all the leading lights are men and sort of frat boy men on top of that. Atheism is not a world view, and interface, it is not supposed to account for anything. what's the thesis statement, point of it then?

When someone tells you something you don't believe, what is your point when you say, I don't believe that? depends on what it is if it's trivial i just move on OK, but I don't think belief in God is trivial, and I suspect you don't, either. but you folks don't just move on right? which makes me q your saying that's there's nothing more to it bc to me and many many others it's clear: your goal is to interface, convince ppl to stop believing. which i think is cruel and immoral but again that's a whole other topic. The more to assignment online, it is not in atheism itself. Uniform. It's in for middle school, the reasons we have for being atheists, and those reasons vary from one atheist to another. Many of us are atheists because we espouse a scientifically rational worldview, and we think theism is inconsistent with scientific rationalism.

But obviously, there are quite a few scientists out there in the world who beg to differ with us. btw atheism would have a MUCH more positive image if it started BUILDING UP rather than trying to tear down and everyone knows it… In atheism per se, there is nothing to build on. In science and reason, though, I think there is all we need to build a better world than the one we're living in now. also i'd say it should start by trying to recruit women as all the leading lights are men and sort of frat boy men on top of that. Plenty of atheists are working very hard to change that, but the atheist community is just as human as any other community. People who say they are committed to science and reason don't always act as if they really were, and uniform, atheist advocates for social justice are no exception. have you ever wondered more in depth about why the loud mouths are all men and excuse me but stereotypically well to do white men? besides that tyson guy it's all sort of frat boy -esque rich white dudes who imho kind of statement you create can afford to reject traditional religion bc they're all super educated intelligent and basically rich. i get the appeal if you're also rich secular and white in a big city but if things aren't all going well for you i wonder what the appeal is of a bunch of guys basically telling your a dummy red neck if you believe in sky fairies - just comes as very insulting to ALOT of ppl. have you ever wondered more in depth about why the uniform interface, loud mouths are all men and excuse me but stereotypically well to do white men? No, I haven't wondered much about that, because I don't think the essay, main problem with loudmouths is who they are.

I think the main problem is why the mainstream media gives most of its attention to loudmouths. but if things aren't all going well for you i wonder what the appeal is of a bunch of guys basically telling your a dummy red neck if you believe in sky fairies - just comes as very insulting to ALOT of ppl. Yes, it's insulting, and gratuitously so, in my judgment. I think religious skeptics who want to have a positive effect on interface society need to be giving some serious thought to finding better ways to get some attention. And some of us are trying.

You can see a few instances of it in a conference of prominent skeptics that was held about nine years ago. You can watch it at http://thesciencenetwork.org/programs/beyond-belief-science-religion-reason-and-survival. You need to child essay, update your information. Interface. Although Ms. Introduction. Curie was the first to win two Nobels, and in interface, different disciplines, you are incorrect in your closing remarks.

Linus Pauling, the great Cal Tech chemist, who lost the creative writing worksheets for middle school, race with Messrs. Crick, Watson, Wilkens and Ms. Franklin to unravel the structure of DNA, also one two Nobels in different disciplines, Chemistry in '54 and Peace in '62. He happens to uniform interface, be the only laureate, to my knowledge, to assignment online, have two unshared Nobels. Two others have also won two Nobels, albeit both shared and both in the same discipline: John Bardeen in '55 and '72 in Physics and Frederick Sanger in '58 and uniform, '80 in Chemistry. While it would be of more import to have any of the actual scientists or historians of science not banned by and juliet essay SN to interface, weigh in on creative worksheets for middle school this topic -- Michael Murray or Paul Brandon Rimmer, help -- let me venture the suggestion that probably few serious and knowledgeable scientists regard the number of uniform Nobels awarded to be a useful metric of essay education a scientist's historic stature and overall contributions. While not diminishing Ms. Curie's substantial contributions, I doubt many scientists would regard her overall contributions to the development of science and the state of human knowledge on a par with, say, Newton's, Einstein's, Bohr's, Darwin's, Faraday's or Maxwell's or, for that matter, Pauling's.

She's still the only person to win 2 nobels in 2 hard science fields! and the only women! btw you sound a bit like your downplaying her bc she was a women - did you know that she was voted the uniform, most important female scientist of all time recently in creative writing for middle school, britain? In response to the question you pose, I did not know that, and I thank you for bringing it to my attention. it is uniform interface, none too charitable on writing for middle your part to suggest that I was. downplaying [Ms. Uniform Interface. Curie] because she was a woman. You know nothing. about me on which to thesis statement one, base such a charge. Nor did I say anything in my.

original post from which you could fairly infer that. I'd invite you to. reread my earlier post. That other scientists and uniform interface, historians of. science engaging in the parlor game of prompt education ranking scientists in a Top 20. of All-Time type list might place several other scientists, who. happened to be men, higher on their list than Ms.

Curie hardly. demonstrates sexism or the downplaying of women. It is possible that it. might, for some (consider, for example, the manner in which James. Watson wrote about Rosalind Franklin's contributions to the discovery of. the structure of DNA in his book, The Double Helix), but wouldn't you. actually have to uniform interface, know something about the person making the list and the.

reasons they offered for ranking scientists as they did before you. leveled such a charge? Don't you suppose it is essay education, possible that it. simply reflects the uniform interface, list maker's judgment about the assignment uk, significance and. importance of the overall contributions made by individual scientists. over the course of uniform interface their careers, regardless of their gender, race, ethnicity or nationality or whether or not they happened to be religious. thanks that's great to know that you think she may not be as important as other ppl who happen to essay education, be white men who've only ever won nobels in ONE category. Uniform Interface. but i really don't care one way or another how important this women is to essay, science all i know is that to interface, my surprise bc i too only recently found out how astonishing her career was, she remains the writing school, only PERSON to uniform interface, win in 2 Hard Sciences nobel categories! still not 1 man has won 2 in different sciences! anyway my only point is that she emerged out of a strident catholic culture and became and is still the most successful scientist of all time. ps you just listed all these men at the end of your post, but when i looked them up none had won 2 nobels in 2 different fields so it just seemed like you were more enamored of toilet cheaper them bc they were men bc some of interface them were maybe agnostic too like her.

I'd invite you to read more carefully before you leap to making unfounded charges and misrepresenting others, as you have done, once again, in the first and the concluding sentences in your most recent post. If you're looking for someone to demean or diminish Ms. Curie's contributions because she happened to be a woman, you need to toilet paper cheaper on amazon, cast your net elsewhere. Without doing a thorough survey, I'd venture the guess that a great many, and probably the uniform, majority, of Greatest Scientists of All Time type (knowledgeable) polls will list Ms. Curie in essay, the top 10, almost all will list her in the top 20, and a number may list in her in uniform interface, the top 5. But, I'm not a historian of scientist and in no position to evaluate such things independently myself. Are you? I'd invite you to think for a moment as to why it may be that Messrs.

Newton, Faraday, Maxwell and Darwin never managed to win even a single Nobel, and why the fact that none of them has a Nobel to his credit doesn't keep them out assignment online, of the top dozen or so in most of uniform these kinds of lists and writing for middle school, why Newton somehow manages to be placed in interface, the top spot in education, most such lists even though he won two fewer Nobels than Ms. Uniform Interface. Curie and assignment online, Messrs. Uniform. Pauling, Bardeen and Sanger. As to mercutio, the speculation in your closing paragraph, if you go check more than a few polls of the greatest scientists of all time variety, you might gain actual insight as to why I bothered to list Messrs. Newton, Einstein, Bohr, Darwin, Faraday and uniform, Maxwell. Hint: it has nothing to do with the fact that they all happened to be white men, nor with the fact that none of them happened to be Catholic. Finally, even if it was the case that a majority of the define thesis statement you create, Polish population at the turn of the 20th Century might have been baptized Catholic or otherwise self-identified as Catholics, it is hard to interface, see what that has to do with Ms. Curie's immense contributions to science, given her own statements regarding religion and religious faith. Because you seem impressed by the number of Nobels won and assignment online, ranking in interface, Top __ type lists, it might prove an toilet cheaper on amazon, interesting research project for you to look into uniform, the backgrounds of all the Nobel laureates in the hard sciences and the scientists whose names often appear in assignment online uk, the top 20 or 30 (or wherever you chose to draw the cut-off line) of greatest scientists lists and determine how many identified themselves as devout Catholics and, of those, how many attributed their scientific contributions to the nature of their religious beliefs (as opposed to, say, their devotion to the scientific method as a means of producing knowledge, and their willingness to consider with an open mind where the uniform, evidence took them, rather than knowing what the answers were a priori based on their religious faith). ok, thanks for that but i still think you're over analyzing this; my only point in bringing her up was to make the point that she emerged out of one of the define thesis one, most catholic cultures of that era and she was a WOMEN! it just explodes the non-sense about uniform interface, catholicism and it's influence ambient or otherwise being in any way against education women or science. do you know of any other women usually listed in the top 10 scientists of all time? i checked and there doesn't seem to uniform, be even 1. don't get all hopped up though it just seemed like you were downplaying her without need; that was just my impression - just seemed like if it had been a man from say england who'd won those 2 in 2 different sciences and whose family had won 5 you'd've had a different reaction.

anyway thx for uk the exchange and interface, all the best. As far as I can tell, the Catholicism of Marie Curie's youth had little to no influence on her contributions to chemistry and physics. I don't think we can extract anything meaningful from the romeo and juliet mercutio essay, fact that she was from Poland. And her two Nobel Prizes, although incredibly impressive, are not necessarily indicative of uniform interface her scientific prowess relative to other 20th century scientists. was she even raised catholic? my only point is that the greatest female scientist of all time emerged from a culture steeped in catholicism and of the latin rite late 19th century variety to boot! Why do you think you could extract something from her being from Poland? it's the catholic culture that seems interesting to me not the nationality. Not indicative of her prowess? that's a strange way of putting it imho; check this out: apparently the essay prompt, movie did quit well too: Catholic mathematicians and philosophers such as John Buridan, Nicole Oresme and uniform, Roger Bacon as the founders of modern science. Essay Education. Pierre Duhem, Historian of Science.

What are you trying to say by referring to these people? I don't understand? Though I imagine that you are trying to say something in defense of Catholicism, though I can't imagine what. No one here denies the interface, contribution of Catholic contribution to science and art to the human race. Check out this presentation i think you might enjoy it: lots of introduction observation actual priests made fundamental scientific discoveries: Barr's main theme is that Christian faith in a rational author of nature led Europeans to believe that unchanging and universal natural laws existed and motivated many, especially priests, to seek out and uniform interface, discover these laws. The great scientists are western and not oriental, because in the orient there was no belief in a rational author of nature who established universal laws and therefore no impetus towards discovering those laws. This effectively seals the discussion.

Without belief in an author of natural laws - without belief that natural laws existed in romeo and juliet essay, principle - there would have been no incentive to search for those laws and science would be centuries behind what it is today. No one here denies the contribution of Catholics to uniform, science . . . Statement. . According to Duhem and interface, the OP, they did more than just contribute to it. We are to believe that their work was indispensable to its modern existence. What are you trying to say by referring to these people? I don't understand? Though I imagine that you are trying to say something in introduction child observation essay, defense of Catholicism, though I can't imagine what. Interface. No one here denies the online uk, contribution of Catholic contribution to science and uniform, art to the human race.

Ah Mersenne Primes. There was a time when you could write them down on introduction observation essay a large number of pages and interface, I used to mercutio, show the latest ones to interface, my classes. There is a distributed internet program to hunt for them. Unfortunately they got big and assignment online uk, the latest one has 17 million digits. Interface. No scrolling through that in child observation essay, front a class. Yeah, rounding a prime number kinda ruins it doesn't it? According to Wikipedia it would take 4,647 pages to display. That would take hours.

16 MB text file. Looks like this with some extra numbers where the dots are. so at uniform least we can check it can't be divided by 2 ! I was having a bad hair day when that woodcut was made.

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alain briot essays As a digital photographer, if you haven’t been asked this question you eventually will: “Do you manipulate your photographs?” Sometimes it comes under another aspect: “Do you change the colors?” And occasionally it goes straight to the heart of the matter: “Is this real?” There is interface a certain percentage of the public who believes that fine art photographs must represent reality. Define? There are people who do not know that there are differences between what they see and what the camera captures. Finally, there are individuals who do not understand that a photograph is a two dimensional representation of reality and not reality itself because reality is far more complex, perceived by us through five senses and not just one. Some people are willing to uniform change their minds when these things are explained to them. Others have their minds made up and do not want to be bothered by the facts. Those are the ones that I am referring to in this essay. The people in paper, this last category not only believe that photographs must represent reality, they also believe that to achieve this photographs must be unaltered. Uniform Interface? They believe that a photograph must be printed exactly the way it comes out of the camera. While this may be true for online uk, certain types of interface technical photographs, when it comes to art and to my work I believe the online uk exact opposite to be true, namely that photographs must be altered in one way or another in order to have a chance to uniform represent the reality that I perceive.

My premise for this essay is that a fine art photograph, created by an artist with the goal of expressing himself or herself, is a representation of prompt this artist’s view of reality - a representation of this artist’s vision - and not a representation of the world as others may see it. Uniform Interface? This can be a blessing or a crime, depending on your opinion regarding this matter. Eventually, this is a matter of opinion. Personally, my opinion is observation that a photograph cannot capture reality as we experience it physically and I can back it up with facts (I do so in my other essays on this subject including Of Cameras and Art and The Eye and the Camera ). However, I found that debating this point with people who do not agree with me isn’t necessarily the smartest decision. So, I propose a different approach, one that works well for me. A little bit of history. For a long time I didn’t know what to say when confronted by people asking me if my work was real, if I manipulated the colors, or if I changed something in uniform interface, the scenes I photographed. In fact, as a fledging artist unsure of where I stood, I felt threatened by toilet paper on amazon these questions and was more concerned with defending myself than with anything else.

At that time I believed that explaining my artistic approach would help. So I answered by saying that this - the uniform color changes, the manipulations, the modifications I made to the image - were representative of my style and that my goal was to show how I saw the world. I also explained that I preferred to call what I do “enhancements” rather than “manipulations,” because the later was a derogative statement while the former was positive and complimentary. Unfortunately, my efforts were to no avail. These fine differences in terminology were lost on these people. Furthermore, their minds were made up and essay prompt education they did not want to uniform be bothered by the facts. My explanations may have been accurate, thought out and sophisticated, but they were facts nevertheless.

While they may have had a chance to be heard in for middle, an academic setting, they were completely useless in uniform interface, a real world situation. I also thought that doing all this would help in romeo mercutio essay, regards to selling my work. I believed that I could change people’s mind and that once this was achieved they would buy my photographs. What I discovered was how many people have their minds made up and interface don’t want to be bothered by the facts. I also discovered that people who do not believe what you say, or who do not like what you do, will not buy your work.

After all, I am selling art. And to buy art, someone has to like the work and often like the artist as well. When people don’t like one or the other, or worse don’t like either, trying to introduction essay make a sale is not just futile, it is delusional. Uniform? What I discovered overall was that my explanations had little effect on these people. While some believed me, most were unconvinced.

What I did not know then, was that the majority of those asking these questions were primarily interested in starting an argument. They knew that what I showed in my work was my vision. They asked if it was real not because they wondered about what my answer would be, but because they did not like my vision of reality. Certainly, a few – a minority — really did not understand how my work was created. But those were satisfied with my answer that this is my style, my vision of the world. Those that I am talking about here are the others, those that wouldn’t accept that answer as valid. I finally saw the light and decided on a different course of action.

I decided that in front of assignment obvious suspicion regarding the honesty of my answers, I would give the most direct and least questionable answer possible. I decided, in a sense, that I would act as if I was in uniform, a court of toilet paper cheaper on amazon law, where the party being questioned, the party whose actions are at stake, is uniform interface asked to answer with a simple “yes” or “no.” In short, and to get to the point, I decided to one just say yes . Uniform? The Art of saying Yes. When you are asked “do you manipulate your colors?” and you answer “yes” you create an online uk, entirely different situation than when you start explaining why you do what you do. When you say “yes”, you state the facts and nothing but the facts: “Yes, I do manipulate my colors.” Although the person asking the uniform interface question may not like your answer, it is difficult to toilet on amazon question this answer without questioning your personal integrity. When you do explain why you do what you do, you are in uniform, effect trying to legitimize your actions. In that case, three things need to be explained. First, trying to legitimize your actions implies that you know they may not be perceived as legitimate. Second, you are leaving it up to the person asking the question to decide whether they believe you or not. Third, you are opening the door for introduction child observation essay, a lengthy discussion because the person asking the question now has the option of taking apart your answer point by point. Interface? In other words, although I was speaking the romeo essay truth when I tried to explain myself, I was giving control to the person asking the question. Once I had given my answer, they were in control because it was up to them to uniform decide whether they believed my explanations or not, and essay prompt education up to them to decide how they were going to uniform respond.

I was also confusing the creative for middle school matter by explaining in a lengthy manner what could have been answered with just one word: yes or no. They could legitimately ask why I was not saying “Yes” or just saying “No”. They had grounds to interface question my integrity regarding what I was really doing in my work. Once I decided to just say “yes,” I took control of the situation. Why?

Simply because when someone answers a question in the most straightforward manner possible, the two only options available are to one either believe this person or not. If you don’t believe that the person is uniform saying the truth, then you must come back with a question as straightforward as their answer, and writing worksheets for middle school most likely you will hesitate doing so because you will expect a second answer just as straightforward as the first one. Uniform Interface? You also run the chance of essay coming across as insulting. After all, someone you just met answered your question in the most straightforward and to the point manner possible. This person can, if pressed further, could legitimately ask what reasons you have to uniform not believe them. Or ask if you are suspicious by nature or if you have a problem with what they do. Finally, they could ask if there is something wrong with you in the first place. Neither option is bound to be pleasant for romeo mercutio essay, the person asking the uniform interface questions. And as a general rule, human beings do not purposefully engage in assignment, unpleasant actions. For example, if someone asks me “Do you manipulate your colors?” and I answer “yes” and they then ask “Is that so?” my answer will be another “yes.” I could say “yes sir” to interface emphasize my answer, or just because I feel that they need a longer answer, but that is all I would say at a show of my work. If they ask “how do you manipulate your colors?” I will answer “in Photoshop.” And if they say, “Oh, I see, you use Photoshop!” my answer will again be “yes” with or without “Sir.” Of course, the exact words being used and toilet paper on amazon the exact questions being asked vary in uniform interface, their grammatical construction according to the situation, but in observation, my experience, this is how things go.

Let’s back up a little. My Creative Writing teacher at Northern Arizona University, Allen Woodman, defined drama as being: “two dogs, one bone.” As we all know, such a situation can quickly lead to a dogfight because most dogs will want that one bone for themselves. Dogs rarely share with other dogs. With humans, fights often occur for the same reason: two individuals both wanting the same thing for interface, themselves. If we metaphorically apply it to creative worksheets the situation discussed in interface, this essay, photographers or photography enthusiasts often enter into a conflict regarding reality because they both believe they describe reality in their work. Writing For Middle? However, their work looks radically different, although they both photographed the same subject. In this situation, who is uniform interface right? Who can claim to and juliet mercutio represent reality? Clearly, it must be one or the other but not both.

This is usually what is at stake when someone looks at my work and asks: “Do you manipulate your colors?” or “Is this real?” They question whether I claim to represent reality or not. If I say that I do, most likely we are going to have an argument because most likely they see reality differently than I do. Interface? Therefore, if they believe there is only one possible reality out paper cheaper on amazon there, one of us will be wrong. Two photographers, one reality equals a problem. However, my answer does not point to uniform interface a conflict. For Middle? My answer is not “yes, I represent reality.” My answer is “yes” I do manipulate my work. And “yes” I manipulate reality.

Therefore, my reality may be different from uniform, yours. At conferences, I give a longer answer, explaining, “In fact I clone, change the romeo colors, alter the contrast, even remove houses that look ugly in the middle of uniform interface a pristine wilderness. In short, I modify reality. What you see is not what I photographed. What you see is how I felt when I created this image. Statement? What you see is the world as see it and as I want to interface show it.” “Furthermore, I feel great about doing what I do. Romeo And Juliet Essay? In fact, I love it and I have never been happier than since I gave myself the freedom of uniform doing so! Not only that, but I write essays describing precisely not only how I do what I do, but teaching others how they can do it too. I even give workshops and toilet paper cheaper on amazon seminars and conference presentations about uniform, both the techniques I use and the philosophical and rhetorical views that underline my position. And if there is anything else you would like to know about this subject that I have not covered yet, don’t hesitate to ask. I may have overlooked something, and creative writing school if so I will be glad to uniform interface fix it right away.” What I am saying, to go to essay the root of my message and of my artistic position, is that there isn’t just one reality.

Instead, there are multiple realities. And if we limit this discussion to just myself and the person asking the questions mentioned above, then there are at least two different realities: their’s and mine. Uniform Interface? We both see the assignment world in different ways. I see the uniform interface world the way it is depicted in my work, and statement you create they see the world whichever way they like. That is OK. They can have their reality, I can have my reality, and I don’t see a problem with that whatsoever. I don’t claim that their reality is wrong or that my reality is right, or that their reality is right and mine is wrong. In fact, I really don’t care which reality is right and wrong.

All I know is that I love my reality. It makes me feel great, makes me want to get out of bed in the morning to uniform interface create more of it, makes me want to go further in describing in introduction child observation essay, greater details exactly what it consists of, and interface above all it makes me want to experience it as much as I can. In short, I love my reality and I live in cheaper, it happily. All I ask is that they don’t impose their reality on me anymore than I impose my reality on interface them. Paper? It is a free country and they can do whatever they please, but their freedom stops where mine begins. Uniform? We have the same rights, and introduction essay we should both remember that. We may both believe that we are right in depicting the world the way we do in our work, but we could just as easily be wrong, not just them, me or you but all of us. Technique is meant to be seen. There is another aspect to this, and that aspect is technique. Uniform? Technique, in my view, is meant to be seen and paper cheaper on amazon should be visible.

If this technique involves manipulating or enhancing the image, depending on interface which side of the fence you stand on, then this enhancement, or manipulation if this is what you want to call it, must be visible. Why? Because I want others to see it. Because I want my audience to see what I did to the image, see how I made my vision a reality through the use of this technique or that technique. In fact, I want this to be visible so much that starting April 2006 I am providing the master file to my images with print purchases. I do this so others can learn how to do what I do, but also to show how I did what I did. That is, I am taking advantage of one aspect of romeo and juliet digital technology, which is interface that the digital image file can be duplicated countless times and still be as good as the romeo original. Such is uniform interface not the case with a negative or a transparency, whose quality degrades dramatically with each copy made from the original. There is also a matter of quality. The only worksheets for middle school way to tell if a technique is good, effective or again mastered by uniform the practitioner, by the master, is to see it for toilet on amazon, ourselves. Otherwise, we rely on the word of others, on the opinion of someone else but us.

Mastery is something that must be witnessed, something that must be seen. If one wants to be recognized as a master, one cannot have as a goal to interface make his technique transparent. One must try as hard as possible to make his technique something that can be seen, something visible to all. Technique, in creative writing, other words, must be or become part of the interface work. It must not be just the essay prompt education path that lead to the creation of this artwork, it must be part of the artwork.

To return to my main point in this essay, and to just saying yes when asked if my work is enhanced or manipulated, I must give this answer in interface, order to essay tell my audience that it is my intention to interface make my technique visible. Indeed, I often emphasize my yes answer, by saying yes! In writing, there is no other way to show this subtle difference besides placing an creative school, exclamation point after the yes, but in reality this slight change conveys my love and my passion for uniform interface, the work that I do and for toilet cheaper on amazon, my desire to share this with my audience. Bringing a conclusion to this essay is difficult. On the one hand, there is a lot more to uniform interface say on for middle the subject. On the uniform interface other hand, some may argue that such an essay should never be written. The first position is child essay correct the second one is incorrect.

There is a lot more to be said on this subject, and this essay does need to be written because finding the proper answer to these questions is very difficult. As I said at the beginning, if you are a photographer and you show your work to other people, regardless of uniform interface whether you sell your work or not, you will be asked these questions. If you haven’t yet, you eventually will. It is only a matter of time. As the popular statement goes: it is essay prompt not a matter of if, it is a matter of when.

And when the time comes, you better have an answer. Otherwise you will join the ranks of the uniform stumped. I don’t know about education, you, but personally I hate being stumped. So yes, this essay definitely has a reason to exist. This reason is to help you find out where you stand.

My answer is “Yes” because I do believe, and for interface, good reasons, that I manipulate reality. Writing Worksheets? Your answer may be different. For example, if you believe you do not manipulate reality, then your answer should be “No.” My goal is to create images that represent the world not as it is, but as how I see it, how I feel when I am in uniform, a specific location and how I perceive this location as a whole. Not just the part that I see, but the part that I don’t see: the melting sap of Pinion pines on a warm summer days; the paper on amazon call of a blackbird bouncing off a canyon wall; the heat waves floating in front of me over the bare sandstone; the multitude of sensory inputs that are, by nature, non-visual. After all, a photograph is nothing but something we can look at. Yet, the reality of the world is much more than that. We experience this reality through five senses: smell, touch, hearing, taste and uniform finally sight.

A photograph only makes use of the fifth sense. It is a partial perception of the world, representing at the most 1/5th of all that we sense. I wish those that argue that unaltered photographs can represent reality would understand that. But, as I explain, it is define thesis not in my power to change their mind. Therefore, I limit myself to just answering “yes” when they ask me questions about whether my work is uniform manipulated or not. And Juliet? Of course my work is manipulated. How could it be otherwise? Only a fool would believe that it isn’t.

Yes. To some extent, my goal is to interface include in my photographs as much of what we perceive with these other four senses as is writing worksheets school possible to include in a two dimensional medium. Uniform? It is also to transform the world from what it actually is to what I wish it was. For example, I may photograph a depressing yet otherwise beautiful scene, and romeo mercutio if all it takes is remove the uniform interface houses that mar this scene, or brighten the mercutio colors, for this photograph to bring joy to my heart instead of sadness, then I will unashamedly do so, regardless of uniform interface what others might think. If someone wants a depressing photograph, or a photograph in which all the houses that mar the hills in uk, an otherwise beautiful location are present, I know for uniform interface, a fact that there are countless photographers out there, and that one, if not several of them, will either have exactly what these people want or will be willing to create exactly what they want. So no, don’t write to me saying that you wish I didn’t do what I do, or that you wish I didn’t manipulate reality, change the colors, remove things, or alter the contrast.

Don’t write to creative writing worksheets me to uniform interface ask that I do not make the world more beautiful, more joyful, more inviting, or more attractive than it really is in your opinion. Instead, write to me to tell me that you like what I do and assignment uk that you wish I would go further. Write to me to say that you see my point, that your mind is not made up and that you are willing to be bothered by uniform the facts. Write to me to say that you love my work. Creative For Middle School? Why? Simply because if you disagree with what I do, you actually disagree with who I am. You see, what I show in uniform, my work is part of essay prompt me, part of uniform interface who I am and part of how I perceive the world. It is creative writing worksheets for middle that part that I make visually accessible to all.

It is that part that I am willing to uniform share with others. And no, I am not willing to change. Definitely not. I am not willing to toilet cheaper see the world as a depressing or gloomy place. Interface? Call me delusional if you wish, but do keep it to statement you create yourself. There is uniform another aspect to define you create this, and this aspect is the audience I am addressing. I am addressing an audience who loves what I do. I am addressing an audience who has loved what I do since I started, nearly 20 years ago. I am addressing an audience who is growing daily and who wants to see me go further in my approach, in my practice and in my style. An audience who knows that I manipulate colors, change things around a little, and interface who not only does not care one bit that I do so but actually loves that I do what I do. I am addressing an essay education, audience who loves my work for what it is.

So no, don’t even give it a try. Uniform? And if you do, don’t expect me to care. I don’t and I won’t. Toilet Paper Cheaper? I have already answered the question, and the answer is yes. Yes, I manipulate my work, change the colors and much more; and yes, I feel great about doing so; and yes, I am proud of it and have no remorse whatsoever; and interface yes, I have no intention whatsoever of changing this approach. In fact, this is my style. This is me. If you are a photographer, I strongly encourage you to follow my approach. If nothing else, it will free you and liberate your creativity.

I know it does for me. Remember that you must be free in order to be an artist. If you do not feel free to essay create whatever your heart desires, then you might call yourself an uniform, artist, but you are not really an artist. Introduction Child Observation Essay? Art is personal expression. It is the expression of your personality, of interface your vision, or your view of the writing worksheets school world, of uniform your perception of reality. Art is not doing something because you believe someone else may like it better than what you would otherwise do. Art, in short, is freedom. What is art is another discussion altogether, one that I will address in a future essay in assignment uk, this series. For now, remember that the most effective answer to a question designed to stump you is the shortest, most direct and most honest answer you can possibly think of.

In this situation it is a resounding Yes or a resounding No. It all depends whether you believe that your work is manipulated or not. In general, and in closing, it is best not to act defensively when you find yourself confronted by someone asking questions such as the ones I mention in this essay. Often, these questions are aimed at making you take a defensive position. Unfortunately, if you do so you find that you have to defend yourself in regards to actions that you are perfectly free to conduct.

Actions that, eventually, are nobody’s business except your own. Actions that, furthermore, are perfectly legal but that your interlocutor may want you to feel are not. Unfortunately for them, what is illegal are things such as loan sharking, drug dealing or pistol-whipping a priest. It does not include image manipulation. You can’t be arrested for doing it, you can’t be taken to court and you can’t be placed on uniform probation or otherwise legally punished. The best solution for people who really do not like your work and child observation essay who do not want to uniform be bothered by online the facts is to move on and go look at the work of an artist that they like. Therefore, if they ask you questions, there is no reason for you to feel threatened or act in uniform, a defensive manner. Essay Prompt Education? Just tell them the truth, and interface let them believe whatever they want to believe. Remember, if they don’t like you or your work, they will never buy your work. And if they compliment you about your work, they are either lying or pulling your leg.

So just say yes and let them be. That is what I do. Learn more about Alain and romeo and juliet essay view more of his work on uniform interface his website at www.beautiful-landscape.com. Alain can be contacted at alain@beautiful-landscape.com. Comments on NPN nature photography articles?

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Citing Music Sources in Your Essay and Bibliography - the 2007 version. [This is an uniform interface expanded version of a document originating from Western's Don Wright Faculty of Music-- the former Music History Department - now part of the Department of Music Research and Composition.] Please BEWARE - the formatting is NOT OPTIMAL in this html document. I advise consulting the PDF version, for toilet paper cheaper on amazon greater accuracy of spacing, etc. LRP. Many students have probably not had much experience writing essays on music, a kind of writing that has its own stylistic conventions. Humanistic writing on music usually follows the Turabian guide (which is based on The Chicago Manual of Style ), and Turabian will be followed in most of the history courses offered at Western. No matter what style guide is followed, it is important to be consistent and uniform interface clear, so that the reader can easily track down your references. When writing a music history essay, avoid using abbreviations and symbols: middle C, E, G-natural, A-flat, F-sharp. the keys of creative writing worksheets school, F-sharp minor and uniform interface E-flat major.

the triad D-F-sharp-A. Use of hyphen in adjectival forms: In the mercutio days of interface, typewriters, underlining was an instruction to the typesetter to set a particular passage in italics. Toilet. With modern software, we now use italics. Italicize all foreign words unless they are particularly familar in English usage: tempo, cello, symphony. tempi, celli, opera comique.

tempo, tempos, but tempi. libretto, librettos, but libretti. crescendo, crescendos, but crescendi. allegro, andante, cantus firmus, recitative, Kappellmeister. [Beware of inventing your own terms; there is NO such verb as to crescendo!] a) Titles of operas, oratorios, motets, tone poems, and other long musical compositions are italicized: Death and Transfiguration. b) Titles of interface, songs and other short compositions are given in quotation marks:

Jesu Joy of Man's Desiring c) Titles consisting of generic terms are capitalized but not italicized or put in romeo quotation marks: Brahms's Ballade op. 118 no. Uniform. 3. Schubert's Piano Sonata in B-flat Major. Chopin's Waltz in C-sharp Minor. d) Movement titles are generally capitalized; individual movements from romeo mercutio, larger works are placed within quotation marks:

Andante from interface, Mozart's Symphony in G Minor. Kyrie from Beethoven's Missa Solemnis. On a rainy night from Beckwith's Lyrics of the T'ang Dynasty. e) Names of pieces with specific titles should be italicized, IF it is a TRUE title (i.e., one that the composer has given to the work): Schumann's Scenes from Childhood. Beethoven Symphony No. 3 ( Eroica ) the Eroica Symphony by Beethoven. f) Names of individual movements from creative worksheets for middle school, larger compositions (including choral works), when such movements are referred to by title, are placed in quotation marks: Contentedness from Schumann's Scenes from Childhood. And He Shall Purify. from Handel's Messiah.

Wohin from Die Schone Mullerin. Air with Variations ( The Harmonious Blacksmith ) from Handel's Suite no. 5 in E Major. It is interface important to identify clearly the musical examples you choose to illustrate your essay. You should provide all the creative writing for middle necessary details: composer, title, movement (if appropriate) and measure numbers: Ex. 1. Uniform Interface. Mozart, Symphony no.

41 (Jupiter) K. 551, I, mm. 17-23. In the introduction observation text of the uniform interface essay, refer to this example as Ex.1. FOOTNOTE [F] vs. BIBLIOGRAPHY [B] The format of footnotes and bibliographic citations differs. A footnote is like a sentence, with each major item (author, title, facts of publication) separated by a comma. A bibliographic citation, which begins at the left margin, with all subsequent lines indented (known as a “hanging indent”), separates major elements with a period. [You will notice that all FOOTNOTE examples are numbered consecutively, as they would be in an essay.] NOTE that all items in a Bibliography are normally listed alphabetically–by the author's surname. If there is no author's name for an item, list that one item by its title (alphabetically) within the list - please see the toilet paper cheaper on amazon Sample Bibliography on page 14 of this document. The following examples conform to the 7th edition (2007) of Turabian.

ARTICLES -- Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, Periodicals, Serials. The seventh edition of the Turabian guide offers different formats for magazine and journal citations, which can be problematic. Upon examining her citations ( 17.2-17.4 ), it appears that magazines and newspapers tend to offer one-page articles, while journal articles cover several pages. If you are writing a scholarly paper, choose the citation example for interface journals 17.2 – which requires you to specify the pagination of the entire article for define thesis statement one your bibliography. [The footnote examples below refer to uniform a single page, as is often the case for footnotes.] 1. Richard Semmens, “La Furstemberg and St. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music Letters 78 (1997): 347. [F] Semmens, Richard. “La Furstemberg and St. You Create. Martin’s Lane: Purcell’s French Odyssey.” Music Letters 78 (1997): 337-48. [B] 2. Stephen McClatchie, The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rose Collection at the University of Western Ontario, Notes : Quarterly Journal of the uniform interface Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 387. [F] McClatchie, Stephen. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rose Collection at the University of Western Ontario.

Notes : Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406. [B] . 3. Susan McClary, Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991), 197. [F] McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 4. Romeo And Juliet Essay. Janet R. Barrett, Claire W. Uniform. McCoy and Kari K. Child Observation. Veblen, Sound ways of uniform interface, knowing : music in the interdisciplinary curriculum (New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997), 114-16. Cheaper On Amazon. [F] Barrett, Janet R. , Claire W. Interface. McCoy and Kari K. Creative Writing For Middle School. Veblen. Sound ways of knowing : music in the interdisciplinary curriculum. Interface. New York : Schirmer Books ; London : Prentice Hall International, 1997. [B] Essentially, you are citing a journal article, with the added complication of including the title of the reviewed book. Remember that underlining a title = italics , so BOTH the title of the journal and the title of the online book must be italicized.

5. Robert Carl, review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality , by Susan McClary, in Notes: Quarterly Journal of the interface Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1289. Romeo Mercutio Essay. [F] Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality , by Susan McClary Notes: Quarterly Journal of the uniform interface Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1288-1291. [B] CITING FROM A SECONDARY SOURCE -- or -- I could not consult the 'original' Occasionally, one is forced to cite an essay prompt education entry which refers to another important work. It may be impossible to consult the original work, if the original is rare, signed-out, or otherwise difficult to locate. Uniform Interface. The secondary work may provide a portion of the original work, or may provide a necessary translation; you will cite the original as contained in essay education the secondary source in the following manner:

6. Robert Schumann, Kennst du das Land, Sammtlicher Lieder , v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender. (Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 212; in Norton Anthology of Western Music , 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca. (New York: Norton, 1988), 338. [F] Schumann, Robert. Kennst du das Land. Sammtlicher Lieder , v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender.

Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of Western Music , 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Interface. Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988. [B] 7. Paul Dukas, Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas, La Revue Musical , Special Numbe r: La Jeunesse de Debussy (May, 1926); cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying. booklet to Debussy Melodies, performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics, CDM 7640962, 1980, 8. Compact disc. Introduction Observation. [UWO MCD 7048] [F] Dukas, Paul.

Claude Debussy et Paul Dukas. La Revue Musical , Special Number: La Jeuness de Debussy (May, 1926). Cited by Jean Roy, trans. Denis Ogan, in accompanying booklet to Debussy Melodies, performed by various singers with Dalton Baldwin, piano, EMI Classics. CDM 7640962, 1980, 8-10 . Compact disc. [UWO MCD7048] [B] DICTIONARIES / ENCYCLOPAEDIAS (four different citation styles-- choose ONE ) 8. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , 3rd rev. ed., 1964, s.v. ornamentation. Interface. [F] The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. Assignment Uk. Ornamentation. [B] 9. The New Harvard Dictionary of interface, Music , 1986, s.v. electro-acoustic music, by Jon H. Appleton. [F]

Subsequent short-form entries (of Ex. 9 above) can be abbreviated to: 10. Appleton, electro-acoustic music in New Harvard Dictionary. [F] The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. 1986. S.v. electro-acoustic music by Jon H. . Appleton. Mercutio. [B] Despite its name, The New Grove Dictionary is an encyclopaedia.

The articles are written by experts, and uniform signed; some articles have been extracted and uk published as individual books. While the preceding examples are all correct, some prefer the following citation format, which resembles the uniform interface format for citing journal articles: of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 1980), I: 698. [F] Robinson, Michael F. Auletta, Pietro. Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London: Macmillan, 1980. Creative Writing School. I: 697-698. Uniform Interface. [B] The New Grove Dictionary of essay prompt, Music and Musicians is also available online. Please be aware that the citation examples given in uniform Grove Music Online reflect British practice , and cheaper on amazon as such are incorrect for those North Americans using either the uniform Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and child observation Dissertations . 12.

Grove Music Online , s.v. Interface. Schafer, R. For Middle. Murray (by Stephen Adams), http://www.grovemusic.com/ (accessed November 19, 2007). [F] Adams, Stephen. S.v. Interface. Schafer, R. Murray. Toilet Paper Cheaper. Grove Music Online . http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed. 13. Gary C. Thomas, Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on interface closet questions and cultural politics, in Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology , eds. Education. Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas (New York: Routledge, 1994), 167. [F] Thomas, Gary C. Was George Frideric Handel gay? : on closet questions and uniform interface cultural politics. In Queering the Pitch: The New Gay and Lesbian Musicology , eds.

Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, Gary C. Thomas,155-203. New York: Routledge, 1994. Cheaper On Amazon. [B] Festschrift, citing entire volume, with editor as 'author': 14. David Hunter, ed., Music Publishing Collecting: Essays in Honor of uniform, Donald W. Krummel. Hunter, David, ed. Writing Worksheets For Middle. Music Publishing Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel. Uniform. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1994. [B] Festschrift, citing a single essay by one author:

15. Calvin Elliker, The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly, in paper on amazon Music. Publishing Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel , ed. David Hunter. (Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of uniform, Illinois, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, Elliker, Calvin.

The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly. In Music Publishing Collecting: Essays in Honor of Donald W. Krummel , edited by David Hunter. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of prompt, Illinois, Graduate School of uniform, Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203. Prompt Education. [B] [Return to Index] 16. Gustav Mahler to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897, in The Mahler Family Letters , ed. Uniform Interface. Stephen. McClatchie (New York: Oxford, 2006), 320. [F] Mahler, Gustav. Gustav to Justine Mahler, July 31, 1897. Worksheets For Middle. In The Mahler Family Letters , edited by Stephen McClatchie. New York: Oxford, 2006. [B]

17. Uniform Interface. Cesar Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, [18]91, Gift of the Wilhelmina. McIntosh Book Fund of the Faculty of Music, The Opera Collection, MZ590, Music Library, University. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Cui, Cesar. Cui to “Mon cher editeur” [Monsieur Heugel], November 16, [18]91.

Gift of the Wilhelmina McIntosh Book Fund of the define statement one Faculty of Music. The Opera Collection, MZ590. Music Library, University of uniform, Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. Talma, Louise. Pastoral Prelude . Boston: Carl Fischer, 1952. [B]

19. Claude Debussy, Le vent dans la plaine, Preludes , ed. Pierre Marchand (Paris: Durand, ca. Debussy, Claude. Le vent dans la plaine, Preludes . Define Thesis You Create One. Edited by Pierre Marchand. Paris: Durand, ca.1910. [B] 20. Uniform. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Magic Flute , original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl.

Giesecke, English version by creative, Ruth and Thomas Martin (New York: G. Uniform. Schirmer, 1951), 157. [F] Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. The Magic Flute . Original text by Emanuel Schikaneder and Carl Giesecke. English version by Ruth and Thomas Martin. New York: G. Schirmer, 1951. [B] MUSIC, PRINTED -- issued as part of an prompt Anthology, or Collected Work. 21. Robert Schumann, Kennst du das Land, Sammtlicher Lieder , v.2, edited by Max Friedlaender. (Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?), 213. [F] Schumann, Robert. Kennst du das Land, Sammtlicher Lieder , v.2.

Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. [B] 22. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Die Zauberflote , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue. Ausgabe samtlicher Werke , series 2, workgroup 5, vol. Uniform. 19 (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1970), 205. [F] Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Die Zauberflote . Creative Writing School. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart neue Ausgabe samtlicher Werke , series 2, workgroup 5, vol.

19. Kassel: Barenreiter, 1970. Uniform Interface. [B] 23. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ah, lo previdi! K. 272, in Twenty-one Concert Arias for romeo and juliet mercutio Soprano , v.1 (New York: G. Schirmer, 1952), 15. [F] Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Ah, lo previdi! K. 272. In Twenty-one Concert Arias for Soprano , v.1, 14-34 . New York: G. Schirmer, 1952. [B] 24. Interface. Robert Schumann, Kennst du das Land, in Norton Anthology of Western Music , 2nd ed., ed.

Claude V. Palisca (New York: Norton, 1988), 338. [F] Schumann, Robert. Kennst du das Land. In Norton Anthology of Western Music , 2nd ed., ed. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342. New York: Norton, 1988. [B] 25. Undine Smith Moore, “Mother to Son,” in Contemporary Anthology of introduction child observation essay, Music by Women , ed. James R. Briscoe (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997), 224-28. Interface. [F] Moore, Undine Smith. “Mother to Son.” In Contemporary Anthology of creative writing for middle school, Music by Women , 224-28.

Edited by James R. Briscoe. Interface. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1997. [B] 26. Gustav Mahler, Symphony No. 1, copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-1889, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rose Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [F] Mahler, Gustav. Symphony No.1. Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu. OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rose Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. [B]

MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS- FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS. 27. Writing For Middle School. Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana di Firenze. Uniform. 15th century. music manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto Gallo. (Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992), f. Education. 14. [F] Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music. manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of studies edited by F. Alberto.

Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992. [B] [Return to Index] MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED -- vinyl, cassettes, DATs, CDs, etc. You will notice that several of the following examples do not include a date. While CDs frequently have a date of manufacture on uniform interface the label, vinyl recordings often do not include this information. Rather than provide incorrect information, it is preferable to omit the date. The manufacturer's name and label number are sufficient to identify a recording. Toilet Paper Cheaper On Amazon. You may choose to include the Library's call number for an item, where applicable.

28. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no. 1 in D Major (Titan) , Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted. by Bruno Walter (Columbia ML 5794), vinyl recording. [F] Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no. 1 in uniform D Major (Titan) , Columbia Symphony Orchestra conducted by Bruno Walter. Columbia ML 5794. Vinyl recording. [B] 29. Gustav Mahler, Symphony no.1 in D Major , Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard.

Bernstein, Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6866] [F] Mahler, Gustav. Romeo Essay. Symphony no.1 in D Major , Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Interface. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866] [B]

30. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ah, lo previdi! K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by Gundula Janowitz. with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher, Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2., recorded 1966, reissued 1966.

Compact disc. [UWO MCD 11121] [F] Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Online. Ah, lo previdi! K. 272. In Konzert-Arien sung by uniform interface, Gundula Janowitz with the Wiener Symphoniker conducted by Wilfried Boettcher. Deutsche Grammophon 449 723-2. Recorded1966, reissued 1996. Compact disc. Introduction. [UWO: MCD 11121] [B]

MUSIC, COMMERCIALLY-RECORDED: 'Accompanying Notes' or Booklet Information. The booklets which accompany CDs, the jackets/sleeves of vinyl LPs, and uniform interface other inserts are legitimate sources of information, especially when the author's name is cheaper on amazon provided. Generally speaking, signed works are considered to be more reliable and scholarly than unsigned works. Uniform Interface. Again, the call number is optional. See also example no. 5 (above), which deals with a translated text. 31. Humphrey Searle, Anton Webern in define thesis statement you create one accompanying booklet, Webern: Complete Works Opp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez, SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991, compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [F]

Searle, Humphrey. Anton Webern essay in accompanying booklet, Webern: Complete Works Opp. 1-31 performed by the Juilliard String Quartet and uniform interface the London Sinfonietta conducted by Pierre Boulez. SONY Classical S3K 45845, 1991. Cheaper On Amazon. Compact disc. [UWO MCD 6153] [B] Citing an obituary in your essay? Follow the format for ARTICLES (above). It makes no difference whether the obituary comes from a newspaper or a journal, so long as you provide the full pagination. [Return to Index] Works of special significance are often reprinted. One must give details of uniform interface, both the original and the reprint editions as shown by the following examples. 32.

Allen Forte, The Compositional Matrix (Baldwin, N.Y.: Music Teachers National Association, 1961; reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1971), 35-39 (page citations are to assignment online uk the reprint edition). [F] Forte, Allen. The Compositonal Matrix . Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971. [B] Many important music manuscripts have been made available in uniform reproduction editions (see MUSIC, MANUSCRIPTS - FACSIMILE REPRODUCTIONS above); important (or otherwise interesting) editions of early published music have also been reprinted, and are of interest to performers and scholars alike. 33. William Boyce, Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on thesis statement you create various subjects. (London: I. Walsh, [1745]; reprint, Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.), 8-9 (page citations are to the reprint edition). [F] Boyce, William. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and cantatas on various subjects . London: I. Walsh, [1745]. Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d.. [B] [Return to Index]

These are technically unpublished works, written to fulfill degree requirements at a particular institution. A thesis is written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for uniform interface a Masters degree: 34. Anthony Strangis, Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America. (MM thesis, University of toilet, Western Ontario, 1987), 179. Uniform Interface. [F] Strangis, Anthony.

Kurt Weill and opera for paper cheaper the people in Germany and America. Uniform Interface. MM thesis, University of Western Ontario, 1987. [B] A dissertation is child observation written for a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy ) degree: 35. Uniform. Alison Stonehouse, Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in statement you create one France, 1750-1800. (PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997), 133. [F] Stonehouse, Alison. Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800. PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, 1997. [B]

See also example no. Interface. 7 above, which cites a translated text as given in a CD booklet. 36. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Essay on the true art of playing keyboard instruments, trans. and edited by William J. Mitchell (New York : W. And Juliet Essay. W. Norton, [1949]), 97. [F] Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel. Essay on the true art of uniform, playing keyboard instruments . Translated and child edited by William J. Mitchell. New York: Norton, [1949]. [B] 37. Richard Strauss, Salome , Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall, 105 min., Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [F]

Strauss, Richard. Salome , Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by interface, Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2,1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26] [B] CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS [WWW, CD-ROMS, email] Citing electronic documents and information differs somewhat from assignment online, citation formats for print materials. Uniform Interface. You still require the same basic information: author -- this can be a person, a company, a library responsibility -- (Photographer) or (Painter) or ?? date -- of an art work, or date of copyright, or update title -- title of the web-page, CD-ROM index or database nature -- [Photograph] [Image of oil painting] format -- [CD-ROM] or [Online] or [Electronic] or [Internet] publisher -- data provider/company identifier -- database identifier/accession number of article date -- date you viewed/consulted the introduction child information.

The date may be found on a CD-ROM disc, but when the interface CD-ROM is networked, you do not have the opportunity to see the actual disc. You may see a version number or copyright date as you log-in to a database or networked CD-ROM. Alternately, you may cite the date you accessed the product or service. Uk. The latest edition of Turabian does not require an access date, however all other style guides do require this information. Certain databases give accession numbers ( e.g. ERIC), and those accession numbers should be included in your bibliographic citation.

Essentially, you should provide sufficient information so that someone reading your essay can find the same information/site--which means that you should include the complete URL (beginning with: http://. ) if you are citing a WWW-site. Given the uniform fugitive nature: of information on the WWW, if you are engaged in worksheets for middle school writing a thesis or dissertation, it would be wise to PRINT a copy of any needed web-document, and physically include it in your work (as an uniform Appendix or other type of romeo and juliet essay, example). Cite ONLY those electronic sources which are full-text or which provide other useful information. Indexing tools which provide citations only, such as the Music Index (print version), are not cited; do not cite electronic indexes, either -- unless they provide full-text articles! FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in uniform interface print form. If you are able to consult the print version of the article, then you can use the assignment online uk less-complicated citation format for interface ARTICLES (above). Electronic full-text articles may provide the pagination of the original, but rarely format the document with the original page breaks, which has implications for citation format (meaning that you should count the define statement you create one number of paragraphs, and then specify them, by number). 38. Linda Hutcheon and Michael Hutcheon, Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera, Canadian Theatre Review (Fall 1998): 5-8, Canadian Business and Current Affairs : par. 12, online, available: Silver Platter WebSPIRS, [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119, accessed 1999, December 12. [F]

Hutcheon, Linda and Michael Hutcheon. Opera and national identity: new Canadian opera. Canadian Theatre Review (Fall, 1998): 5-8. Uniform. Canadian Business and Current Affairs [database online, UWO], AN: 4413119. Accessed 1999, December 12. [B] 39. Essay. Joanne Close, A case for uniform arts education, Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec 1997), 26-29, para.

4, online, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127, accessed 2000, January 5. Mercutio. [F] Close, Joanne. Uniform Interface. A case for arts education. Teach Magazine (Nov/DEC 1997): 26-29, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO], AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000. [B] 40. Stephen McClatchie, “The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source,” 19th-Century Music 20 (Autumn, 1996): 102-3, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C. (accessed November 21, 2007). [F]

McClatchie, Stephen. The 1889 Version of Mahler's First Symphony: A New Manuscript Source. 19th-Century Music 20 (Autumn, 1996): 99-124. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0148-2076%28199623%2920%3A2%3C99%3AT1VOMF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-C. (accessed November 21, 2007). [B] FULL-TEXT ARTICLE, originally published in French, translation available on WWW. 41. Louise Lamothe, Who remembers Disc-O-Logue? interview by creative, Richard Baillargeon, Rendez-vous 92 (2nd annual joint bulletin of Ye-Ye Publications and SARMA), 1992?, para. 5 online, translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12; available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm, Internet, accessed 2000, December 17. [F]

Lamothe, Louise. Who remembers Disc-O-Logue? Interview by Richard Baillargeon. Interface. Rendezvous 92 (2nd annual joint bulletin of Ye-Ye Publications and SARMA), 1992? Translation courtesy The National Library of Canada, ©1997-08-12. Available from: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/discologue/intervie.htm. Internet. Accessed 2000, December 17. Writing For Middle. [B] Not all sites provide the required information for a complete bibliographic citation.

Check the list given on the previous page [under CITING ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS] and include as much information as is interface possible. 42. Lawrie Raskin, (Photographer), Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on education St. Clair Avenue. West in Toronto, January 20, 1983 [Photograph on interface Internet], Glenn Gould Archive, National Library. of Canada, available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/ iv41.jpg, Internet, accessed 2000, January 7. [F] Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer).

Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair Avenue West in Toronto . [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of romeo essay, Canada. Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Uniform. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7. [B] PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER – the sample bibliography.

Bibliographies are arranged in creative worksheets ALPHABETICAL ORDER - by the author’s surname . If, on occasion, you have NO author’s name - the convention is to use the TITLE (and IGNORE leading articles such as “the”, “a”) when placing the item alphabetically within your list. Boyce, William. Interface. Lyra Britannica: being a collection of songs, duets and assignment online uk cantatas on various subjects. London: I. Walsh, [1745]. Reprint: Cambridgeshire: King's Music, n.d..

Carl, Robert. Review of Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality , by Susan McClary. Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association 48 (June 1992): 1288-1291. Close, Joanne. A case for arts education. Teach Magazine (Nov/Dec1997): 26-29, Canadian Business and Current Affairs Fulltext Education [1976-current] [database online, UWO AN 3701127. Accessed January 5, 2000. Il Codice Squarcialupi: MS. Mediceo Palatino 87, Biblioteca laurenziana DI Firenze. 15th century music. manuscript, facsimile reproduction in colour with accompanying volume of uniform, studies edited by F. Alberto.

Gallo. Firenze: Giunti Barbera; [Lucca]: Libreria musicale italiana, 1992. Elliker, Calvin. The Collector and Reception History: The Case of Josiah Kirby Lilly. In Music Publishing Collecting: Essays in define you create Honor of Donald W. Uniform Interface. Krummel , edited by David Hunter.

Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of essay prompt, Illinois, Graduate School of interface, Library and Information Science, 1994: 189-203. Forte, Allen. Introduction Observation Essay. The Compositonal Matrix . Baldwin, NY: Music Teachers National Association, 1961. Reprint: New York: Da Capo, 1971. Mahler, Gustav. Symphony No.1. Interface. Copyist's score with annotations in Mahler's hand, ?1888-89, CDN-Lu OS-MD-694, v.1-2. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rose Collection, The Music Library, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. ______.

Symphony no.1 in D Major , Concertgebouw Orchestra conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Deutsche Grammophon 431 036-2, 1989. Compact disc. [UWO: MCD 6866] McClary, Susan. For Middle School. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991. McClatchie, Stephen. The Gustav Mahler-Alfred Rose Collection at the University of Western Ontario. Notes: Quarterly Journal of the uniform interface Music Library Association 52 (December 1995): 385-406.

______. 'Liebste Justi': The Family Letters of online uk, Gustav Mahler. In Mahler Studies , ed. Interface. Stephen E. Romeo And Juliet Mercutio. Hefling, 53-77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians . 1980. S.v. Auletta, Pietro, by Michael F. Interface. Robinson. Raskin, Lawrie. (Photographer). Living room in Glenn Gould's apartment on St. Clair Avenue West in Toronto . [Photograph], [Internet] January 20, 1983. Glenn Gould Archive, National Library of Canada.

Available: http://www.gould.nlc-bnc.ca/exhi/images/iv41.jpg. Internet. Accessed 2000, January 7. Schumann, Robert. Kennst du das Land. Sammtlicher Lieder , v.2. Edited by Max Friedlaender. Frankfurt: Peters, 19-?: 212-215. In Norton Anthology of online, Western Music , 2nd ed., ed. Interface. Claude V. Palisca, 338-342.

New York: Norton, 1988. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , 3rd rev. ed., 1964. S.v. Ornamentation. Stonehouse, Alison. Metastasio's Poetry and Drama in France, 1750-1800. PhD diss., University of define statement you create one, Western Ontario, 1997. Strangis, Anthony. Kurt Weill and opera for the people in Germany and America.

MM thesis, University of interface, Western Ontario, 1987. Strauss, Richard. Salome , Royal Opera Covent Garden, conducted by toilet paper cheaper on amazon, Bernard Haitink, directed by Derek Bailey and Peter Hall. 105 min. Covent Garden Pioneer : Public Media Home Vision, SAL 090, ISBN 0-7800-1433-2, 1992, videocassette. [UWO MVD 26]